Edward Goodall

University of Ulster, Aontroim, N Ireland, United Kingdom

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Publications (12)18.84 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to determine whether Infrared imaging could play a role in the detection of previous blunt force injury after resolution of skin changes were no longer visible to the human eye. Investigations were performed using an adapted digital camera and the same standard Nikon camera body to photograph the bruises of ten volunteer adult subjects. The same lens was fitted to each camera body and each bruise was photographed until it was no longer possible to identify it with the naked eye. The results of photographing subjects over 6 months demonstrated that the median time the bruises persisted in both groups was approximately between 18 and 19 days. There was no statistically significant difference between groups of bruises photographed with both the infrared digital camera that had been adapted to capture only infrared light, and with the standard camera which had the same lens fitted to it. The two groups of photographs of bruises imaged at the same time with the two cameras were not significantly different with regard to what skin changes could be detected. The use of the near infrared spectrum, with wavelengths that are longer than the human eye can detect, did not reveal significant evidence of bruising after it had faded from view to both the human eye and to a standard camera.
    Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 08/2010; 17(6):293-7. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare visual outcomes, complications, and patient satisfaction after femtosecond laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and conductive keratoplasty (CK). Private laser clinics, Reading and Southampton, United Kingdom. In this retrospective consecutive single-surgeon comparative study, presbyopic emmetropia was treated with femtosecond LASIK or CK to achieve monovision by targeting -1.50 diopters (D) of myopia in the nondominant eye after a successful monovision contact lens trial. The CK treatments were performed with a ViewPoint CK system using the light-touch technique. The femtosecond LASIK was performed using an IntraLase FS/FS30 and EC-5000 platform with OPDCAT wavefront treatment. The mean spherical equivalent 12 months postoperatively was -1.63 D +/- 0.68 (SD) in the femtosecond LASIK group and -0.97 +/- 0.82 D in the CK group (P<.001). The mean vector value of astigmatism at 12 months was 0.32 +/- 0.32 D and 1.00 +/- 0.75 D, respectively (P<.0001). The mean induced higher-order aberration (HOA) was 0.45 +/- 0.28 microm in the femtosecond LASIK group and 1.13 +/- 0.25 microm in the CK group (P<.0001). The retreatment rate was 3% after femtosecond LASIK and 50% after CK (P<.0001). On a questionnaire administered at 12 months, 20 patients (62.5%) in the femtosecond LASIK group and 11 patients (34.4%) in the CK group reported being satisfied (P = .02). In emmetropic presbyopic cases, femtosecond LASIK monovision provided stable correction with less induced astigmatism and HOA. Eyes with CK monovision had regression and induced astigmatism.
    Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery 06/2010; 36(6):997-1002. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    E A Goodall, J Moore, T Moore
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of sample size estimations for the most frequent type of group studies that result in continuous, binary and ordered categorical outcomes. The theory behind power and sample size calculations is explained using the basic probability concepts that underpin the most frequently used statistical significance tests. Simple formulae and tables are presented for the estimation of sample sizes necessary for efficient and effective clinical and epidemiological trials. These may be used without recourse to sophisticated and complex computer software packages. Mathematical complexity is kept to a minimum. Examples and applications from the vision sciences are specifically highlighted. The paper highlights, with practical examples, the concepts and computations necessary to make sample size estimations accessible to all eye professionals involved in research, diagnostic and statutory work.
    Eye (London, England) 06/2009; 23(7):1589-97. · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • Winifred Maguire, Edward Goodall, Tara Moore
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to document physical injuries and ascertain associated variables in female complainants of sexual assault. 164 cases of sexual assault between 2002 and 2006 in Belfast were included. 162 women consented to body examination and 153 to genital examination. Data for the study were obtained from the contemporaneous notes of a forensic doctor who examined the victims. Of 164 females, 44% were less than 20 years of age, mean age was 24.2, range 13-74 years; two-thirds reported alcohol consumption prior to assault. Non-genital (body) injury was observed in 61%, genital injury in 39%, both in 20% and 18% had no injury. Body injury was associated with time to examination (OR=4.0, p<0.01), alcohol intake prior to assault (OR=3.33, p<0.001), assault occurring outdoors (OR=3.45, p<0.01), previous sexual intercourse (OR=3.19, p<0.01) and genital injury (OR=2.24, p<0.05). Genital injury was related to acquaintance assault (OR=2.33, p<0.05), time to examination (OR=3.70, p<0.05), reported virgin status (OR=3.03, p<0.01) and absence of hormonal contraception (OR=2.04, p<0.10). Almost half the victims of sexual assault were less than 20 years old and injury was detected in over 80%. Time to examination and prior sexual experience were related to genital and body injury. Assault occurring outdoors and alcohol intake were associated with body injury. Genital injury was more frequent in acquaintance assault and victims not using hormonal contraception. Young females drinking alcohol are at a very high risk for sexual assault.
    European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 02/2009; 142(2):149-53. · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • Janet Hall, Edward A Goodall, Tara Moore
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    ABSTRACT: Alleged sexual assault cases, identified from the forensic science Northern Ireland (FSNI) database, which had toxicology assays carried out on either blood or urine samples, were examined for the years 1999 up to and including 2005. In 1999 there were 30 toxicology requests while in 2005 there were 51, representing a 70% increase. The percentage of cases containing alcohol, drugs or both increased from 66% in 1999 to 78% in 2005. The estimated average blood alcohol concentration remained broadly similar throughout the spread of years. It was found to be 218mg% (milligrams per 100 millilitres) in 1999 and 217mg% in 2005. The actual number of cases studied within the 12h cut-off time rose from 9 in 1999 to 22 in 2005. The relationship between negative toxicology results and time delay between the alleged assault and forensic sampling was examined. This showed that between 44% and 74% of cases were found to have a time delay of >12h. Some of these cases may therefore represent false negative results. The presence of drugs, either alone or in combination with other drugs, doubled between 1999 and 2005. Increased identification was found with antidepressants, recreational drugs, benzodiazepines and analgesics, some of which were also associated with alcohol consumption. The findings are sufficient to cause alarm for the health and safety of certain individuals and their increased vulnerability to sexual assault in some social settings. Additionally, the legal implications of what constitutes valid consent needs to be considered further in the light of these findings, if attrition rates are to improve.
    Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 11/2008; 15(8):497-504. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Large variations in results of diagnostic tests for mild to moderate dry eye are widely recognised. The purpose of this study was to assess if there was concordance between common dry eye diagnostic tests. A total of 91 subjects were recruited to the study. The tear film and ocular surface were evaluated using the phenol red thread test (PRT), tear film break-up time (TBUT), biomicroscopic examination and impression cytological assessment of conjunctival goblet cells. Dry eye symptoms were assessed using McMonnies' dry eye questionnaire (MQ) and statistical correlations between all tests were assessed. This study cohort did not include severe aqueous deficient dry eye patients as determined by the PRT. A statistically significant difference was noted between PRT results and all other tests (p<or=0.001). Only Meibomian gland pathology, MQ, reduced goblet cell density and TBUT (<or=7 s) demonstrated correlation determined by McNemar's test. A correlation was found only between tests assessing lipid/mucous deficiency (Meibomian gland evaluation, goblet cell density, TBUT and MQ).
    The British journal of ophthalmology 10/2008; 93(1):66-72. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The interface between forensic physicians and the police ombudsman of Northern Ireland is an area where there is little published research. In particular there has been no attempt to inquire into the role of forensic physicians in the procedures employed to investigate alleged police maltreatment of prisoners at the time of arrest or later in the custodial setting. A questionnaire was distributed to all forensic physicians in Northern Ireland to assess their level of engagement with the ombudsman's office and shed light on the attitudes of forensic physicians to the police ombudsman's handling of the complaints procedure. The results published represent the opinion of the majority of forensic physicians in Northern Ireland and show a broadly supportive attitude to the role of the police ombudsman in the investigation of alleged police officer misconduct. However, a majority of forensic physicians felt that their involvement in the investigative process was an under-used resource.
    Medicine, science, and the law 05/2008; 48(2):117-23. · 0.76 Impact Factor
  • Amanda Burns, Edward Goodall, Tara Moore
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    ABSTRACT: This study reports on 60 cases of suicide in Londonderry, Northern Ireland from January 2000 to December 2005. The research focused on a number of factors associated with the occurrence of suicide. These included age, gender, employment status, method used and possible predisposing factors. Additionally, the seasonality of occurrence was also investigated. Notably, over the period of the study, the number of suicides almost doubled. The results demonstrated that 83.3% of suicides were male. The largest proportion of these, over one third, occurred in men between the ages 21 and 30 years. This high rate of young male suicides was in marked contrast to any other group. The most frequent method of suicide recorded in this study was hanging (55%). The next most frequent methods were drowning (25%) and overdose (13.3%). Three times as many males (6) overdosed compared to females.
    Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 05/2008; 15(3):148-57. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the bacterial population of the ocular surface of normal and dry eye subjects using conventional culture and 16S rDNA PCR. Ninety-one subjects were classified as normal (n = 57) or dry eye (n = 34) by using tear break-up time, McMonnies survey, goblet cell density, and meibomian gland assessment. Conventional bacterial culture and broad-range 16S rDNA PCR, cloning, and DNA sequencing were used for bacterial identification. Repeated sampling was performed in a subset of subjects over a 3-month period. The association between goblet cell loss and bacterial counts in a subgroup of subjects was assessed. Most of the bacteria identified by culture were coagulase negative staphylococci, whereas molecular methods demonstrated a considerable number of additional bacteria. Atypical ocular surface bacteria including Rhodococcus erythropolis, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Erwinia sp., were identified in cases of overt inflammation and, surprisingly, on the normal ocular surface. The same bacteria remained on the ocular surface after repeated sampling. Increased bacterial flora was associated with reduced goblet cell density. Molecular analysis revealed a diverse ocular surface bacterial population. In addition to the normal flora, various potentially pathogenic bacteria were identified. The detection of known pathogens in both normal and dry eyes, with minimal signs of infection, presents a diagnostic dilemma. It remains unknown whether their presence is associated with inflammation and reduced goblet cell density or whether they adversely affect the ocular surface predisposing it to abnormal microbial colonization. In the absence of overt clinical infection, it is unknown whether such results should prompt intervention with therapy.
    Investigative Ophthalmology &amp Visual Science 01/2008; 48(12):5616-23. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To determine the ocular surface bacteria in normal and dry eye subjects and investigate whether there was any association between the bacterial population and goblet cell density (GCD).Methods: Fifty-seven normal and 34 dry eye subjects were recruited. Conventional culture, 16S rDNA PCR and DNA sequencing were used to identify bacteria. The association between reduced GCD and bacterial numbers in a sub-group of 27 subjects was assessed. Conjunctival impression cytology samples were stained with PAS and GCD graded as follows: Grade (1), >30 goblet cells/4 high power fields; (2), 15-30 GC/4HPF; (3), 5-15 GC/4HPF; (4), <5 GC/4HPF. Grades 3 and 4 indicated reduced GCD.Results: The majority of cultured bacteria were coagulase-negative Staphylococci, while molecular methods demonstrated additional atypical bacterial species. Bacterial levels were higher overall in subjects displaying reduced GCD compared to normals. A statistically significant difference (P = 0.005) was noted between mean bacterial counts in IC Grade 4 samples of dry eye subjects (35 cfu/swab) and normals (5 cfu/swab).Conclusions: Molecular analysis revealed a diverse ocular surface bacterial population with identification of potentially pathogenic bacteria presenting a diagnostic dilemma. A trend of increasing bacterial numbers with reduced GCD was observed and studies are ongoing to investigate whether bacterial colonisation of the ocular surface may alter the number and function of goblet cells. The clinical relevance of such results and whether they should prompt intervention with therapy is not yet fully determined. A fuller definition of the normal ocular flora is needed to determine bacteria implicated in ocular surface disease.
    Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 10/2007; 85(s240):0 - 0. · 1.85 Impact Factor
  • Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica - ACTA OPHTHALMOL SCANDINAVICA. 01/2007; 85:0-0.
  • 01/2006;

Publication Stats

99 Citations
18.84 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2010
    • University of Ulster
      • School of Biomedical Sciences
      Aontroim, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 2009
    • Queen's University Belfast
      • School of Mathematics and Physics
      Belfast, NIR, United Kingdom