[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Granulocyte and monocyte adsorptive apheresis (GMA) has shown efficacy in patients with active Crohn's disease (CD). However, with routine weekly therapy, it may take several weeks to achieve remission. This study was performed to assess clinical efficacy and safety of intensive GMA in patients with active CD.
In an open-label, prospective, randomized multicentre setting, 104 patients with CD activity index (CDAI) of 200 to 450 received intensive GMA, at two sessions per week (n = 55) or one session per week (n = 49). Clinical remission was defined as a CDAI score <150. Patients in each arm could receive up to 10 GMA sessions. However, GMA treatment could be discontinued when CDAI decreased to <150 (clinical remission level).
Of the 104 patients, 99 were available for efficacy evaluation as per protocol, 45 in the weekly GMA group, and 54 in the intensive GMA group. Remission was achieved in 16 of 45 patients (35.6 %) in the weekly GMA and in 19 of 54 (35.2 %) in the intensive GMA (NS). Further, the mean time to remission was 35.4 ± 5.3 days in the weekly GMA and 21.7 ± 2.7 days in the intensive GMA (P = 0.0373). Elevated leucocytes and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were significantly improved by intensive GMA, from 8005/μL to 6950/μL (P = 0.0461) and from 54.5 mm/hr to 30.0 mm/hr (P = 0.0059), respectively. In both arms, GMA was well tolerated and was without safety concern.
In this study, with respect to remission rate, intensive GMA was not superior to weekly GMA, but the time to remission was significantly shorter in the former without increasing the incidence of side effects. UMIN registration # 000003666.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we proposed a rare autosomal recessive inherited enteropathy characterized by persistent blood and protein loss from the small intestine as chronic nonspecific multiple ulcers of the small intestine (CNSU). By whole-exome sequencing in five Japanese patients with CNSU and one unaffected individual, we found four candidate mutations in the SLCO2A1 gene, encoding a prostaglandin transporter. The pathogenicity of the mutations was supported by segregation analysis and genotyping data in controls. By Sanger sequencing of the coding regions, 11 of 12 other CNSU patients and 2 of 603 patients with a diagnosis of Crohn's disease were found to have homozygous or compound heterozygous SLCO2A1 mutations. In total, we identified recessive SLCO2A1 mutations located at seven sites. Using RT-PCR, we demonstrated that the identified splice-site mutations altered the RNA splicing, and introduced a premature stop codon. Tracer prostaglandin E2 uptake analysis showed that the mutant SLCO2A1 protein for each mutation exhibited impaired prostaglandin transport. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that SLCO2A1 protein was expressed on the cellular membrane of vascular endothelial cells in the small intestinal mucosa in control subjects, but was not detected in affected individuals. These findings indicate that loss-of-function mutations in the SLCO2A1 gene encoding a prostaglandin transporter cause the hereditary enteropathy CNSU. We suggest a more appropriate nomenclature of "chronic enteropathy associated with SLCO2A1 gene" (CEAS).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation. Patients with UC have repeated remission and relapse. Clinical biomarkers that can predict relapse in UC patients in remission have not been identified. To facilitate the prediction of relapse of UC, we investigated the potential of novel multivariate indexes using statistical modeling of plasma free amino acid (PFAA) concentrations. We measured fasting PFAA concentrations in 369 UC patients in clinical remission, and 355 were observed prospectively for up to 1 year. Relapse rate within 1 year was 23% (82 of 355 patients). The age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratio for the lowest quartile compared with the highest quartile of plasma histidine concentration was 2.55 (95% confidence interval: 1.41-4.62; p = 0.0020 (log-rank), p for trend = 0.0005). We demonstrated that plasma amino acid profiles in UC patients in clinical remission can predict the risk of relapse within 1 year. Decreased histidine level in PFAAs was associated with increased risk of relapse. Metabolomics could be promising for the establishment of a non-invasive predictive marker in inflammatory bowel disease.
PLoS ONE 10/2015; 10(10):e0140716. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0140716 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and AimWe recently conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial on the efficacy and safety of rikkunshito, a standardized Japanese herbal medicine, for the treatment of functional dyspepsia (FD). The present post-hoc study aimed to evaluate the differences in clinical characteristics between responders and non-responders among FD patients who received rikkunshito for 8 weeks.Methods
Rikkunshito responders were defined by using a global patient assessment. Candidate predictors included age, gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, comorbidity, Helicobacter pylori infection, plasma levels of acyl ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin, severity of dyspeptic symptoms, FD subgroup, previous medication, and the type of recruiting institution (clinic or hospital). We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) by using Cox regression analysis with the factors that were indicated to be associated with responders.ResultsWe assigned 83 and 42 patients to responder and non-responder categories, respectively. Lack of alcohol consumption (HR, 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08–3.88) and low plasma des-acyl ghrelin levels (<177 fmol/mL; HR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.24–4.73) were significantly associated with the efficacy of rikkunshito. Lack of alcohol consumption was associated with the efficacy of rikkunshito especially among H. pylori-infected participants. On the other hand, the low plasma des-acyl ghrelin was associated with the efficacy of rikkunshito especially among H. pylori-negative participants.ConclusionsA low baseline level of plasma des-acyl ghrelin was associated with an increased treatment efficacy of rikkunshito against FD. Lack of alcohol consumption was also clinically useful for predicting the response to rikkunshito. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 08/2015; DOI:10.1111/jgh.13074 · 3.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: First reported in 1955, Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS), a rare syndrome characterized by ectodermal abnormalities and inflammatory changes of the gastrointestinal tract mucosa, has been associated with a poor prognosis and life-threatening malignant complications. In a large population survey, we endeavored to characterize the course and treatment outcome of CCS through clinical and endoscopic assessment, and to explore its optimal treatment and surveillance strategy.
A retrospective analysis of 210 patients with CCS was conducted via a questionnaire-based nationwide survey of 983 teaching hospitals located throughout Japan. We assessed clinical features, endoscopic findings, treatments used, and short- and long-term outcomes.
The average age at diagnosis was 63.5 years. In all cases, upper or lower gastrointestinal tract polyposis was confirmed, accompanied by characteristic ectodermal abnormalities. Of the treatments used, oral corticosteroids (30-49 mg/day) were the most effective treatment for active disease, with adjunctive nutritional support considered beneficial. With corticosteroid treatment, abdominal symptoms were relieved within a few months, whereas polyp regression often required more than 6 months. Maintenance of endoscopic remission with or without steroids for 3 years significantly lowered the development of CCS-related cancer, compared with relapsers or nonresponders, underscoring the importance of sustained endoscopic remission for cancer prevention.
The prognosis of CCS has greatly improved through the use of improved medical treatment. Although CCS continues to be relentlessly progressive, carrying a high cancer risk, a sufficient dose and duration of corticosteroid therapy accompanied by nutritional support and periodic endoscopic surveillance appears to improve its natural history.
Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00535-015-1107-7 · 4.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to clarify the efficacy, safety, and factors associated with remission on dose escalation in patients with Crohn's disease showing loss of response (LOR) to infliximab treatment of 5 mg/kg at 8-week intervals in a clinical trial.
Thirty-nine patients with LOR to 5 mg/kg infliximab therapy started treatment with 10 mg/kg per 8 weeks. LOR was defined as both a Crohn's Disease Activity Index of ≥175 at 8 weeks after infusion of 5 mg/kg infliximab and a Crohn's Disease Activity Index increase of ≥50 from 4 to 8 weeks after infusion.
At week 8 after the first infusion of 10 mg/kg, median (95% confidence interval) reduction in Crohn's Disease Activity Index of 33 patients evaluated was 95.0 (70.0-134.0), meeting the primary endpoint. Remission rate at week 40 was 41% (16 of 39), with correlation noted between remission achievement and serum infliximab level (P = 0.036). Univariate analysis revealed that "infliximab trough level ≥1 µg/mL," "interleukin 6 level ≤2.41 pg/mL," and "albumin level ≥3.8 g/dL" before dose escalation were significantly associated with remission at week 40 (P = 0.017, P = 0.011, and P = 0.019, respectively), and these variables were correlated with each other (all: P < 0.001). The cutoff infliximab level for remission was 0.42 µg/mL in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. No adverse events related to dose escalation were observed.
Doubling the infliximab dose safely led to remission in patients with Crohn's disease with LOR to 5 mg/kg treatment. Remission was associated with pre-escalation levels of infliximab, interleukin 6, and albumin. Our findings suggest that dose escalation while maintaining a certain level of infliximab is important in achieving remission.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infliximab (IFX) is one of the treatments of choice for corticosteroid-refractory and corticosteroid-dependent ulcerative colitis (UC). A high serum trough level of IFX (TL) is reported to be associated with sustained efficacy during maintenance treatment. As part of a phase 3 randomized controlled trial of IFX in UC, we assessed the predictive value of the first TL at week 2 for short- and long-term response.
Patients received intravenous IFX 5 mg/kg or placebo at weeks 0, 2, and 6. Patients with evidence of a response by week 8 continued treatment at weeks 14 and 22. TL was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Post hoc analysis was then performed for TL and clinical outcomes.
Clinical response rate at week 8, the primary end point, was significantly higher in the IFX group than placebo (p = 0.005). The incidence of adverse events between groups was similar. Week 2 TL was significantly associated with a 14-week clinical activity index (CAI) remission. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the week 2 TL-to-CAI ratio (TL/CAI, odds ratio 8.07; 95 % confidence interval 2.84-27.07, p < 0.001) was an independent factor correlating with 14-week CAI remission. The week 2 TL and TL/CAI were also significantly associated with 30-week mucosal healing.
IFX was confirmed to be effective and safe in this population. Our results suggest that the first TL at week 2, in combination with clinical evaluation, is useful for predicting both short- and long-term outcomes, allowing an earlier decision between continuing IFX or switching to other options.
Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00535-015-1102-z · 4.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytoapheresis (CAP) therapy is widely used in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients with moderate to severe activity in Japan. The aim of this study is to predict the need of operation after CAP therapy of UC patients on an individual level using an artificial neural network system (ANN). Ninety UC patients with moderate to severe activity were treated with CAP. Data on the patients' demographics, medication, clinical activity index (CAI) and efficacy of CAP were collected. Clinical data were divided into training data group and validation data group and analyzed using ANN to predict individual outcomes. The sensitivity and specificity of predictive expression by ANN were 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. Events of admission, operation, and use of immunomodulator, and efficacy of CAP were significantly correlated to the outcome. Requirement of operation after CAP therapy was successfully predicted by using ANN. This newly established ANN strategy would be used as powerful support of physicians in the clinical practice.
PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0131197. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0131197 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was previously thought to be rare in Asia, but emerging data indicate rising incidence and prevalence of IBD in the region. The Asia Pacific Working Group on Inflammatory Bowel Disease was established in Cebu, Philippines, at the Asia Pacific Digestive Week conference in 2006 under the auspices of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology (APAGE) with the goal of developing best management practices, coordinating research and raising awareness of IBD in the region. The consensus group previously published recommendations for the diagnosis and management of ulcerative colitis (UC) with specific relevance to the Asia-Pacific region.(1) The present consensus statements were developed following a similar process to address the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease (CD). The goals of these statements are to pool the pertinent literature specifically highlighting relevant data and conditions in the Asia-Pacific region relating to the economy, health systems, background infectious diseases, differential diagnoses and treatment availability. It does not intend to be all-comprehensive and future revisions are likely to be required in this ever-changing field.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 03/2015; DOI:10.1111/jgh.12956 · 3.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have suggested that the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is involved in the etiology of Crohn's disease (CD); however, few reports are available on the association between HLA class I antigens and CD in Japan. In this study, we performed association analysis of HLA class I antigens in CD using 208 Japanese patients and 384 healthy controls. We identified novel positive associations between CD and HLA-A*02:01 (odds ratio (OR)=1.64, P=0.016) and HLA-A*02:07 (OR=2.31, P=0.0067) and confirmed previously reported positive associations between CD and HLA-Cw*14:02 (OR=2.18, P=0.0021) and HLA-B*51:01 (OR=1.70, P=0.033). We also identified novel negative associations between CD and HLA-A*24:02 (OR=0.60, P=0.0047) and HLA-B*07:02 (OR=0.38, P=0.0041). Although the associations were not significant after full Bonferroni correction, we suggested that HLA class I genes have dual functions, susceptibility and resistance in controlling the development of CD.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 6 November 2014; doi:10.1038/gene.2014.61.
Genes and Immunity 11/2014; 16(1). DOI:10.1038/gene.2014.61 · 2.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
We evaluated the clinical efficacy of adalimumab (ADA) for Crohn's disease (CD) and analyzed predictive factors for clinical remission and long-term prognosis.
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 45 patients treated with ADA for CD at Keio University Hospital between October 2010 and March 2014. Clinical remission was defined as a Harvey-Bradshaw index of ≤4.
Twenty-eight of 45 patients (62.2%) achieved clinical remission at week 4. Among these 28 patients, 18 patients (64.3%) maintained clinical remission at week 26, and among these, 16 patients (88.9%) maintained clinical remission at week 52. Absence of a history of bowel resection and absence of prior anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy were significant predictive factors for clinical remission at week 4 upon multivariate logistic regression analyses. Younger age and a disease duration of ≤3 years correlated with clinical remission at week 26 upon univariate analyses. Patients without a history of bowel resection showed significantly better long-term prognosis than those with a history of bowel resection (p = 0.01). None of the patients contracted a serious infectious disease.
Younger age, shorter duration of disease, being naive to anti-TNF antagonists, and absence of a history of bowel resection were associated with the efficacy of ADA in CD patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
& Aims: Behçet’s disease is a chronic, relapsing inflammatory disease that can involve the mouth, skin, eyes, genitals, and intestines. Active intestinal Behçet’s disease can be complicated by gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and perforation. We performed a multicenter, open-label, uncontrolled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adalimumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor ɑ, in patients with intestinal Behçet’s disease who were refractory to corticosteroid and/or immunomodulator therapies.
The study was conducted at 12 sites in Japan, from November 2010 through October 2012. Twenty patients were given 160 mg adalimumab at the start of the study and 80 mg 2 weeks later, followed by 40 mg every other week for 52 weeks; for some patients, the dose was increased to 80 mg every other week. A composite efficacy index, combining GI symptom and endoscopic assessments, was used to evaluate efficacy. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of patients with scores of ≤1 for GI symptom and endoscopic assessments at week 24. Secondary endpoints included complete remission and resolution of non-GI Behçet’s-related symptoms.
Nine patients (45%) had GI symptom and endoscopic assessment scores ≤1 at week 24 of treatment, and 12 patients (60%) had these scores by week 52. Four patients (20%) achieved complete remission at weeks 24 and 52. Individual global GI symptom and endoscopic scores improved for most patients at weeks 24 and 52. Two-thirds of patients with oral aphthous ulcers, skin symptoms, and genital ulcers and 88% of patients with erythema nodosum had complete resolution of these conditions at week 52. A total of 9/13 patients (69%) taking steroids at baseline were able to taper (n=1) or completely discontinue steroids (n=8) during the study. No new safety signals were observed.
Adalimumab is a potentially effective treatment for intestinal Behçet’s disease in Japanese patients who are refractory to conventional treatments. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01243671.