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Publications (11)6.49 Total impact

  • Mariana Belló, Esteban Puentes-Rosas, María Elena Medina-Mora Icaza
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    ABSTRACT: To update information available on the role that gender plays when consumers of alcohol seek help, as well as to evaluate the associations between the demand for treatment and other key variables. Data came from 2002 National Survey on Addictions (Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones) in Mexico, which interviewed one randomly-selected individual from 12-65 years of age in each of 11,252 homes. The results of this study are based on the responses of the 5,406 individuals identified as consumers of alcohol. The demand for health care services was defined as seeking treatment for drinking-related problems during the last year. Alcohol consumers were defined as those people who had consumed alcohol during the last year. The national treatment-seeking prevalence rate was calculated by gender, consumption patterns, dependency syndrome, and other alcohol-related issues. In the logistical regression analyses, seeking treatment was used as the dependent variable. Of the total consumers, 1.4% sought treatment for drinking-related problems. For males, the corresponding percentage was 2.1%, while for women it was 0.2% (P < 0.001). For each woman with an alcohol dependency who got help, there were 49 males who did so. In the multivariate analysis, gender was significantly associated, using females as the reference, even when controlling for dependency and for absenteeism at work due to excessive alcohol consumption. The probability of seeking treatment is higher among males than females who are faced with cultural, family, and treatment-related barriers. Another important predictor is work absenteeism due to excess drinking. Health care planning needs to sharpen its focus through programs designed to address the specific needs of women.
    Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública 04/2008; 23(4):231-6. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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    Mariana Belló, Esteban Puentes-Rosas, María Elena Medina-Mora Icaza
    Revista Panamericana De Salud Publica-pan American Journal of Public Health - REV PANAM SALUD PUBLICA. 01/2008; 23(4).
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    Mariana Belló, Rafael Lozano, Esteban Puentes-Rosas, María Elena Medina-Mora Icaza
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    ABSTRACT: Objetivo. Presentar las estimaciones de prevalencia de depresión, así como el porcentaje de individuos que han sido médicamente diagnosticados. Material y métodos. La definición de episodio de depresión se basó en una cédula con criterios diagnósticos definidos en el manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de las Enfermedades Mentales (DSM IV). A partir de datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Evaluación del Desempeño 2002-2003, se calcularon las prevalencias en el ámbito nacional, según sexo, edad, nivel de escolaridad, tamaño de la comunidad de residencia y entidad federativa del individuo entrevistado, así como el porcentaje de personas afectadas, con diagnóstico y tratamiento. Resultados. La prevalencia nacional de depresión en el año anterior a la aplicación de la encuesta fue de 4.5%: 5.8% en las mujeres y 2.5% en hombres. La prevalencia se incrementa con la edad y disminuye al aumentar la escolaridad. En los hombres la prevalencia es más alta en áreas rurales que en zonas urbanas. Un alto porcentaje de los afectados no refiere haber recibido atención médica. Conclusiones. La depresión es un padecimiento sumamente frecuente en personas adultas y se asocia a condiciones de vulnerabilidad social. El bajo porcentaje de diagnóstico es un reto para la planeación y oferta de servicios de salud mental.
    Salud publica de Mexico 01/2005; · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objetivo. Describir la prevalencia del consumo de heroína, los patrones de inicio, el alto consumo y la dependencia a esta sustancia e identificar barreras que impidan a los adictos acudir a tratamiento. Material y métodos. El estudio se realizó en la cárcel de Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México, entre abril y junio de 2000; los participantes se obtuvieron a través de un muestreo aleatorio simple, partiendo del censo del penal. Se identificaron las barreras al tratamiento, estimadas mediante un modelo de regresión logística. Resultados. La prevalencia de consumo de heroína en los últimos seis meses fue de 26.4%; de 25.3% para usuarios fuertes; 95% fueron dependientes. El promedio de la edad de inicio del consumo fue a los 21 años. El modelo multivariado mostró que baja escolaridad, abstinencia, sobredosis, enfermedades crónicas y tiempo de exposición son barreras que impiden solicitar tratamiento. Conclusiones. Las implicaciones de los resultados se discuten en función de aplicarlos para implantar programas de tratamiento en las cárceles. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html
    Salud publica de Mexico 01/2003; · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the risk for alcohol abuse among individuals with a positive family history of alcohol abuse (FH+). The study population was a sample (n = 8,890) drawn from a 1988 national survey on addictions in Mexico City's urban population. Data analysis consisted of frequency and association measures, using family history of alcohol abuse as the exposure factor. Prevalence of heavy drinking was 13.7% for males and 0.6% for females. Alcohol dependence syndrome was found in 9.9% of males and 0.6% of females. Men with HF+ were twice more likely to develop dependence syndrome than HF- males. The odds ratio for women was 1.27. Differential patterns by gender were found for familial transmission of alcohol abuse; parental alcohol intake is a main risk factor for developing alcohol dependence syndrome.
    Salud publica de Mexico 01/2001; 43(1):17-26. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation and the symptomatic profile as well as to identify the sociodemographic characteristics highlighting female adolescents with the highest scores on suicidal ideation in adolescents living in Mexico City: students and suicidal patients. A cross-sectional and ex-post-facto study was carried out in order to analyze information from two samples: 1,712 junior and junior high school women students (representative student sample in Mexico City), and 30 adolescents inpatient hospitalized for her suicide attempts (clinical sample). Prevalence of presence as well as persistence of suicidal ideation were higher in the clinical sample, nevertheless 11.8% of the school sample had everyone of the symptoms in a range of 1 to 7 days. The most persistent of the ideation symptoms was: "My family would be better if I were dead"; and in the clinical sample it was "I thought about killing myself". Finally, the sociodemographic characteristics that best matched the student girls having the highest scores in suicidal ideation were: to be on junior high school, to get low grades, to acknowledge school performance as bad and to have interrupted her studies. The characteristics that highlight the girls with a first attempt were analyzed in the clinic sample in comparison with those ones with two or more attempts. It was significant that girls in the second group were living only with one parent and they thought in the last attempt that their dead would be possible or certain. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was important in the school sample. If it is considered that this psychological construct has a strong association with suicidal attempt, and multiple suicide conduct, then is a priority to detect adolescents in risk and to make preventive efforts, considering the sociodemographic characteristics that configurate in risk for suicidal ideation.
    Salud publica de Mexico 01/1998; 40(5):430-7. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of alcohol and drug consumption and its relationship to sociodemographic variables, leisure activities, antisocial behavior, family norms and conflicts, among others. Data derive from a representative survey of 1,929 students of junior high and high school, conducted in 1996 in the city of Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Of these, 44.9% were boys and 52.5% were girls; mean age was 14. A self-applied questionnaire, prepared by the WHO together with some countries, among them Mexico, was completed by the studied subjects, and included indicators of alcohol and drug consumption. Of the total sample, 47.9% had tried alcohol, and 12.6% had drunk large quantities--5 drinks or more per sitting--during the month previous to the survey. Preferred drinks are beer and "coolers", which they buy at shops where no identification is required and drink at home or at friend's homes. With respect to drugs, 5.1% had tried illegal or medical drugs without prescription, in particular inhalants, marihuana and tranquilizers. More boys consumed illegal drugs, and more girls medical drugs without prescription. Boys, who are also older, more frequently consumed alcohol and drugs and were more often employed during the previous year at part-time jobs. High alcohol level and drug consumers were characterized by their frequent report of being bored in their free time, drinking with friends and enrolling in antisocial behavior. With respect to family norms, they follow them less and show less interest in doing so. An elevated percentage informed that their parents fight frequently, that they have sought help for this reason and have intended separation. Groups who drink more alcohol and use other drugs, in contrast with nonusers, presented more behavioral problems, more outdoors activities that included drinking with friends, more antisocial behavior, had a distant relationship with their families sharing few activities with them, an showed little interest in following family rules and perceiving conflicts within their families.
    Salud publica de Mexico 41(4):297-308. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To report the rate of exposure to different violent events, their demographic correlates, the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), and the impact on quality of life. The National Survey of Psychiatric Epidemiology is representative of the Mexican urban population aged 18 to 65. The survey was undertaken in 2001 and 2002 using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI- 15) computerized version. The statistical analyses take into account the multistage, stratified, and weighted sample design. Kaplan-Meier and logistic regressions were performed. Sixty-eight percent of the population has been exposed to at least one stressful life event. Exposure varies by sex (rape, harassment, and sexual abuse are more frequent in women; accidents and being a victim of burglary among men) and by age (more frequent in children, adolescents, young adult women, and the elderly). By sex, 2.3% of women and 0.49% of men present PTSD. Rape, harassment, kidnapping, and sexual abuse are the events most associated with PTSD. The results suggest the need to increase treatment coverage to attend the consequences of violence, taking into consideration the important gender and age variations.
    Salud publica de Mexico 47(1):8-22. · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    Salud pública de México, ISSN 0036-3634, Vol. 45, Nº. 1, 2003, pag. 16.
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    Patricia Martínez Lanz, María Elena Medina-Mora Icaza, Edith Rivera
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    ABSTRACT: Fragmento: Tratamiento combinado Es posible que se tenga que utilizar en algunos casos una combinación de diferentes estabilizadores del ánimo. Freeman y Stoll propusieron, después de revisar la seguridad y la eficacia de estos medicamentos, que el carbonato de litio administrado con algún anticonvulsivante, con efecto estabilizador del ánimo, particularmente el valproato, es la combinación más segura y eficaz. Gabapentina Young, Robb, Patellis-Siotis, MacDonald y Joffe documentaron la utilidad de este anticonvulsivante, de efecto gabaérgico, al añadirse a otros estabilizadores del ánimo a dosis variables, desde 600 hasta 3,600 mg/día. Sin embargo, en un ensayo clínico doble ciego controlado con placebo y comparado con lamotrigina, en pacientes con trastornos del humor refractarios, su utilidad fue similar al placebo.
    Salud mental, ISSN 0185-3325, Vol. 27, Nº. 6, 2004, pags. 17-27.
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    María Elena Medina-Mora Icaza, Patricia Cravioto, Arturo Ortiz Castro
    Boletín de estupefacientes, ISSN 0251-7086, Vol. 55, Nº. 1-2, 2003 (Ejemplar dedicado a: La práctica de la epidemiología del uso indebido de drogas), pags. 117-132.