Wendy L Bennett

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (50)232.32 Total impact

  • Eva Tseng · Nae-Yuh Wang · Jeanne M. Clark · Lawrence J. Appel · Wendy L. Bennett ·
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    ABSTRACT: Primary care providers (PCPs) play an important role in identifying and counseling obese patients to lose weight, but it is unknown whether PCP referral of patients into a weight loss intervention is associated with greater weight loss. The objectives are to determine if PCP referral is associated with greater 1) weight loss, 2) end of study patient-provider relationship quality, and 3) satisfaction and participation rates in the intervention.
    11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pmedr.2015.11.002
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    ABSTRACT: Background Behavioural weight loss programs are effective first-line treatments for obesity and are recommended by the US Preventive Services Task Force. Gaining an understanding of intervention components that are found helpful by different demographic groups can improve tailoring of weight loss programs. This paper examined the perceived helpfulness of different weight loss program components.Methods Participants (n = 236) from the active intervention conditions of the Practice-based Opportunities for Weight Reduction (POWER) Hopkins Trial rated the helpfulness of 15 different components of a multicomponent behavioural weight loss program at 24-month follow-up. These ratings were examined in relation to demographic variables, treatment arm and weight loss success.ResultsThe components most frequently identified as helpful were individual telephone sessions (88%), tracking weight online (81%) and coach review of tracking (81%). The component least frequently rated as helpful was the primary care providers' general involvement (50%). Groups such as older adults, Blacks and those with lower education levels more frequently reported intervention components as helpful compared with their counterparts.DiscussionWeight loss coaching delivered telephonically with web support was well received. Findings support the use of remote behavioural interventions for a wide variety of individuals.
    09/2015; DOI:10.1002/osp4.6
  • Marian Jarlenski · Julia Baller · Sonya Borrero · Wendy L. Bennett ·
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    ABSTRACT: To examine time trends in disparities in low-income children's health insurance coverage and access to care by family immigration status. We used data from the National Survey of Children's Health in 2003 to 2011-2012, including 83,612 children aged 0 to 17 years with family incomes <200% of the federal poverty level. We examined 3 immigration status categories: citizen children with nonimmigrant parents; citizen children with immigrant parents; and immigrant children. We used multivariable regression analyses to obtain adjusted trends in health insurance coverage and access to care. All low-income children experienced gains in health insurance coverage and access to care from 2003 to 2011-2012, regardless of family immigration status. Relative to citizen children with nonimmigrant parents, citizen children with immigrant parents had a 5 percentage point greater increase in health insurance coverage (P = .06), a 9 percentage point greater increase in having a personal doctor or nurse (P < .01), and an 11 percentage point greater increase in having no unmet medical need (P < .01). Immigrant children had significantly lower health insurance coverage than other groups. However, the group had a 14 percentage point greater increase in having a personal doctor or nurse (P < .01) and a 26 percentage point greater increase in having no unmet medical need (P < .01) relative to citizen children with nonimmigrant parents. Some disparities in access to care related to family immigration status have lessened over time among children in low-income families, although large disparities still exist. Policy efforts are needed to ensure that children of immigrant parents and immigrant children are able to access health insurance and health care. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Academic pediatrics 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.acap.2015.07.008 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Women with pregnancy complications benefit from closer monitoring postpartum and beyond. Increased postpartum emergency room (ER) use may indicate unmet need for outpatient obstetrics and primary care. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether women with pregnancy complications (gestational diabetes [GDM], gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia) have increased ER use in the first 6 months postpartum, compared with women without these complications. We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using a 2003-2010 Maryland Medicaid managed care claims data set, linked with U.S. Census data. Data included claims for outpatient and ER visits for women aged 12-45 years who were continuously enrolled in Medicaid for at least 100 days of pregnancy and 90 days postpartum. We used logistic regression to calculate the association between pregnancy complications and having ≥1 ER visit in the 6 months postpartum. We identified 26,074 pregnancies, of which 20% were complicated by GDM, gestational hypertension, or preeclampsia. Of these complicated pregnancies, 42.1% had GDM, 35.4% had gestational hypertension, and 42.5% had preeclampsia (diagnoses were not mutually exclusive). In the 6 months postpartum, 25% of women had ≥1 ER visits. Of the complicated pregnancy group, 27.7% had ≥1 ER visit, versus 23.6% of the comparison group (p<0.0001). In adjusted analyses, women with a pregnancy complication were more likely to have ≥1 ER visit compared with women without these complications (odds ratio [OR]1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.23). The strength of association was highest in women under age 25 (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.09-1.33). Preconception medical comorbidities (type 2 diabetes, chronic hypertension, obesity, asthma, mental health, and substance abuse diagnoses) were also strongly associated with postpartum ER use (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.51-1.73). Pregnancy complications increased ER utilization during the 6 months postpartum, especially among women under age 25 years. Interventions that improve discharge planning and early postpartum care may decrease ER use.
    Journal of Women's Health 07/2015; 24(9). DOI:10.1089/jwh.2014.5125 · 2.05 Impact Factor
  • Wendy L Bennett · Lawrence J Appel ·

    Journal of General Internal Medicine 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11606-015-3471-7 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between the patient-provider relationship, satisfaction with primary care provider's (PCP) involvement and weight loss in a practice-based weight loss trial. POWER was a practice-based randomized controlled behavioral weight loss trial. Participants completed questionnaires about patient-provider relationship and satisfaction with their PCPs' involvement in the trial. PCPs completed a demographics and practice survey. The main outcome was the mean weight change from baseline to 24 months. We created mixed-effect models, accounting for the random effects of patients clustering with the PCP and the repeated outcome assessments within patient over time, and adjusted for randomization assignment, age, gender, race and clinical site. 347 (of 415) were included. Mean age was 54.8 years, mean BMI was 36.3kg/m(2). Participants reported high quality patient-provider relationships (mean summary score=29.1 [range 14-32]). Patient-provider relationship quality was not associated weight loss in either the intervention or control groups. Among intervention participants, higher ratings of the helpfulness of the PCPs' involvement was associated with greater weight loss (p=0.005). Patient-provider relationship quality was not associated with weight loss in a practice-based weight loss trial but rating PCPs as helpful in the intervention was associated with weight loss. Partnering with PCPs to deliver weight loss programs may promote greater participant satisfaction and weight loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Patient Education and Counseling 05/2015; 98(9). DOI:10.1016/j.pec.2015.05.006 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Affordable Care Act requires state Medicaid programs to cover pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation without cost sharing for pregnant women. Little is known about use of these pharmacotherapies among Medicaid-enrolled women. To describe the prevalence of prescription fills for smoking-cessation pharmacotherapies during pregnancy and postpartum among Medicaid-enrolled women and to examine whether certain pregnancy complications or copayments are associated with prescription fills. Insurance claims data for women enrolled in a Medicaid managed care plan in Maryland and who used tobacco during pregnancy from 2003 to 2010 were obtained (N=4,709) and analyzed in 2014. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate the prevalence of smoking-cessation pharmacotherapy use during pregnancy and postpartum. Generalized estimating equations were employed to examine the relationship of pregnancy complications and copayments with prescription fills of smoking-cessation pharmacotherapies during pregnancy and postpartum. Few women filled any prescription for a smoking-cessation pharmacotherapy during pregnancy or postpartum (2.6% and 2.0%, respectively). Having any smoking-related pregnancy complication was positively associated with filling a smoking-cessation pharmacotherapy prescription during pregnancy (OR=1.69, 95% CI=1.08, 2.65) but not postpartum. Copayments were associated with significantly decreased odds of filling any prescription for smoking-cessation pharmacotherapies in the postpartum period (OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.22, 0.66). Smoking-related pregnancy complications and substance use are predictive of filling a prescription for pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation during pregnancy. Low use of pharmacotherapies during pregnancy is consistent with clinical guidelines; however, low use postpartum suggests an unmet need for cessation aids in Medicaid populations. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    American journal of preventive medicine 05/2015; 48(5):528-34. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2014.10.019 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite emphasis of recent guidelines on multidisciplinary teams for collaborative weight management, little is known about non-physician health professionals' perspectives on obesity, their weight management training, and self-efficacy for obesity care. To evaluate differences in health professionals' perspectives on (1) the causes of obesity; (2) training in weight management; and (3) self-efficacy for providing obesity care. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional Internet-based survey of 500 U.S. health professionals from nutrition, nursing, behavioral/mental health, exercise, and pharmacy (collected from January 20 through February 5, 2014). Inferences were derived using logistic regression adjusting for age and education (analyzed in 2014). Nearly all non-physician health professionals, regardless of specialty, cited individual-level factors, such as overconsumption of food (97%), as important causes of obesity. Nutrition professionals were significantly more likely to report high-quality training in weight management (78%) than the other professionals (nursing, 53%; behavioral/mental health, 32%; exercise, 50%; pharmacy, 47%; p<0.05). Nutrition professionals were significantly more likely to report high confidence in helping obese patients achieve clinically significant weight loss (88%) than the other professionals (nursing, 61%; behavioral/mental health, 51%; exercise, 52%; pharmacy, 61%; p<0.05), and more likely to perceive success in helping patients with obesity achieve clinically significant weight loss (nutrition, 81%; nursing, behavioral/mental health, exercise, and pharmacy, all <50%; p<0.05). Nursing, behavioral/mental health, exercise, and pharmacy professionals may need additional training in weight management and obesity care to effectively participate in collaborative weight management models. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    American Journal of Preventive Medicine 02/2015; 48(4). DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2014.11.002 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective(1) To determine the nonphysician health profession perceived as best qualified to provide weight management. (2) To examine nutrition professionals' current practice characteristics and perceived challenges and solutions for obesity care. (3) To examine the association between nutrition professionals' quality of training and self-efficacy in weight management.MethodsA 2014 national cross-sectional online survey of 500 U.S. nonphysician health professionals (100 from each: nutrition, nursing, behavioral/mental health, exercise, pharmacy) was analyzed.ResultsNutrition professionals most commonly self-identified as the most qualified group to help patients lose weight (92%), sentiments supported by other health professionals (57%). The most often cited challenge was lack of patient adherence (87%). Among nutrition professionals, 77% reported receiving high-quality training in weight loss counseling. Nutrition professionals who reported high-quality training were significantly more likely to report confidence (95% vs. 48%) and success (74 vs. 50%) in helping obese patients lose weight (P < 0.05) than those reporting lower-quality training.Conclusions Across all nonphysician health professionals, nutrition professionals were identified as best suited to provide routine weight management counseling to obese patients. Yet nutrition professionals' receipt of high-quality weight management training appears critical to their success in helping patients lose weight.
    Obesity 11/2014; 23(2). DOI:10.1002/oby.20945 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of breastfeeding on maternal weight loss in the 12 months postpartum among U.S. women. Methods Using data from a national cohort of U.S. women conducted in 2005–2007 (N = 2102), we employed propensity scores to match women who breastfed exclusively and non-exclusive for at least three months to comparison women who had not breastfed or breastfed for less than three months. Outcomes included postpartum weight loss at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postpartum; and the probability of returning to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) category and the probability of returning to pre-pregnancy weight. Results Compared to women who did not breastfeed or breastfed non-exclusively, exclusive breastfeeding for at least 3 months resulted in 3.2 pounds (95% CI: 1.4,4.7) greater weight loss at 12 months postpartum, a 6.0-percentage-point increase (95% CI: 2.3,9.7) in the probability of returning to the same or lower BMI category postpartum; and a 6.1-percentage-point increase (95% CI: 1.0,11.3) in the probability of returning to pre-pregnancy weight or lower postpartum. Non-exclusive breastfeeding did not significantly affect any outcomes. Conclusion Our study provides evidence that exclusive breastfeeding for at least three months has a small effect on postpartum weight loss among U.S. women.
    Preventive Medicine 10/2014; 69. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.09.018 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Obese women are less likely to initiate and continue breastfeeding. We described barriers to breastfeeding and examined the association between support from a health professional and breastfeeding knowledge and practices, by prepregnancy obesity status. Methods: Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a cohort of U.S. women (N = 2,997), we performed descriptive statistics to describe barriers to breastfeeding by prepregnancy obesity status. We conducted multivariable regression to examine the association of breastfeeding support from a physician or nonphysician health professional with knowledge of the recommended duration of breastfeeding, breastfeeding initiation, and breastfeeding duration, and whether breastfeeding support had different associations with outcomes by prepregnancy obesity status. Average marginal effects were calculated from regression models to interpret results as percentage-point changes. Findings: Believing that formula was as good as breast milk was the most commonly cited reason for not initiating breastfeeding, and milk supply concerns were cited as reasons for not continuing breastfeeding. Physician breastfeeding support was associated with a 9.4 percentage-point increase (p < .05) in breastfeeding knowledge among obese women, although no increase was observed among nonobese women. Breastfeeding support from a physician or nonphysician health professional was associated with a significantly increased probability of breastfeeding initiation (8.5 and 12.5 percentage points, respectively) and breastfeeding for 6 months (12.5 and 8.4 percentage points, respectively), without differential associations by prepregnancy obesity. Conclusions: Support for exclusive breastfeeding is an important predictor of breastfeeding initiation and duration among obese and nonobese women. Health educational interventions tailored to obese women might improve their breastfeeding initiation and continuation.
    Women s Health Issues 09/2014; 24(6). DOI:10.1016/j.whi.2014.08.002 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Examine the impact of non-physician health professional body mass index (BMI) on obesity care, self-efficacy, and perceptions of patient trust in weight loss advice.MethodsA national cross-sectional internet-based survey of 500 US non-physician health professionals specializing in nutrition, nursing, behavioral/mental health, exercise, and pharmacy collected between January 20 and February 5, 2014 was analyzed.ResultsNormal BMI professionals were more likely than overweight/obese professionals to report success in helping patients achieve clinically significant weight loss (52% vs. 29%, P = 0.01). No differences by health professional BMI about the appropriate patient body weight for weight-related care (initiate weight loss discussions and success in helping patients lose weight), confidence in ability to help patients lose weight, or in perceived patient trust in their advice were observed. Most health professionals (71%) do not feel successful in helping patients lose weight until they are morbidly obese, regardless of BMI.Conclusions Normal BMI non-physician health professionals report being more successful than overweight and obese health professionals at helping obese patients lose weight. More research is needed to understand how to improve self-efficiency for delivering obesity care, particularly among overweight and class I obese patients.
    Obesity 09/2014; 22(12). DOI:10.1002/oby.20881 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the prevalence of doctor shopping resulting from differential treatment and to examine associations between this shopping and current primary care relationships. Methods: In 2012, a national internet-based survey of 600 adults receiving primary care in the past year with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) was conducted. Our independent variable was "switching doctors because I felt treated differently because of my weight." Logistic regression models to examine the association of prior doctor shopping with characteristics of current primary care relationships: duration, trust in primary care provider (PCP), and perceived PCP weight-related judgment, adjusted for patient factors were used. Results: Overall, 13% of adults with overweight/obesity reported previously doctor shopping resulting from differential treatment. Prior shoppers were more likely to report shorter durations of their current relationships [73% vs. 52%; p = 0.01] or perceive that their current PCP judged them because of their weight [74% vs. 11%; p < 0.01] than nonshoppers. No significant differences in reporting high trust in current PCPs were found. Conclusions: A subset of patients with overweight/obesity doctor shop resulting from perceived differential treatment. These prior negative experiences have no association with trust in current relationships, but our results suggest that patients may remain sensitive to provider weight bias.
    Obesity 09/2014; 22(9). DOI:10.1002/oby.20808 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is an important cause of poor maternal and infant health outcomes in the population eligible for Medicaid. These outcomes may be avoided or attenuated by timely, high-quality prenatal care. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System for the period 2004-10, we examined the effects of two optional state Medicaid enrollment policies on smoking cessation, preterm birth, and having an infant who was small for gestational age. We used a natural experiment to compare outcomes before and after nineteen states adopted either of the two policies. The first policy, presumptive eligibility, permits women to receive prenatal care while their Medicaid application is pending. Its adoption led to a 7.7-percentage-point increase in smoking cessation but did not reduce adverse birth outcomes. The second policy, the unborn-child option, permits states to provide coverage to pregnant women who cannot document their citizenship or residency. Its adoption was not significantly associated with any of the three outcomes. The presumptive-eligibility enrollment policy will continue to be an important tool for promoting timely prenatal care and smoking cessation.
    Health Affairs 06/2014; 33(6):997-1005. DOI:10.1377/hlthaff.2013.1167 · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pregnancy and childbirth are associated with hemodynamic changes and vascular remodeling. It is not known whether parity is associated with later adverse vascular properties such as larger arterial diameter, wall thickness, and lower distensibility. We used baseline data from 3283 women free of cardiovascular disease aged 45 to 84 years enrolled in the population-based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants self-reported parity status. Ultrasound-derived carotid artery lumen diameters and brachial artery blood pressures were measured at peak-systole and end-diastole. Common carotid intima-media thickness was also measured. Regression models to determine the association of carotid distensibility coefficient, lumen diameter, and carotid intima-media thickness with parity were adjusted for age, race, height, weight, diabetes mellitus, current smoking, blood pressure medication use, and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The prevalence of nulliparity was 18%. In adjusted models, carotid distensibility coefficient was 0.09×10(-5) Pa(-1) lower (P=0.009) in parous versus nulliparous women. Among parous women, there was a nonlinear association with the greatest carotid distensibility coefficient seen in women with 2 live births and significantly lower distensibility seen in primiparas (P=0.04) or with higher parity >2 (P=0.005). No such pattern of association with parity was found for lumen diameter or carotid intima-media thickness. Parity is associated with lower carotid artery distensibility, suggesting arterial remodeling that lasts beyond childbirth. These long-term effects on the vasculature may explain the association of parity with cardiovascular events later in life.
    Hypertension 05/2014; 64(2). DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.03285 · 6.48 Impact Factor
  • Kimberly A. Gudzune · Wendy L. Bennett · Lisa A. Cooper · Sara N. Bleich ·
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To examine the association between patient-perceived judgments about weight by primary care providers (PCP) and self-reported weight loss. Methods We conducted a national internet-based survey of 600 adults engaged in primary care with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 in 2012. Our weight loss outcomes included attempted weight loss and achieved ≥ 10% weight loss in the last 12 months. Our independent variable was “feeling judged about my weight by my PCP.” We created an interaction between perceiving judgment and PCP discussing weight loss as an independent variable. We conducted a multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for patient and PCP factors using survey weights. Results Overall, 21% perceived that their PCP judged them about their weight. Respondents who perceived judgment were significantly more likely to attempt weight loss [OR 4.67, 95%CI 1.96-11.14]. They were not more likely to achieve ≥ 10% weight loss [OR 0.87, 95%CI 0.42-1.76]. Among patients whose PCPs discussed weight loss, 20.1% achieved ≥ 10% weight loss if they did not perceive judgment by their PCP as compared to 13.5% who perceived judgment. Conclusions Weight loss discussions between patients and PCPs may lead to greater weight loss in relationships where patients do not perceive judgment about their weight.
    Preventive Medicine 05/2014; 62. DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.02.001 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Overweight early in life may contribute to cardiovascular disease mortality through progression to later life obesity or through a cumulative effect of excess weight. Few studies have investigated the relationship between body mass index (BMI) before middle age and cardiovascular disease mortality in women. Using the Child Health and Development Studies cohort of 11,006 pregnant women recruited between 1959 and 1967, we tested the hypothesis that higher self-reported pre-pregnancy BMI is associated with increased stroke and coronary heart disease mortality. Design and Methods Cause of death was assessed annually from enrollment through 2007 by linking with California Vital Status Records. We calculated Cox proportional hazards ratios for cause-specific mortality for each BMI category. Results Median follow-up was 37 years with 1,839 participant deaths at a mean age of 64.1 years. At higher levels of BMI, participants were older, had higher prevalence of co-morbid conditions, higher parity, and lower family income. In adjusted models, women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI had increased coronary heart disease mortality compared to those with normal BMI. Women who were underweight, overweight, or obese had higher all-cause mortality. Sensitivity analyses confirmed these results. Conclusions Pre-pregnancy BMI has a monotonic association with coronary heart disease mortality and a j-shaped association with non-cardiovascular mortality.
    Obesity 04/2014; 22(4). DOI:10.1002/oby.20633 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE We performed a systematic review to identify which genetic variants predict response to diabetes medications.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database) and a manual search to identify original, longitudinal studies of the effect of diabetes medications on incident diabetes, HbA(1c), fasting glucose, and postprandial glucose in prediabetes or type 2 diabetes by genetic variation. Two investigators reviewed titles, abstracts, and articles independently. Two investigators abstracted data sequentially and evaluated study quality independently. Quality evaluations were based on the Strengthening the Reporting of Genetic Association Studies guidelines and Human Genome Epidemiology Network guidance.RESULTSOf 7,279 citations, we included 34 articles (N = 10,407) evaluating metformin (n = 14), sulfonylureas (n = 4), repaglinide (n = 8), pioglitazone (n = 3), rosiglitazone (n = 4), and acarbose (n = 4). Studies were not standalone randomized controlled trials, and most evaluated patients with diabetes. Significant medication-gene interactions for glycemic outcomes included 1) metformin and the SLC22A1, SLC22A2, SLC47A1, PRKAB2, PRKAA2, PRKAA1, and STK11 loci; 2) sulfonylureas and the CYP2C9 and TCF7L2 loci; 3) repaglinide and the KCNJ11, SLC30A8, NEUROD1/BETA2, UCP2, and PAX4 loci; 4) pioglitazone and the PPARG2 and PTPRD loci; 5) rosiglitazone and the KCNQ1 and RBP4 loci; and 5) acarbose and the PPARA, HNF4A, LIPC, and PPARGC1A loci. Data were insufficient for meta-analysis.CONCLUSIONS We found evidence of pharmacogenetic interactions for metformin, sulfonylureas, repaglinide, thiazolidinediones, and acarbose consistent with their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. While high-quality controlled studies with prespecified analyses are still lacking, our results bring the promise of personalized medicine in diabetes one step closer to fruition.
    Diabetes care 03/2014; 37(3):876-86. DOI:10.2337/dc13-1276 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because pregnancy complications, including gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, are risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, post-delivery follow-up is recommended. To determine predictors of post-delivery primary and obstetric care utilization in women with and without medical complications. Five-year retrospective cohort study using commercial and Medicaid insurance claims in Maryland. 7,741 women with a complicated pregnancy (GDM, hypertensive disorders and pregestational diabetes mellitus [DM]) and 23,599 women with a comparison pregnancy. We compared primary and postpartum obstetric care utilization rates in the 12 months after delivery between the complicated and comparison pregnancy groups. We conducted multivariate logistic regression to assess the association between pregnancy complications, sociodemographic predictor variables and utilization of care, stratified by insurance type. Women with a complicated pregnancy were older at delivery (p < 0.001), with higher rates of cesarean delivery (p < 0.0001) and preterm labor or delivery (p < 0.0001). Among women with Medicaid, 56.6 % in the complicated group and 51.7 % in the comparison group attended a primary care visit. Statistically significant predictors of receiving a primary care visit included non-Black race, older age, preeclampsia or DM, and depression. Among women with commercial health insurance, 60.0 % in the complicated group and 49.5 % in the comparison group attended a primary care visit. Pregnancy complication did not predict a primary care visit among women with commercial insurance. Women with pregnancy complications were more likely to attend primary care visits post-delivery compared to the comparison group, but overall visit rates were low. Although Medicaid expansion has potential to increase coverage, innovative models for preventive health services after delivery are needed to target women at higher risk for chronic disease development.
    Journal of General Internal Medicine 01/2014; 29(4). DOI:10.1007/s11606-013-2744-2 · 3.42 Impact Factor
  • Marian P Jarlenski · Wendy L Bennett · Colleen L Barry · Sara N Bleich ·
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    ABSTRACT: The "Unborn Child" (UC) option provides state Medicaid/Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) programs with a new strategy to extend prenatal coverage to low-income women who would otherwise have difficulty enrolling in or would be ineligible for Medicaid. To examine the association of the UC option with the probability of enrollment in Medicaid/CHIP during pregnancy and probability of receiving adequate prenatal care. We use pooled cross-sectional data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System from 32 states between 2004 and 2010 (n=81,983). Multivariable regression is employed to examine the association of the UC option with Medicaid/CHIP enrollment during pregnancy among eligible women who were uninsured preconception (n=45,082) and those who had insurance (but not Medicaid) preconception (n=36,901). Multivariable regression is also employed to assess the association between the UC option and receipt of adequate prenatal care, measured by the Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index. Residing in a state with the UC option is associated with a greater probability of Medicaid enrollment during pregnancy relative to residing in a state without the policy both among women uninsured preconception (88% vs. 77%, P<0.01) and among women insured (but not in Medicaid) preconception (40% vs. 31%, P<0.01). Residing in a state with the UC option is not significantly associated with receiving adequate prenatal care, among both women with and without insurance preconception. The UC option provides states a key way to expand or simplify prenatal insurance coverage, but further policy efforts are needed to ensure that coverage improves access to high-quality prenatal care.
    Medical care 01/2014; 52(1):10-9. DOI:10.1097/MLR.0000000000000020 · 3.23 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

678 Citations
232.32 Total Impact Points


  • 2012-2015
    • Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
      • • Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health
      • • Department of Health Policy and Management
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2009-2015
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2012-2014
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States