[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical and experimental data support a role for the intact cortex in recovery of function after stroke, particularly ipsilesional areas interconnected to the infarct. There is, however, little understanding of molecular events in the intact cortex, as most studies focus on the infarct and peri-infarct regions. This study investigated neuronal immunoreactivity for hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in remote cortical areas 3 days after a focal ischemic infarct, as both HIF-1α and VEGFR-2 have been implicated in peri-infarct neuroprotection. For this study, intracortical microstimulation techniques defined primary motor (M1) and premotor areas in squirrel monkeys (genus Saimiri). An infarct was induced in the M1 hand representation, and immunohistochemical techniques identified neurons, HIF-1α and VEGFR-2. Stereologic techniques quantified the total neuronal populations and the neurons immunoreactive for HIF-1α or VEGFR-2. The results indicate that HIF-1α upregulation is confined to the infarct and peri-infarct regions. Increases in VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity occurred; however, in two remote regions: the ventral premotor hand representation and the M1 hindlimb representation. Neurons in these representations were previously shown to undergo significant increases in VEGF protein immunoreactivity, and comparison of the two data sets showed a significant correlation between levels of VEGF and VEGFR-2 immunoreactivity. Thus, while remote areas undergo a molecular response to the infarct, we hypothesize that there is a delay in the initiation of the response, which ultimately may increase the ‘window of opportunity’ for neuroprotective interventions in the intact cortex.Keywords: VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), HIF-1α (hypoxia inducible factor-1α), stroke, neuron, stereology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE/AIM
Knowledge of the normal, abnormal and variant pelvic vascular anatomy is paramount for understanding vascular interventional procedures, particularly with regard to uterine fibroid embolization. The purpose of the web based cross-sectional atlas of pelvic and lower limb anatomy is to provide a quick and free online reference.
The web based atlas will consist of a series of selected CT, MR and conventional angiographic images of normal, abnormal and variant anatomy, navigated in a scrollable fashion, with enabled mouse and cursor label cross referencing. Dynamic and real time cross referencing of images between different imaging planes will allow for better correlation and understanding of anatomy. Embedded web links will also direct users to electronic literature and to selected cases within the RSNA MIRC database.
Physicians and physicians-in-training participating in interventional radiology would be able to access the web based atlas to gain a better understanding of anatomy behind common vascular interventions in cases involving pelvic trauma, and uterine fibroid embolization. The atlas will provide users an option to search for various anatomic structures by name; the search term will also query our database consisting of high yield information and labeled images associated with each search term.
Radiological Society of North America 2009 Scientific Assembly and Annual Meeting;