ABSTRACT: To investigate the relationship of circulating biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and YKL-40), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor), cartilage turnover (C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type II collagen [CTX-II], total aggrecan, matrix metalloproteinase 3 [MMP-3], and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein [COMP]), and bone turnover (CTX-I and osteocalcin) to inflammation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiographic progression in patients with axial spondylarthritis (SpA) beginning tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitor therapy.
MRIs were evaluated according to the Berlin sacroiliac (SI) joint and spine inflammation scoring method at baseline, week 22, and week 46. Radiographs were evaluated using the modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spine Score at baseline and week 46. Patients with new syndesmophytes were identified. Biomarker levels in patients were compared to levels in healthy subjects.
Higher pretreatment MRI inflammation scores for SI joints and/or lumbar spine were associated with higher baseline CTX-II levels, but not with higher levels of biomarkers of inflammation and bone turnover. During treatment with TNFα inhibitors, a decrease in MRI inflammation scores from baseline to week 22 was associated with larger percentage decreases in and a normalization of CRP and IL-6 levels as compared to an increase or no change in MRI scores. Development of new syndesmophytes was associated with larger percentage decreases in CRP and IL-6 levels and an increase in osteocalcin level, and with normalization of CRP and IL-6 levels from baseline to week 22. Persistent systemic inflammation was associated with radiographic nonprogression.
Our findings indicate that inflammation on baseline MRI is associated with higher CTX-II levels. Radiographic progression is associated with decreased systemic inflammation, as assessed by IL-6 and CRP levels and MRI, supporting the notion of a link between the resolution of inflammation and new bone formation in SpA patients during anti-TNFα therapy.
Arthritis & Rheumatism 12/2011; 63(12):3789-800. · 7.87 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To investigate the relation between ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score (ASDAS), Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) and treatment response and biomarkers of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), YKL-40), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)), cartilage (C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type II collagen (CTX-II), matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), total aggrecan, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein) and bone (C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type I collagen, osteocalcin) turnover in 60 patients with axial spondyloarthritis initiating tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor therapy.
ASDAS (CRP-based), BASDAI and biomarkers were determined before and seven times during 46 weeks of TNFα inhibitor therapy.
Very high ASDAS were associated with high levels of inflammatory biomarkers, while high BASDAI were not related to any biomarkers. Mixed modeling demonstrated significant longitudinal associations between ASDAS and IL-6, VEGF, MMP-3 and osteocalcin and between BASDAI and CRP, IL-6 and VEGF. Major improvement in ASDAS was associated with larger percentage decreases in biomarkers of inflammation, angiogenesis, MMP-3 and increases in aggrecan and osteocalcin. BASDAI response was associated with larger decreases in CRP and IL-6. Biomarkers with moderate/high differences in responsiveness for major versus no/clinically important improvement in ASDAS were CRP, IL-6, VEGF, aggrecan and osteocalcin, and VEGF and CTX-II for BASDAI response versus non-response.
Levels and changes of 10 biomarkers in patients with axial spondyloarthritis during anti-TNFα therapy were documented. Construct validity and responsiveness of IL-6, VEGF, MMP-3, total aggrecan and osteocalcin were demonstrated. ASDAS was more associated with these biomarkers than BASDAI, and may better reflect the inflammatory disease processes. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00133315.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 06/2011; 70(8):1375-81. · 8.11 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To investigate construct validity and responsiveness of the novel ankylosing spondylitis (AS) disease activity score (ASDAS) in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA).
In a 46-week prospective longitudinal multicentre study of 60 patients with SpA (80% men, median age 40 years (range 21-62)) treated with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) inhibitors (infliximab, n=41; etanercept, n=13; adalimumab, n=6), the responsiveness of ASDAS, conventional clinical measures of disease activity and treatment response and the Berlin MRI sacroiliac joint (SIJ) and lumbar spine inflammation scores were compared.
After 22 weeks, 58.3% of the patients were clinical responders (50% or 20 mm reduction in the Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI)). At baseline, clinical responders had significantly higher median (range) ASDAS than non-responders (4.15 (1.98-6.04) vs 2.99 (2.05-6.19), p=0.008). Changes in ASDAS correlated with changes in clinical measures of disease activity (including BASDAI (rho=0.76) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (0.79)), MRI SIJ inflammation (0.46) and MRI total inflammation scores (0.34). Patients with higher BASDAI or Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) responses obtained more profound reductions in ASDAS. ASDAS had the highest responsiveness with an effect size of 2.04 and a standardised response mean of 1.45, whereas BASDAI (effect size 1.86; standardised response mean 1.36) and CRP (effect size 0.63; standardised response mean 0.70) were less responsive. Linear regression showed that a change in BASDAI of 20 mm or 50% corresponded to a change in ASDAS of 1.38 and 1.95, respectively.
ASDAS demonstrates construct validity and high responsiveness during treatment with TNFalpha inhibitors in patients with SpA. The proposed thresholds for disease activity and treatment response need further validation. Trial registration number NCT00133315.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 10/2009; 69(6):1065-71. · 8.11 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To identify predictors of radiographic progression in a 2-year randomised, double-blind, clinical study (CIMESTRA) of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Patients with early RA (n = 130) were treated with methotrexate, intra-articular betamethasone and ciclosporin/placebo-ciclosporin. Baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the wrist (wrist-only group, n = 130) or MRI of wrist and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints (wrist+MCP group, n = 89) (OMERACT RAMRIS), x-ray examination of hands, wrists and forefeet (Sharp/van der Heijde Score (TSS)), Disease Activity Score (DAS28), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP), HLA-DRB1-shared epitope (SE) and smoking status were assessed. Multiple regression analysis was performed with delta-TSS (0-2 years) as dependent variable and baseline DAS28, TSS, MRI bone oedema score, MRI synovitis score, MRI erosion score, anti-CCP, smoking, SE, age and gender as explanatory variables.
Baseline values: median DAS28 5.6 (range 2.4-8.0); anti-CCP positive 61%; radiographic erosions 56%. At 2 years: DAS28 2.0 (0.5-5.7), in DAS remission: 56%, radiographic progression 26% (wrist+MCP group, similar for wrist-only group). MRI bone oedema score was the only independent predictor of delta-TSS (wrist+MCP group: coefficient = 0.75 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.94), p<0.001; wrist-only group: coefficient = 0.59 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.77), p<0.001). Bone oedema score explained 41% of the variation in the progression of TSS (wrist+MCP group), 25% in wrist-only group (Pearson's r = 0.64 and r = 0.50, respectively). Results were confirmed by sensitivity analyses.
In a randomised controlled trial aiming at remission in patients with early RA, baseline RAMRIS MRI bone oedema score of MCP and wrist joints (and of wrist only) was the strongest independent predictor of radiographic progression in hands, wrists and forefeet after 2 years. MRI synovitis score, MRI erosion score, DAS28, anti-CCP, SE, smoking, age and gender were not independent risk factors.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 04/2008; 68(3):384-90. · 8.11 Impact Factor