[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is involved in the etiology of Crohn's disease (CD); however, few reports are available on the association between HLA class I antigens and CD in Japan. In this study, we performed association analysis of HLA class I antigens in CD using 208 Japanese patients and 384 healthy controls. We identified novel positive associations between CD and HLA-A*02:01 (odds ratio (OR)=1.64, P=0.016) and HLA-A*02:07 (OR=2.31, P=0.0067) and confirmed previously reported positive associations between CD and HLA-Cw*14:02 (OR=2.18, P=0.0021) and HLA-B*51:01 (OR=1.70, P=0.033). We also identified novel negative associations between CD and HLA-A*24:02 (OR=0.60, P=0.0047) and HLA-B*07:02 (OR=0.38, P=0.0041). Although the associations were not significant after full Bonferroni correction, we suggested that HLA class I genes have dual functions, susceptibility and resistance in controlling the development of CD.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 6 November 2014; doi:10.1038/gene.2014.61.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
& Aims: Behçet’s disease is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory disease that can involve the mouth, skin, eyes, genitals, and intestines. Active intestinal Behçet’s disease can be complicated by gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and perforation. We performed a multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adalimumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor ɑ, in patients with intestinal Behçet’s disease who were refractory to corticosteroid and/or immunomodulator therapies.
The study was conducted at 12 sites in Japan, from November 2010 through October 2012. Twenty patients were given 160 mg adalimumab at the start of the study and 80 mg 2 weeks later, followed by 40 mg every other week for 52 weeks; for some patients, the dose was increased to 80 mg every other week. A composite efficacy index, combining GI symptom and endoscopic assessments, was used to evaluate efficacy. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of patients with scores of ≤1 for GI symptom and endoscopic assessments at week 24. Secondary endpoints included complete remission and resolution of non-GI Behçet’s-related symptoms.
Nine patients (45%) had GI symptom and endoscopic assessment scores ≤1 at week 24 of treatment, and 12 patients (60%) had these scores by week 52. Four patients (20%) achieved complete remission at weeks 24 and 52. Individual global GI symptom and endoscopic scores improved for most patients at weeks 24 and 52. Two-thirds of patients with oral aphthous ulcers, skin symptoms, and genital ulcers and 88% of patients with erythema nodosum had complete resolution of these conditions at week 52. A total of 9/13 patients (69%) taking steroids at baseline were able to taper (n=1) or completely discontinue steroids (n=8) during the study. No new safety signals were observed.
Adalimumab is a potentially effective treatment for intestinal Behçet’s disease in Japanese patients who are refractory to conventional treatments. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01243671.
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 09/2014; · 6.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aims
Leukocytapheresis is an extracorporeal therapy for ulcerative colitis. However, no large-scale study on leukocytapheresis has been reported. This large-scale, prospective, observational study aimed to evaluate the treatment outcomes of leukocytapheresis for active ulcerative colitis in clinical practice.
Patients with active ulcerative colitis treated with leukocytapheresis using a Cellsorba E column between May 2010 and December 2012 were enrolled from 116 medical facilities in Japan.
A total of 847 patients were enrolled, and 623 were available for efficacy analysis. Out of 847 patients, 80.3% of the patients had moderate to severe disease activity, and 67.6% were steroid refractory. As concomitant medications, 5-aminosalicylic acids, corticosteroids, and thiopurines were administered to 94.8%, 63.8%, and 32.8% of the patients, respectively. In addition, infliximab and tacrolimus were concomitantly used in 5.8% and 12.3%, respectively. Intensive leukocytapheresis (≥ 4 leukocytapheresis sessions within the first 2 weeks) was used in > 70% of the patients. Adverse events were seen in 10.3% (87/847), which were severe in only 5 patients (0.6%). Any concomitant medications did not increase the incidence of adverse events. Intensive leukocytapheresis was as safe as the conventional weekly procedure. The overall clinical remission rate was 68.9% (429/623), and the mucosal healing rate was 62.5% (145/232). Clinical remission was achieved more frequently and rapidly in the intensive group than in the weekly group.
This large-scale study indicates that leukocytapheresis, including intensive procedure, is a safe and effective therapeutic option for active ulcerative colitis.
Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 09/2014; · 3.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adalimumab has been shown to be effective and well tolerated in patients with Crohn's disease. This analysis reports the results of a cohort of Japanese patients with moderate to severe Crohn's disease who were evaluated for up to 3years to assess the long-term use of adalimumab.
Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 05/2014; · 3.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most of experiments for HCV infection have been done using lytic infection systems, in which HCV-infected cells inevitably die. Here, to elucidate metabolic alteration in HCV-infected cells in a more stable condition, we established an HCV-persistently-infected cell line, designated as HPI cells. This cell line has displayed prominent steatosis and supported HCV infection for more than 2 years, which is the longest ever reported. It enabled us to analyze metabolism in the HCV-infected cells integrally combining metabolomics and expression arrays. It revealed that rate-limiting enzymes for biosynthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids were up-regulated with actual increase in cholesterol, desmosterol (cholesterol precursor) and pool of fatty acids. Notably, the pentose phosphate pathway was facilitated with marked up-regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, a rete-limiting enzyme, with actual increase in NADPH. In its downstream, enzymes for purine synthesis were also up-regulated resulting in increase of purine. Contrary to common cancers, the TCA cycle was preferentially facilitated comparing to glycolysis pathway with a marked increase of most of amino acids. Interestingly, some genes controlled by nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), a master regulator of antioxidation and metabolism, were constitutively up-regulated in HPI cells. Knockdown of Nrf2 markedly reduced steatosis and HCV infection, indicating that Nrf2 and its target genes play important roles in metabolic alteration and HCV infection. In conclusion, HPI cell is a bona fide HCV-persistently-infected cell line supporting HCV infection for years. This cell line sustained prominent steatosis in a hypermetabolic status producing various metabolites. Therefore, HPI cell is a potent research tool not only for persistent HCV infection but also for liver metabolism, overcoming drawbacks of the lytic infection systems.
PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94460. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the case of a 25-year-old woman at 16 weeks’ gestation who presented with noncomatose autoimmune acute liver failure and was at high risk of developing fulminant hepatitis. Predictive formulas indicated a high probability of developing fulminant hepatitis. Unenhanced computed tomography showed marked hepatic atrophy and broadly heterogeneous hypoattenuating areas. The course of her illness was subacute, and the etiology of liver injury was unclear. Considering all the above, we predicted a poor prognosis. Plasma exchange (PE) and continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) therapy were initiated just after admission. A few days after admission, a high titer (×80) of antinuclear antibody was noted. Since autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) was considered a cause of liver failure, treatment with moderate prednisolone (30 mg/day) doses was administered, with careful consideration of her pregnancy. Thereafter, her laboratory findings and clinical course gradually improved without the need for liver transplantation. A liver biopsy at 18 days after admission indicated a diagnosis of AIH. She continued the pregnancy and delivered a healthy baby without any complications. Eventually, prednisolone doses were decreased to 10 mg, after which her liver function worsened. The second liver biopsy also indicated a diagnosis of AIH. Accordingly, low-dose prednisolone and azathioprine doses (50 mg/day) were administered to recover her liver function, after which her liver function regained normalcy. This case illustrates that a pregnant woman with noncomatose autoimmune acute liver failure in the first or second trimester of pregnancy and her fetus can be rescued by PE/CHDF therapy and safe moderate doses of prednisolone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Rikkunshito, a standardized Japanese herbal medicine, is thought to accelerate gastric emptying and relieve dyspepsia, although no large-scale, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of rikkunshito have been conducted. This study aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of rikkunshito for treating functional dyspepsia (FD).MethodsFD patients received 2.5 g rikkunshito or placebo three times a day for 8 weeks in this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. The primary end point was the proportion of responders at 8 weeks after starting test drug, determined by global patient assessment (GPA). The improvement in four major dyspepsia symptoms severity scale was also evaluated. In addition, plasma ghrelin levels were investigated before and after treatment.Key ResultsTwo hundred forty-seven patients were randomly assigned. In the eighth week, the rikkunshito group had more GPA responders (33.6%) than the placebo (23.8%), although this did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.09). Epigastric pain was significantly improved (p = 0.04) and postprandial fullness tended to improve (p = 0.06) in the rikkunshito group at week 8. Rikkunshito was relatively more effective among Helicobacter pylori-infected participants (rikkunshito: 40.0% vs placebo: 20.5%, p = 0.07), and seemed less effective among H. pylori-uninfected participants (rikkunshito: 29.3% vs placebo: 25.6%, p = 0.72). Among H. pylori-positive individuals, acyl ghrelin levels were improved just in rikkunshito group. There were no severe adverse events in both groups.Conclusions & InferencesAdministration of rikkunshito for 8 weeks reduced dyspepsia, particularly symptoms of epigastric pain and postprandial fullness. (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, Number UMIN000003954).
Neurogastroenterology and Motility 04/2014; 26(7). · 2.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have reported that second-generation colon capsule endoscopy (CCE-2) might be feasible for assessing the severity of mucosal inflammation in ulcerative colitis (UC). However, because of the low rate (69%) of complete evaluation of the colon and owing to inadequate cleansing. We believe that the method of bowel preparation could be improved by reducing volume. In the present study, we attempted to improve the colon-cleansing regimen in order to optimize the usefulness of CCE-2 in the management of UC patients.
Twenty patients with histologically confirmed UC were enrolled. Patients took a maximum 2.2 L lavage solution (polyethylene glycol solution and magnesium citrate) in two or three divided doses. To assess the effectiveness of the modified bowel preparation regimen, we evaluated the rate of total colonobservation, the effectiveness of bowel cleansing, andinterobserver agreement in assessing UC disease activity. We used a four-point grading scale (poor, fair, good, and excellent) for evaluating the quality of bowel cleansing. Matts' endoscopic score was used to evaluate disease activity.
The rate of total colon observation was 85%, and 15 patients (75%) excreted the CCE-2 within 8 h. The proportion of excellent plus good cleansing was approximately 60%. There was a substantial interobserver agreement (κ = 0.777) in assessment of overall cleansing, which was still substantial at the fair cleansing level (κ = 0.700).
Using CCE-2, the modified bowel preparation regimen, with reduced volume has the potential to succeed in the evaluation of mucosal severity in UC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) catalyzes the conversion of free cholesterol (FC) to cholesterol ester, which prevents excess accumulation of FC. We recently found that FC accumulation in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) plays a role in progression of liver fibrosis, but the effect of ACAT1 on liver fibrosis has not been clarified. In this study, we aimed to define the role of ACAT1 in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis.
ACAT1-deficient and wild-type mice, or Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)(-/-)ACAT1(+/+) and TLR4(-/-)ACAT1(-/-) mice were subjected to bile duct ligation (BDL) for 3 weeks or were given carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 4 weeks to induce liver fibrosis.
ACAT1 was the major isozyme in mice and human primary HSCs, and ACAT2 was the major isozyme in mouse primary hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. ACAT1 deficiency significantly exaggerated liver fibrosis in the mouse models of liver fibrosis, without affecting the degree of hepatocellular injury or liver inflammation, including hepatocyte apoptosis or Kupffer cell activation. ACAT1 deficiency significantly increased FC levels in HSCs, augmenting TLR4 protein and downregulating expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) pseudoreceptor Bambi (bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor), leading to sensitization of HSCs to TGFβ activation. Exacerbation of liver fibrosis by ACAT1 deficiency was dependent on FC accumulation-induced enhancement of TLR4 signaling.
ACAT1 deficiency exaggerates liver fibrosis mainly through enhanced FC accumulation in HSCs. Regulation of ACAT1 activities in HSCs could be a target for treatment of liver fibrosis.
Journal of Hepatology 03/2014; · 9.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In cancer patients, sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are crucial in the induction of antitumor T cells. However, in many cases, SLNs and tumors appear to be in immunosuppressive condition through mechanisms yet to be elucidated. In this study, the role of tumor-derived TGF-β1 in the generation of immunosuppressive microenvironments of tumors and SLNs was investigated. Murine colorectal carcinoma CT26 transduced with TGF-β1 cDNA (CT26-TGF-β1) showed enhanced tumor growth compared with mock-transduced CT26 (CT26-Mock) when implanted in syngeneic Balb/c mice, even though CT26-TGF-β1 shows slower growth in vitro. This enhanced growth was not observed when implanted in immunodeficient mice, suggesting that TGF-β1 enhanced tumor growth by suppressing antitumor T-cell responses. Analysis of immune cells in CT26-TGF-β1-implanted mice revealed impairment of dendritic cells (DCs), decrease of CD8 T cells, and increase of MDSCs and Tregs in the tumors. Similarly, the SLNs of these mice showed an increase of MDSCs, Tregs, and PD-L1 DCs, and decrease of T-cell stimulatory activity of DCs accompanied by decreased CD80 expression and TNF-α production. In addition, induction of tumor antigen-specific T cells from SLNs of the CT26-TGF-β1-implanted mice was significantly reduced. These results demonstrate that overproduction of TGF-β1 is critical for the generation of immunosuppressive microenvironments in both tumors and SLNs, which may result in suppression of spontaneous antitumor CD8 T-cell responses. Therefore, TGF-β1 is an attractive target for restoration of immunosuppressive condition in cancer patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The liver is a physiological site of immune tolerance, the breakdown of which induces immunity. Liver antigen-presenting cells may be involved in both immune tolerance and activation. Although inflammatory diseases of the liver are frequently associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, the underlying immunological mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here we report two murine models of inflammatory bowel disease: RAG-2(-/-) mice adoptively transferred with CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cells; and IL-10(-/-) mice, accompanied by the infiltration of mononuclear cells in the liver. Notably, CD11b(-)CD11c(low)PDCA-1(+) plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) abundantly residing in the liver of normal wild-type mice disappeared in colitic CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cell-transferred RAG-2(-/-) mice and IL-10(-/-) mice in parallel with the emergence of macrophages (Mφs) and conventional DCs (cDCs). Furthermore, liver Mφ/cDCs emerging during intestinal inflammation not only promote the proliferation of naïve CD4(+) T cells, but also instruct them to differentiate into IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells in vitro. The emergence of pathological Mφ/cDCs in the liver also occurred in a model of acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis under specific pathogen-free conditions, but was canceled in germ-free conditions. Last, the Mφ/cDCs that emerged in acute DSS colitis significantly exacerbated Fas-mediated hepatitis. Collectively, intestinal inflammation skews the composition of antigen-presenting cells in the liver through signaling from commensal bacteria and predisposes the liver to inflammation.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84619. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
We present our attempts at reducing the length of incision in living donor left-side hepatectomy without laparoscopic approach.
The chief surgeon initially made a 10-cm upper midline incision and performed all procedures through a minilaparotomy without abdominal wall lifting or pneumoperitoneum. For the procedures in the lateral and deep areas, we effectively applied traction to the wound in multiple directions using a wound retraction system so that the chief surgeon could obtain a good direct view. We also placed a fiberscope on the minilaparotomy so that the assistant surgeons could obtain an additional video view via a monitor. Surgeons lengthened the incision at their own discretion if the initial length was thought to be too short for the donor's safety. Since February 2009, we have employed this operation for 19 living donors (12 lateral segmentectomies and 7 left hepatectomies) and compared parameters between the 19 donors and 34 previous donors who underwent the procedure with standard incision (11 lateral segmentectomies and 23 left hepatectomies).
The resultant length of incision was significantly reduced in operations with reduced incision length as compared with standard incision. Clinical outcomes such as operation time and length of hospital stay were comparable or significantly reduced with the reduced incision. The resultant incision length remained within 10 and 12 cm in lateral segmentectomy and left hepatectomy cases, respectively, whose body mass index was less than 22.
It appears to be feasible to reduce the incision length for living donor left-side hepatectomy, especially in nonobese cases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Crohn's disease (CD) may involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract. We assessed the prevalence and features of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) lesions in CD. Methods. This was a retrospective study that included 138 CD patients that underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The rate of Crohn's specific endoscopic lesions in the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum was assessed, and immunohistochemical analysis was performed. Changes in the UGI lesions were assessed in those who had two or more EGD. Results. Of 138 patients, 51.3% had Crohn's specific UGI lesions. The rates of Crohn's specific lesion in the esophagus, upper-to-middle stomach, lower stomach, duodenal bulb, and 2nd portion of the duodenum were 6.5%, 47.8%, 24.6%, 31.9%, and 18.1%, respectively. Granulomas were detected in 6.1%, 25.0%, and 11.4% in the upper-to-middle stomach, lower stomach, and duodenal bulb, respectively, but none in the esophagus and 2nd portion of the duodenum. Thirty-seven were analyzed for Helicobacter pylori and 4 were positive (10.8%). Improvements of UGI lesions were seen in 14 out of 49 (28.5%) and were unchanged in 59.2% and worsened in 12.2%. Conclusions. The prevalence of Crohn's specific UGI lesions was common in our case series, and immunohistochemical studies suggested that the majority was unrelated to Helicobacter pylori infection. Worsening of UGI lesions over the course was rare.
BioMed research international. 01/2014; 2014:610767.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Until the approval of patency capsule, capsule endoscopy (CE) has not been routinely applied for the diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD) in Japan. We aimed to survey current situation of CE use for patients with CD in Japan.
The nationwide survey of 40 Japanese institutions identified 94 patients with established CD (eCD) and 80 patients with suspected CD (sCD), who were examined by CE. Types and positive rates of mucosal injury under CE and capsule retention rate were investigated. In sCD, final diagnosis after CE was also analyzed.
Patients with eCD comprised 82 patients of ileitis or ileocolitis type, while 12 patients had CD of colitis type. CE identified mucosal injuries in 83 of 94 patients. Eight of 12 patients with eCD of colitis type had ileal lesions under CE, thereby being reclassified as ileocolitis type. In patients with sCD, CE detected mucosal injuries in 58 patients. Linear ulceration and cobblestone appearance were depicted in 22 and 3 patients, respectively, thereby resulting in established diagnosis of CD in 23 patients. Mucosal lesion was not found in 22 patients with sCD, who were diagnosed as not having CD. Capsule retention rate was not statistically different between patients with eCD and those with sCD (7.4% vs 6.3%, P = 1.0).
CE is useful for the evaluation of small bowel mucosal injuries in Japanese patients with sCD and eCD. Possible intestinal stricture needs to be carefully evaluated before CE even in patients with sCD.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 01/2014; 29(1):96-101. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adalimumab is a fully human, monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor that is approved in Western countries for the treatment of moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis (UC).
This 52-week, phase 2/3, randomized, double-blind study evaluated adalimumab for induction and maintenance treatment in 273 anti-TNF-naive Japanese patients with UC who were refractory to corticosteroids, immunomodulators, or both. Patients received placebo, adalimumab 80/40 (80 mg at week 0, then 40 mg every other week), or adalimumab 160/80 (160/80 mg at weeks 0/2, then 40 mg every other week) in addition to background UC therapy.
At week 8, remission rates were similar among treatment arms, but more patients treated with adalimumab 160/80 achieved response (placebo, 35 %; 80/40, 43 %; 160/80, 50 %; P = 0.044 for 160/80 vs placebo) and mucosal healing (placebo, 30 %; 80/40, 39 %; 160/80, 44 %; P = 0.045 for 160/80 vs placebo) compared with placebo. At week 52, more patients receiving adalimumab 40 mg every other week achieved response (18 vs 31 %; P = 0.021), remission (7 vs 23 %; P = 0.001), and mucosal healing (16 vs 29 %; P = 0.015) compared with placebo. Week 8 response to adalimumab was associated with greater rates of response (61 %), remission (46 %), and mucosal healing (57 %) at week 52 relative to the overall population. Rates of serious adverse events were similar between treatment arms.
Induction with adalimumab 160/80 mg led to early response and mucosal healing. Maintenance adalimumab had greater rates of long-term response, remission, and mucosal healing compared with placebo. No new safety signals were identified.
Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2013; · 4.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the publication of the Rome III criteria for functional dyspepsia (FD), the evidence about the efficacy of half-dose of proton pump inhibitors for dyspepsia symptoms have been limited.
United European gastroenterology journal. 12/2013; 1(6):445-52.