A D Ekanem

University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River, Nigeria

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Publications (22)10.29 Total impact

  • I A Ekanem · E I Ekanem · C C Chukwuegbo · T I Ugbem · A D Ekanem ·

    IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences 01/2014; 13(2):59-61. DOI:10.9790/0853-13225961 · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    Odusolu P.O · Omotoso A.J · Nnoli M · Agan T.U · Bassey I.E · Ekanem I.A · Ekanem A.D ·

  • 07/2011; 22(1-2). DOI:10.4314/jcmphc.v22i1-2.68336
  • E I Ekanem · A D Ekanem · J E Ekabua · S J Etuk · A Essiet ·
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    ABSTRACT: Obstetric fistulae with Urinary incontinence are one of the most distressing maternal morbidities. It is associated with physical and social deprivation such as wife abandonment and violent reactions against the victims particularly in the developing countries of the world. To study the demographic and reproductive profiles as well as management of patients with obstetric fistulae in UCTH, Calabar, Nigeria. A five-year retrospective study of case records of 37 patients managed in Maternity Annex of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar Nigeria for obstetric genito-urinary fistulae was carried out. One in every 122 parturients during the period had fistula. Eleven (29.7%) were teenagers. Many patients were married (54.1%), nulliparous (59.4%), come from low socioeconomic class (72.9%) and did not utilize modern obstetric facilities properly. Many cases resulted from prolonged obstructed labour (51.4%) and 70.2% presented with total incontinence of urine. Eighteen (48.7%) were diagnosed within 6 month of delivery. The main types encountered included were vesico-vaginal (34.4%) or complex (10.8%) fistulae who were manage conservatively (21.6%) or with bladder repairs. Majority (29.7%) were referred for further treatment. Parturient in Calabar still suffer from this age long obstetric morbidity mainly due to poor utilization of modern obstetric care facilities. Results of treatment are largely unsatisfactory; therefore resources should be channeled towards prevention.
    Nigerian journal of clinical practice 09/2010; 13(3):326-30. · 0.53 Impact Factor
  • J J Udo · M U Anah · S O Ochigbo · I S Etuk · A D Ekanem ·
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    ABSTRACT: The morbidity and mortality pattern amongst neonates admitted into the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital were reviewed from 1st June 2003 to 30th November 2004. The major indications for admission for inborn babies were infections (27.4%), jaundice (21%) and low birth weight (LBW) (18.4%). The out born babies were admitted largely for sepsis (26.8%), jaundice (17.7%), tetanus (13.9%) and low birth weight (11.2%). Staphylococcus aureus (61.2%) and unclassified coliforms (21.9%) were the dominant isolates of septicaemia. The overall mortality rate of 19.3% was largely contributed by outborn infants (73.2% of the deaths). In descending order of magnitude, the total of 153 deaths during the period was due to infections (neonatal tetanus 20.9%, septicaemia 19.6%), birth asphyxia 23.3% and LBW 19%. Most of the deaths (70.6%) occurred within the first 7 days of life. Fifty-three (34.6%) of the deaths (most outborn infants) occurred within 24 hours of admission. Nigerian government needs to improve funding of the health sector in order to reduce neonatal wastage. Training and retraining of traditional birth attendants is inevitable. More effort should be made towards improving coverage rate of tetanus toxoid among women of childbearing age.
    Nigerian journal of clinical practice 10/2008; 11(3):285-9. · 0.53 Impact Factor
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    E J Udoma · AD Ekanem · A M Abasiattai · EA Bassey ·
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the various reasons for patronizing the spiritual church-based clinics by women from South-South Nigeria. Forty seven spiritual church-based clinics were studied between 1st February 2003 and 31st July 2003. Forty seven spiritual church-based clinics in both Akwa Ibom and Cross River State in South-South Nigeria. Two thousand and sixty three pregnant women who were regular attendants of the spiritual church-based clinics. Various reasons for preferring church delivery included: Spiritual protection against satanic attacks and safe delivery in 975 (36.8%) lack of funds in 629 (30.5%), harsh attitude of health workers in 249 (12.1%), convenience in 212 (10.3%), faith in God and previous delivery in church 83 (4.0%) each help and good care guaranteed in 48 (2.35). It is suggested that the spiritual churches with interest in obstetric care establish properly staffed and well equipped health clinics as an annex to the church.
    Nigerian journal of clinical practice 07/2008; 11(2):100-3. · 0.53 Impact Factor
  • A D Ekanem · M U Anah · J J Udo ·
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the prevalence of congenital malaria among neonates with suspected sepsis and its outcome at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. All in-born neonates admitted to the newborn unit with clinical features suggestive of sepsis were recruited. They were screened for bacterial sepsis and malaria. The mothers of the neonates that had parasitaemia were further screened for malaria and anaemia. A total of 546 in-born neonates were admitted to the neonatal unit and 202 (37%) presented with clinical signs suggested of sepsis. Of these, 71 babies (35% of 202 or 13% of the total in-born nursery admissions) had congenital malaria and 14 also had sepsis. Sixty-three (88.7%) of the parasitaemic babies were delivered by mothers who received antenatal care at our centre. Eighty-six percent of the mothers of the 71 babies also had the malaria parasite in their blood. The majority (67%) of the 71 mothers were gravidae 2 and below. Thirty (42.3%) of the affected neonates were anaemic and 5 (7%) of them required a blood transfusion. Congenital malarial is not uncommon in Calabar among babies with suspected sepsis. It appears that the antenatal chemoprophylaxis with pyrimethamine (25 mg weekly) currently used for malaria in our centre no longer protects the mother and fetus. An alternative is needed in order to stem maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and wastage. Babies with features of sepsis should be routinely screened for malaria.
    Tropical Doctor 05/2008; 38(2):73-6. DOI:10.1258/td.2007.005274 · 0.48 Impact Factor
  • A D Ekanem · E J Udoma · S J Etuk · A I Eshiet ·
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    ABSTRACT: We set out to assess the maternal outcome of emergency caesarean sections in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) in relationship to the seniority and experience of medical personnel involved in the operation. This was a review of 349 cases of emergency caesarean sections in UCTH over a 2-year period (January 2000-December 2001). The sociodemographic data, antenatal booking status and clinical condition of the patients as well as the seniority of the medical staff who participated in the operations were extracted from the case notes of the patients. A total of 280 (80.0%) booked patients and 69 (20.0%) unbooked mothers were delivered by emergency caesarean sections. The consultants performed only 16.4% of the emergency caesarean sections, while the residents performed 83.6%. Similarly consultant anaesthetists administered anaesthesia in 12.9% of the cases. A total of 12 maternal deaths occurred from emergency caesarean sections in which six (1.7%) were due to sepsis, three (0.8%) due to severe haemorrhage and three (0.8%) due to anaesthetic complications. None of the deaths occurred in operations in which consultant obstetricians and anaesthetists were involved. The intraoperative blood loss was more in operations performed by the residents than in those performed by the consultants. Similarly, morbidity was higher in patients operated upon by residents. The maternal morbidity and mortality associated with emergency caesarean sections in UCTH would be reduced significantly if consultant obstetricians and anaesthetists were more involved in these operative procedures.
    Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 03/2008; 28(2):198-201. DOI:10.1080/01443610801912329 · 0.55 Impact Factor
  • I A Ekanem · A D Ekanem ·
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    ABSTRACT: One hundred and forty endometrial specimens of women with infertility were examined with oil immersion at X100 magnification for evidence of secretory activity, presence of any inflammatory cells and characteristic features suggestive of specific pathogens. Twenty-three (16.4%) had evidence of chronic endometritis the majority being non-specific. Only two (1.4%) were granulomatous. There was a significant eosinophilic infiltrate in nine cases (6.4%) some numbering up to 55 eosinophils per 5 high power fields (5 hpf). Sensitive immunohistochemical techniques would be needed to correlate findings with specific pathogens for effective treatment.
    The Nigerian postgraduate medical journal 01/2007; 13(4):344-7.
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    A M Abasiattai · E A Bassey · S J Etuk · E J Udoma · A D Ekanem ·
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    ABSTRACT: To establish the role of Caesarean section in reducing perinatal mortality following singleton breech delivery in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. The case notes of all patients who had singleton breech delivery between 1st January 1991 and 31st December 2000 were studied. The incidence of singleton breech delivery was 1.4% and 37.1% of the breech deliveries were by Caesarean section. Feto-pelvic disproportion and footling breech presentation were the most common indications for Caesarean section (50.0%). Most of the breeches delivered by emergency Caesarean section (55.0%) were in unbooked patients while the booked ones were mostly delivered by elective Caesarean section (80.0%). There was a statistically significant decrease in perinatal mortality in primigravid breeches ((p = 0.018) and in fetuses estimated to weigh above 3.5 kilograms (p = 0.0005) following Caesarean section. This study shows that Caesarean section plays a very important role in the management of breech presentation in our environment. We advocate elective Caesarean section of all primigravid breeches and those whose fetuses are estimated to weigh above 3.5 kilograms.
    Nigerian journal of clinical practice 07/2006; 9(1):22-5. · 0.53 Impact Factor
  • Edem J Udoma · Samuel M Itina · Asuquo D Ekanem · Margaret M Mboho ·
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    ABSTRACT: Context: A significant proportion of births in Nigeria still occur in spiritual churches and homes of traditional birth attendants. Recent studies have revealed a lot of complicated cases of obstructed labour from spiritual churches.Objectives: To examine the outcome of training and integration of the spiritual church based midwives on maternal morbidity and mortality.Design and Setting: A pre- and post-time series experimental study was conducted in five local governments of Akwa Ibom state in Nigeria.Subjects and Methods: Fourteen churchbased clinics were visited between 1st January 2001 and 31st January 2003. Structural interview and focus group discussion were used to collect data on their midwives knowledge of 20 risk factors in pregnancy, labour and puerperium and practice of referral. Formal teaching also was given for one month on midwifery practices. After the training, they were asked to keep proper records of all pregnant women. High risk cases were referred to Anua General Hospital in Akwa Ibom State. The records were checked at six and twelve month's interval.Results: Before the training only 10 (23.8%) midwives could recognise up to half of the listed risk factors. The knowledge and practice of referral increased significantly after training (p<0.00001 and p = 0.0000021 respectively). There were no maternal deaths. Conclusion: We recommend that the midwives attending births in churches and other faith-based healing homes be trained and their practices integrated into the orthodox health care delivery system with regular checks by the health ministry.Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Vol. 22(2) 2005: 180-183
    05/2006; 22(2). DOI:10.4314/tjog.v22i2.14523
  • Etim I Ekanem · Saturday J Etuk · Asuquo D Ekanem · John E Ekabua ·
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    ABSTRACT: Contexts: Motorcycle accidents are very common in most cities in Nigeria since the introduction of motorcycle for public commercial transportation in the early 1980s and because most pregnant women use this popular means of transport it may contribute to non-obstetric causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The impact of this on our obstetric population is yet to be studied in Calabar. Objectives: is to assess the influence of motorcycle accidents on maternal and perinatal performance in patients manage in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. Study Design, Setting and Subjects: This was a retrospective descriptive study carried out in the maternity Annex of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar. One hundred and four patients managed as a result of motorcycle accidents in the index pregnancy over two years were studied.Results: Motorcycle accounted for 7.1% of all obstetric emergencies during the period. The victims were mostly married (43.3%); multiparous (23.1%) and 34.6% were civil servants. Twenty (19.2%)of patients were ridding the motorcycles themselves. Of the 64 victims who were passengers, 68.8% sat sideways. Most of the victims (40.4%) were in the third trimester of gestation while 23.0% were actually in labor. The maternal complications included premature labour and deliveries (7.6%), abruptio placentae (3.8%) and ruptured uterus (1.9%). Complications occurred in 33.0% of the babies, which included birth asphyxia and prematurity with perinatal death of 5.5%. Conclusion: Motorcycle accidents are common among the Obstetric population in Calabar. There is high rate of life threatening maternal complications and perinatal morbidity. Relevant authority should ensure that only those duly licensed are allowed to ride the motorcycle when carrying pregnant women who should be the only passenger and sit astride.
    05/2006; 22(2). DOI:10.4314/tjog.v22i2.14519
  • A.D. Ekanem · E.J. Udoma · S.J. Utsalo ·

    International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 03/2006; 92(2):126-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ijgo.2005.10.014 · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • AE Bassey · GC Ejezie · AA Alaribe · MF Useh · JJ Udo · AD Ekanem ·

    08/2005; 5(1). DOI:10.4314/msjm.v5i1.11041
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    SJ Etuk · AD Ekanem ·
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    ABSTRACT: Women with unplanned pregnancy who came to the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar, Nigeria, for antenatal care were studied. The aim was to establish the knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning amongst these women. The incidence of unplanned pregnancy in our antenatal population is about 30%. The women considered their pregnancies unplanned because they were unmarried (31.4%), were still in school (25%) and were not economically prepared for the pregnancy (25.1%). Over 85% of the women with unplanned pregnancy were aware of, at least, one family planning method. Most of them knew the benefits of contraception, about 86% of them agreed that family planning is useful but only 8.7% of them ever used a family planning method. The reason for non-use of contraceptive methods were: refusal by husbands (54%), the belief that the methods “cause infertility and ill-health” (35%) and that it was against their religion (28%). Intensive male- targeted information, education, and public enlightenment campaigns may reverse this trend.
    Nigerian journal of physiological sciences: official publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria 04/2005; 18(1). DOI:10.4314/njps.v18i1.32622
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    A. I. ESHIET · E J Udoma · A D Ekanem · A. DADA ·
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    ABSTRACT: The outcome of obstetric anaesthesia following emergency Caesarean sections was studied retrospectively. The study which was carried out in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital covered the period between 1st August 1995 - 31st August 2000. The aim was to evaluate the morbidity and mortality from anaesthesia during the period under review. Out of 1533 Caesarean sections performed 920 were emergency giving an emergency Caesearean section rate of 60%. The main indications for the emergency Caesearean sections were obstructed labour 220 (23.9%), foetal distress 193 (19.9%) and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia 142 (15.4%). General anaesthesia was employed in 555 (60.3%) while spinal was used in 365 (39.7%). Morbidity recorded in the spinal anaesthesia group were severe hypotension 110(30%), post dural puncture headache (PDPH) 46(2.6%) and transient neurologic symptoms (TNSs) 1 (0.022%). No mortality was recorded in the spinal anaesthesia group. Morbidity in the general anaesthesia group was mainly sore throat 364(65.6%) Five deaths were recorded in the general anaesthesia group. Four deaths occurred probably due to hypoxia following failed intubation, while the fifth death followed an unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation in an eclamptic patient, or due to eclampsia. From this study, mortality was recorded in the general anaesthesia group. Spinal anaesthesia, when there is no contra- indication is therefore recommended for safe obstetric anaesthesia. Brisk pre-operative evaluation, optimization of pre-operative clinical status of parturients and competent anaesthetist are of paramount importance.
    Nigerian journal of physiological sciences: official publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria 04/2005; DOI:10.4314/njps.v18i1.32624
  • A Essiet · E.E. Irekpita · S. J. Etuk · A. D. Ekanem ·
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    ABSTRACT: A retrospective study to determine the rate and pattern of ureteric injuries complicating gynecologic and obstetric operations in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH) during a ten-year period (1990 –1999) was undertaken. The number of major operations carried out during the period was 9350. Of these, 8670 (92.7%) were gynecologic procedures and 680 (7.3%) obstetric. Eight cases of ureteric injuries were recorded during the period under study. Three of these occurred with obstetric operation giving an injury rate of 0.4% (3 of 680), while the rate for gynecologic operations was 0.06% (5 of 8670). The overall injury rate was 0.09 % (8 of 9350). We conclude that ureteric injuries complicating obstetric and gynecologic in this centre are very rare. Such injuries are more frequent with obstetric compared to gynecologic operations. Prognosis is good when these injuries are recognized early and given appropriate treatment. (Global Journal of Medical Science, 2004, 3 (1&2): 1-3)
    11/2004; 3(1). DOI:10.4314/gjms.v3i1.10132
  • Edem J Udoma · Mildred E John · Asuquo D Ekanem · Saturday J Etuk ·
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    ABSTRACT: A 10-year retrospective study of hysterectomies performed on teenagers in Calabar was carried out.
    Tropical Doctor 05/2004; 34(2):110-2. · 0.48 Impact Factor
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    A D Ekanem · M E John · M E Ekott · E J Udoma ·
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    ABSTRACT: We carried out a study on post-partum practices amongst women in Calabar at the maternal and child health clinic at University of Calabar Teaching Hospital between 1 March and 31 May 2002. Three hundred women were interviewed. One hundred and ninety-three (64.3%) resumed coitus prior to 6 weeks of puerperium. There was no significant difference in parity (P = 0.20) and educational status (P = 0.10) between women who resumed coitus earlier than 6 weeks and those who resumed later. One out of every 10 women resumed coitus without any contraception. The majority [212 (70.7%)] sat in hot water (sitz bath) to aid perineal wound healing and improve vaginal tone.
    Tropical Doctor 05/2004; 34(2):97-8. · 0.48 Impact Factor
  • EJ Udoma · AD Ekanem · ME John · AI Ekanem ·
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a ten-year review of maternal mortality from obstructed labour in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), between January 1st 1990 and December 31st 1999. The aim was to examine the role of Institutional factors in maternal mortality arising from this condition. The review showed that a total of 702 patients were managed as a result of obstructed labour giving an incidence of 3.7%. Fifty-five patients died giving a case fatality rate (CFR) of 7.8%. Fifty-one (92.7%) of the patients who died were not booked, thirty-four (61%) were brought from spiritual churches, while 17(31%) were from the traditional birth attendants' (TBAs) homes. Four (7.2%) were booked cases who were earlier scheduled for elective caesarean section but defaulted and reported late in labour with ruptured uterus. All patients were in social classes IV and V. Although 48 (47.3%) of these patients were seen by doctors within one hour of admission, only 6(10.9%) had initial assessment by senior doctors. Five (9.1%) had surgery within two hours of admission, 21(38.2%) had surgery in four hours of admission whereas 29(52.7%) had surgery after four hours of admission. The probable causes of maternal deaths were haemorrhage 24(43.6%), septicemia 5(27.3%), post operative shock 8(14.5%) renal failure 5(9.1%) anaesthetic deaths 3(5.5%). The twenty-four patients who died from haemorrhage had no blood transfusion. Nine of the patients who died from septicemia had no antibiotics before surgery. Anaesthetic deaths were seen in those who were managed by junior residents in conjunction with the anaesthetic nursing staff. Suggestions are offered on how to improve the quality of services provided by our hospitals with the aim of reducing maternal mortality from it. Keywords: Maternal mortality, Obstructed Labour, Institutional factors (Global J Med Sci: 2003 2(1): 13-17)
    01/2003; 2(1). DOI:10.4314/gjms.v2i1.10089