Soo Jin Lee

Konyang University Hospital, Gaigeturi, Jeju, South Korea

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Publications (90)284.53 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Serotonin PET after destruction of dopaminergic system.
    Applied Radiation and Isotopes 12/2014; 94:30–34. · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To identify the gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR and the 18 F-fludeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT findings associated with microvascular invasion (MVI) of hepa-tocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients who are under-going liver transplantation (LT). Methods: Fifty-one patients with 78 HCCs underwent LT. Preoperative MRI and 18 F-FDG PET/CT findings were retrospectively analyzed and the association of the imaging findings with MVI was assessed. Results: Univariate analysis revealed that hypointensity seen on T1WI (OR = 4.329, p = 0.011), peritumoral enhancement (OR = 7.000, p = 0.008), inhomogeneity on arterial phase (OR = 4.321, p = 0.011), delayed phase (OR = 4.519, p = 0.009) or hepatobiliary phase (OR = 3.564, p = 0.032), and the large tumor size (>5 cm) (OR = 12.091, p = 0.001) showed statistically significant associations with MVI. The ratio of tumor maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) to normal liver mean SUV (T SUVmax /L SUVmean) (2.05 ± 1.43 vs. 1.08 ± 0.37) revealed significantly higher value in the MVI-positive group. Multivariate analysis revealed that peritumoral enhancement and a T SUVmax /L SUVmean of 1.2 or greater had a statistically significant association with MVI, with odds ratios of 10.648 (p = 0.016) and 14.218 (p = 0.001), respectively. Conclusions: Preoperative imaging findings such as peritumoral enhancement seen on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR and a T SUVmax /L SUVmean of 1.2 or more on 18 F-FDG PET/CT, may suggest the presence of MVI in HCC patients.
    Abdominal Imaging 09/2014; · 1.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our study aimed to assess the longitudinal association of frequency of contact with non-cohabitating adult children and risk of depression in the elderly. Elderly aged ≥60 years were included from Living Profiles of Older People Survey (LPOPS) in Korea. The baseline assessment, Wave 1, was conducted in 2008, and follow-up assessment, Wave 2, was conducted in 2011. We included participants who completed both waves and excluded those who met the following criteria: no adult children, living with adult children, cognitive impairment at either waves, and depression at baseline (n = 4398). We defined infrequent contact as <1 time per month face-to-face contact or <1 time per week phone contact and classified participants into four groups based on contact method and frequency. Depression was measured using the 15-item geriatric depression scales (SGDS-K). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, infrequent face-to-face and phone contact group had adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.86 (95% CI, 1.44–2.42) when compared with frequent face-to-face and phone contact group. Frequent face-to-face contact with infrequent phone contact group and infrequent face-to-face contact with frequent phone contact group had adjusted OR of 1.49 (95% CI, 1.12–1.98) and 1.44 (95% CI, 1.15–1.80), respectively, when compared with frequent face-to-face and phone contact group. These results propose that the risk of subsequent depression in elderly is associated with frequency of contact with non-cohabitating adult children. Moreover, the efficacy of face-to-face contact and that of phone contact were similar, while the group lacking both types of contact demonstrated the highest risk of depression.
    Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 09/2014; · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: House dust mite (HDM) is a primary allergen in allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma. Neutrophil apoptosis is associated with allergic diseases and innate immunity to infection. The present study examined how HDM affects constitutive neutrophil apoptosis in normal and AR subjects. Total IgE increased in AR subjects when compared to normal subjects, and patients with AR were HDM-specific IgE positive (+), which is specific IgE to Dermatophagoides pteronissinus and Dermatophagoides farinae. In normal and AR subjects, neutrophil apoptosis was inhibited by extract of Dermatophagoides pteronissinus (DP), but not by extract of Dermatophagoides farina (DF). Aprotinin (serine protease inhibitor) and E64 (cysteine protease inhibitor) have no effect on neutrophil apoptosis due to DP. The anti-apoptotic effect of DP was blocked by TLR4i, an inhibitor of TLR4, rottlerin, an inhibitor of PKCδ, PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK, and BAY-11-7085, an inhibitor of NF-κB. DP induced PKCδ, ERK, and NF-κB activation in a time-dependent manner. DP inhibited the cleavage of procaspase 3 and procaspase 9. The expression of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, G-CSF, GM-CSF, and CCL2 increased in the supernatant collected from the normal and AR neutrophils after DP treatment and the supernatant inhibited the apoptosis of normal and AR neutrophils. In summary, DP has anti-apoptotic effects on neutrophils of normal and AR subjects through the TLR4/PKCδ/ERK/NF-κB pathway, and this finding may contribute to solution of the pathogenic mechanism of allergic diseases triggered by DP.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e105814. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived sleep quality and depression using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Cole's model to materialize the concept of perceived sleep quality in the non-cognitively impaired elderly. Older adults aged 60+ were recruited from the baseline study of Suwon Project between 2009 and 2011 (n = 2,040). Perceived sleep quality was measured using the Korean version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-K), and depression was accessed using the Korean version of the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (SGDS-K). We excluded the cognitively impaired elderly using the Korean version-Mini Mental Status Examination (K-MMSE) score less than or equal to 17. In multivariable adjusted logistic regression related to PSQI-K components, poor perceived sleep quality, including poor subjective sleep quality (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01-1.61), longer sleep latency (OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.13-1.55) and the frequent use of sleeping medication (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.10-1.53) were significantly associated with depression after adjusting for age, sex, education, living status, current smoking and current alcohol drinking, the number of comorbidity and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). PSQI-K global score also had greater odds of reporting depression (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.07-1.16). These results suggested that poor perceived sleep quality was associated with a greater level of depression in the elderly.
    Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 09/2014; · 1.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of present study was to examine biological and psychological characteristics of people according to the Sasang typology, which is popular in Korea. We evaluated the Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) as a measure of temperament, and Body Mass Index (BMI) as a measure of the somatic properties of each Sasang type.
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 08/2014; 14(1):315. · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • Doo Won Lee, Min Sik Min, Soo Jin Lee, Jae Young Jho, Dong Min Kim, Kyehan Rhee
    Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering. 07/2014; 31(7):643-649.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The new modality of an integrated positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) has recently been introduced but not validated. Our objective was to evaluate clinical performance of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/MRI in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods This retrospective study was conducted between January 2013 and February 2013. Ten patients (eight men, two women; mean age, 61.4 ± 13.4 years) with histologically proven head and neck tumors were enrolled. Whole-body PET/MRI and regional positron emission tomography (PET) with dedicated MRI were sequentially obtained. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), SUVmean, metabolic tumor volume, total lesion glycolysis and contrast enhancement were analyzed. A total of ten whole-body positron emission tomography (PET), ten regional positron emission tomography (PET), ten dedicated MRI and ten regional PET/gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted (Gd)-MRI images were analyzed for initial staging. Two nuclear medicine physicians analyzed positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/MRI with a consensus. One radiologist analyzed dedicated MRI. The primary lesions and number of metastatic lymph nodes analyzed from each image were compared. Results Eight patients were diagnosed with head and neck cancer (one tongue cancer, four tonsillar cancers, one nasopharyngeal cancer and two hypopharyngeal cancers) by histological diagnosis. Two benign tumors (pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin tumor) were diagnosed with surgical operation. Whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) and regional positron emission tomography (PET) attenuated by MRI showed good image quality for the lesion detection. Whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) and regional positron emission tomography (PET) detected ten primary sites and compensated for a missed lesion on dedicated MRI. A discordant number of suspicious lymph node metastases was noted according to the different images; 22, 16, 39 and 40 in the whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) only, dedicated MR, regional positron emission tomography (PET) only and regional PET/Gd-MRI, respectively. There was no distant metastasis based on analysis of whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) and whole-body PET/Dixon-volume interpolated breathhold examination (VIBE) MRI. Regional PET/Gd-MRI combined with whole-body PET/MRI modified staging in three patients. Lesions of primary tumor and suspicious metastasis were well detected on both value of SUVmax and visual analysis. The regional PET/Gd-MRI combined with whole-body PET/MRI showed convenient clinical staging performance compared with positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI alone. Conclusion In this preliminary study, PET attenuated by MRI showed good image quality to detect lesions. And whole-body PET/MRI as a single modality was feasible for staging in a clinical setting. Whole-body positron emission tomography (PET), regional positron emission tomography (PET), dedicated MRI and regional PET/Gd-MRI showed discordant results in lesion detection. These discordant results might be synergistic effect for accurate staging.
    Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To determine overall handgrip strength (HGS), we assessed the short-term change of HGS after trigger point injection (TPI) in women with muscular pain in the upper extremities by comparison with established pain scales.
    Annals of rehabilitation medicine. 04/2014; 38(2):241-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Identifying key mediators of cancer invasion and metastasis is crucial to the development of new and more effective therapies. We previously identified Filamin A interacting protein 1-like (FILIP1L) as an important inhibitor of cell migration and invasion. FILIP1L expression was inversely correlated with the invasive potential of ovarian tumors. In our present study, we established an orthotopic ovarian cancer model, wherein FILIP1L expression can be regulated in vivo. Using this model, we observed that expression of FILIP1L in ovarian cancer cells inhibited spontaneous lung metastasis. Experimental lung metastases (established via tail vein injection of cancer cells) as well as the extravasation step of metastasis were not inhibited by FILIP1L, suggesting that FILIP1L inhibits the earlier steps of metastasis such as invasion and intravasation. FILIP1L inhibited matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-dependent invasion in vivo. MMP3, -7 and -9 were transcriptionally down-regulated, and MMP9 protein expression and activity were inhibited in FILIP1L-expressing tumors. Importantly, overexpression of MMP9 compensated for the anti-invasive activity of FILIP1L. Furthermore, our studies suggest that FILIP1L regulates invasion and metastasis by inhibiting components of the WNT signaling pathway. FILIP1L expression reduced the induction of WNT target genes such as MMP3, -7 and -9, and β-catenin-directed transcriptional activity, suggesting inhibition of the canonical WNT pathway. Nuclear β-catenin, an indicator of an active canonical WNT pathway, was reduced in FILIP1L-expressing tumors. Overall, these findings suggest that FILIP1L reduces β-catenin levels, which may lead to the transcriptional down-regulation of WNT target genes such as MMPs, resulting in inhibition of metastasis. Modulation of FILIP1L expression has the potential to be a target for cancer therapy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 12/2013; · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [This corrects the article on p. e82620 in vol. 8.].
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12). · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Lymph node (LN) characterization is crucial in determining the stage and treatment decisions in patient with lung cancer. Although 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) has a higher diagnostic accuracy in LN characterization than anatomical imaging, differentiating between metastatic and inflammatory LNs is still challenging because both could show high 18F-FDG uptake. The purpose of this study was to assess if the heterogeneity of the 18F-FDG uptake could help in differentiating between inflammatory and metastatic LNs in lung cancer, and to compare with other parameters. Methods A total of 44 patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung, who underwent preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT without having any previous treatments and were revealed to have 18FFDG- avid LNs, were enrolled. There were 52 pathologyproven metastatic lymph nodes in 26 subjects. The pathologyproven metastatic LNs were compared with 42 pathologyproven inflammatory/benign LNs in 18 subjects. The coefficient of variation (CV) was used to assess the heterogeneity of 18F-FDG uptake by dividing the standard deviation of standardized uptake value (SUV) by mean SUV. The volume of interest was manually drawn based on the combined CT images of 18FFDG PET/CT (no threshold is used). Comparisons were made with the maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax), visual assessment of 18F-FDG uptake, longest diameter, and maximum Hounsfield units (HUmax). Results Metastatic lymph nodes tended to have higher CVs than the inflammatory LNs. The mean CVof metastatic LNs (0.30±0.08; range: 0.08–0.55) was higher than that of inflammatory LNs (0.17+0.06; range, 0.07–0.32; P<0.0001). On receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the area under curve was 0.901, and using 0.20 as cut-off value, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy were 88.5 %, 76.2 %, 82.2 %, 84.3, and 83.0 % respectively. Accuracy of CV was slightly higher than SUVmax and diameter, but significantly higher than visual assessment and HUmax. Conclusions In patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung having no prior treatments, metastatic LNs showed more heterogeneous 18F-FDG uptake than inflammatory LNs.Measuring the CVof the SUV derived from a manual volume of interest (VOI) can be helpful in determining metastatic LN of adenocarcinoma of the lung. Including diagnostic criteria of CV into the diagnostic approach can increase the accuracy of mediastinal node status.
    Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 12/2013; 47(4):232-241.
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify the importance of goodness of fit in mother-child temperamental interaction (MCTI) and the child problem behaviors. Methods The behavior problem of 180 child outpatients from traditional Korean medical clinic was measured with Korean version of Child Behavior Checklists, and the temperament of child and their mother was measured with Junior Temperament and Character Inventory and Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised-Short. The MCTI was calculated as the difference of the temperament score between mother and child. The correlation and linear regression analysis was performed to examine the effects of temperament on Child Behavior Checklists. Results The MCTI on Harm-Avoidance was the significant factor for explaining the internalizing problem (B=-.154, t=-10.130, p
    The Journal of Korean Oriental Pediatrics. 05/2013; 27(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The aim of this study was to explore the effect of parental attitude on the behavioral problems in children who visited the traditional Korean pediatrics clinic. Methods The subjects were consist of 190 outpatients ( months) and their mother. The Behavior problems of children were measured with Korean version of Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5 (K-CBCL1.5-5) while parental perception of child vulnerability, parent overprotection, parenting stress were measured by Child Vulnerability Scale (CVS), Parent Protection Scale (PPS), Korean-Parenting Stress Index-Short Form scale (K-PSI-SF), respectively. Correlation and multiple regression were conducted for the analysis. Results Significant correlations between child total problems score and child vulnerability (r=.272, p
    The Journal of Korean Oriental Pediatrics. 05/2013; 27(2).
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    ABSTRACT: This study was initiated to determine whether the protective effect of nicotinamide (NAM) on high glucose/palmitate (HG/PA)-induced INS-1 beta cell death was due to its role as an anti-oxidant, nicotinamide dinucleotide (NAD+) precursor, or inhibitor of NAD+-consuming enzymes such as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) or sirtuins. All anti-oxidants tested were not protective against HG/PA-induced INS-1 cell death. Direct supplementation of NAD+ or indirect supplementation through NAD+ salvage or de novo pathway did not protect the death. Knockdown of the NAD+ salvage pathway enzymes such as nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT) or nicotinamide mononucleotide adenyltransferase (NMNAT) did not augment death. On the other hand, pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of PARP did not affect death. However, sirtinol as an inhibitor of NAD-dependant deacetylase or knockdown of SIRT3 or SIRT4 significantly reduced the HG/PA-induced death. These data suggest that protective effect of NAM on beta cell glucolipotoxicity is attributed to its inhibitory activity on sirtuins.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 04/2013; · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives The goal of the present study was to elucidate the characteristics of behavior problems in Sasang typology with child patients. Methods Subjects consisted of 176 (95 boys, 81 girls) children from 36 months to 83 months were diagnosed by two clinical experts in pediatrics and Sasang medicine. There were 22 So-Yang types, 141 Tae-Eum types, and 13 So-Eum types. The behavior problems were measured with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and ANOVA (analysis of variance) was used for the analysis. Results There were no significant differences between Sasang types among subject's age (F(2, 173)=.190, p=.827) and sex ((2, N=176)=1.639, p=.441) as well as their mother's age (F(2, 169)=.060, p=.942) and education level ((4, N=172)=.394, p=.983) and their father's age (F(2, 168)=1.184, p=.309) and education level ((4, N=172)=5.664, p=.226). So-Yang types (; ) had higher scores than Tae-Eum types (; ) in total problems and internalizing problems score of the CBCL, respectively. More specifically, So-Yang types (; ) had significantly higher depression/anxiety and somatization subscale score than Tae-Eum types (; ). Scores of So-Yang types were significantly higher than those of CBCL clinical group in depression/anxiety and somatization subscales. Conclusions There were significant differences between child outpatients with different Sasang types, which would be taken into consideration concerning development of Sasang type diagnosis in addition to parenting, treatment, and prevention for children.
    The Journal of Korean Oriental Pediatrics. 02/2013; 27(1).
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    Soo Jin Lee, Geunwoong Noh, Jae Ho Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Specific oral immunotherapy (SOIT) using interferon-γ (IFN-γ) has been successful as a food allergy treatment. Interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing regulatory B cells (Br1s) play a role in immune tolerance to food allergens. In addition, IFN-γ shows tolerogenic effects on allergen-induced Br1 responses. Eleven patients that were allergic to cow's milk and 12 milk-tolerant subjects were selected by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) and clinical characteristics. The immunomodulatory effects of IFN-γ on allergen-specific Br1 responses were evaluated in 6 milk allergy patients and 8 milk-tolerant subjects. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from subjects were stimulated with casein and/or IFN-γ and analyzed by flow cytometry. IFN-γ had no effect on total cell counts or the proportion of Br1 cells in PBMCs. IFN-γ stimulation did not change total Br1 cell counts or the percentage of Br1s among CD5(+) B cells in the milk allergy or the milk-tolerant groups. In the milk allergy group, Br1 counts were not different between the control and the casein stimulation but significantly increased in the IFN-γ + casein stimulated cells, and the Br1 fractions were decreased after casein stimulation and recovered in the addition of IFN-γ for stimulation. In the milk-tolerant group, Br1 counts increased in the casein stimulated cells and in the IFN-γ + casein stimulated cells, but the increase was significantly less when IFN-γ was added, and the Br1 fractions were increased after casein stimulation and IFN-γ + casein stimulation, that was not significant when IFN-γ was added. IFN-γ-induced allergen-specific Br1 responses in the PBMCs of milk allergy patients play a role in milk allergen-specific tolerance induction in vitro. Further investigations into the molecular immunological mechanisms underlying the induction of allergen-specific Br1 responses are needed.
    Allergy, asthma & immunology research 01/2013; 5(1):48-54. · 3.08 Impact Factor
  • Soo Jin Lee, Jaehong Shin
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, we describe a participating student’s (Carol’s) distributive partitioning scheme and operations along with Steffe’s and his colleagues’ studies about children’s constructions of fraction knowledge as a particular model of mathematical learning. Analysis of Carol’s mathematical behaviors indicates that an operationally common mathematical behavior (distributive partitioning operation) was revealed in various mathematical problem situations such as fraction multiplication, fraction division, and multiplicative transformation between fractional quantities. It both provides a rationale for why becoming versed in one mathematical subject could facilitate working with another mathematical subject and also implies the necessity of describing and defining students’ mathematical behaviors from an operational view of knowledge, which might lead to building foundations of a substantial cognitive map for students’ mathematical development.
    International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education 01/2013; · 0.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A multistep self-assembly process produced one-dimensional nanostructures that consisted of a monolayer membrane functionalized with a ligand that acted as a coordination site for an anticancer Pt complex. Control of the mode of the networks of intermolecular hydrogen bonds within the monolayer membrane of the nanostructures completely determined the morphologies of the one-dimensional nanostructures to be nanotapes having widths of 20–40 nm and nanotubes having widths of 16 nm (8 nm inner diameter and 4 nm membrane thickness). Various spectroscopic measurements and microscopic observations revealed that the ligand in a nanotape was located on the surface, whereas the ligand in a nanotube was selectively located on the inner surface of the nanochannel. We calculated the stability constants of the nanotape and nanotube with an anticancer Pt complex to be 107.81 and 106.53, respectively. The nanotape and nanotube were able to not only stably coordinate the anticancer Pt complex in Milli-Q water but also release it in phosphate-buffered saline through a ligand exchange reaction. With respect to sustainable, slow release of the drug, the nanotube, which has a nanochannel to store the drug, was superior to the nanotape.
    J. Mater. Chem. B. 12/2012; 1(3):276-283.
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    Soo Jin Lee, Soo Hyun Park, Han Chae
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    ABSTRACT: Background Sasang typology is a personalized traditional medicine widely used in clinical diagnosis and treatment in Korea. The aim of this study was to examine the biopsychological personality profiles of traditional Korean Sasang typology in a clinical sample of Korean children.MethodsA total of 150 children were classified as one of three traditional Korean Sasang types (19 So-Yang, 118 Tae-Eum, and 13 So-Eum) by two clinical experts in Sasang typology. The childrens’ mothers completed the Korean version of the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI). The four temperament dimensions of JTCI were compared between the different Sasang types using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and profile analysis.ResultsThere were no significant differences in age, gender, and parents’ education levels across the Sasang types. The JTCI temperament profile for each of the child Sasang types was significantly different (profile analysis, df = 5.315, F = 2.508, p = 0.027). There were significant differences in novelty-seeking (F = 3.850, p = 0.023) and novelty-seeking subscales, but not with other temperament dimensions.Conclusion These results demonstrated distinct temperament traits associated with traditional Korean Sasang types in children using an objective biopsychological personality inventory. With further investigation into the biopsychological profiles of the children, the longitudinal stability of the Sasang typology can be examined.
    Integrative Medicine Research. 12/2012; 1(1):21–25.

Publication Stats

778 Citations
284.53 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Konyang University Hospital
      Gaigeturi, Jeju, South Korea
  • 2013–2014
    • Ajou University
      • Institute for Medical Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea National University of Education
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012–2014
    • Eulji University
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea
    • National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology
      • Nanotube Research Center
      Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
    • Kyungil University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology
      • School of Nano-Bioscience and Chemical Engineering
      Urusan, Ulsan, South Korea
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering (AMSE)
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Myongji University
      • Department of Mechanical Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2007–2014
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • • Surgery
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Chungnam National University
      • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Seongnam, Gyeonggi, South Korea
  • 2004–2014
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • Department of Nuclear Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011–2013
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      • Department of Surgery
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Kyung Hee University
      • College of Oriental Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2006–2011
    • Sangji University
      • College of Oriental Medicine
      Genshū, Gangwon, South Korea
    • Dong-Eui University
      • College of Oriental Medicine
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 2005–2011
    • Gyeongsang National University
      • Department of Chemistry and Research Institute of Natural Sciences
      Shinshū, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • Konkuk University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2001–2011
    • Korea Aerospace Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010
    • Sogang University
      • Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009
    • Yonsei University
      • Department of Psychology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Ewha Womans University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003
    • Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University
      Тояма, Toyama, Japan