Jong-Hyun Lee

Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (6)8.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background and objectives: Saengmaeksan (SMS) is a Korean herbal prescription consisting of three different herbal drugs: Liriopis Tuber (tuber of Liriope platyphylla, Liliaceae), Ginseng Radix (root of Panax ginseng) and Schisandrae Fructus (fruit of Schisandra chinensis). SMS is commonly used in Korea to treat various diseases that involve the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. However, to date, the mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of SMS is not clearly understood. In this study, we attempt to determine the effects of SMS on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Methods: Cell viability was measured by using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured by using Griess reagent. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 levels secreted by the cells were measured using a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), respectively was investigated using a western blot analysis. A caspase colorimetric assay kit was used to assay enzymatic caspase-1 activity. Results: The findings of this study showed that SMS reduced TNF-α and IL-6 production induced by LPS. During the inflammatory process, COX-2 and NO levels were increased in mouse peritoneal macrophages, but SMS decreased the enhanced levels of COX-2 and the production of NO. In addition, SMS suppressed the activation of NF-κB and receptor interacting protein-2/caspase-1. Discussion and conclusion: Our results provide novel insights into the pharmacological actions of SMS, a molecule that can potentially be exploited in the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
    Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology 01/2013; · 1.36 Impact Factor
  • Jong-Sik Jin, Jong-Hyun Lee, Masao Hattori
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    ABSTRACT: Phytoestrogens are defined as plant-derived compounds with estrogen-like activities according to their chemical structures and activities. Plant lignans are generally categorized as phytoestrogens. It was reported that (-)-arctigenin, the aglycone of arctiin, was demethylated to (-)-dihydroxyenterolactone (DHENL) by Eubacterium (E.) sp. ARC-2. Through stepwise demethylation, E. sp. ARC-2 produced six intermediates, three mono-desmethylarctigenins and three di-desmethylarctigenins. In the present study, ligand binding affinities of (-)-arctigenin and its seven metabolites, including DHENL, were investigated for an estrogen receptor alpha, and found that demethylated metabolites had stronger binding affinities than (-)-arctigenin using a ligand binding screen assay method. The IC(50) value of (2R,3R)-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-3-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl)-butyrolactone was 7.9 × 10-4 M.
    Molecules 01/2013; 18(1):1122-7. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using mouse peritoneal macrophages, we have examined the mechanism by which Leonurus sibiricus (LS) regulates nitric oxide (NO) production. When LS was used in combination with recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma), there was a marked cooperative induction of NO production; however, LS by itself had no effect on NO production. The increased production of NO from rIFN-gamma plus LS-stimulated cells was almost completely inhibited by pretreatment with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an inhibitor of nuclear factor kappaB. Furthermore, treatment of peritoneal macrophages with rIFN-gamma plus LS caused a significant increase in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production. PDTC also decreased the effect of LS on TNF-alpha production significantly. Because NO and TNF-alpha play an important role in immune function and host defense, LS treatment could modulate several aspects of host defense mechanisms as a result of stimulation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase.
    Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 11/2008; 86(10):682-90. · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nicotine is a major pharmacologically active component of cigarette smoke. Excessive cigarette smoking is harmful to lung. Sejin-Eum (SJE) I is composed of various Oriental medicines, and SJE II is SJE I plus seeds of Avena sativa (Gramineae) that reduces the craving for cigarette in man. In this study, we have examined whether an aqueous extract of SJE I/II inhibits nicotine- or cigarette extract (CE)-induced cytotoxicity in human embryonic lung fibroblast, MRC-9. Assessment of cell viability using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide colorimetric assay indicated that SJE I/II (500 and 1000 microg/ml) not only inhibited nicotine-induced cytotoxicity but also had significantly proliferous effect on MRC-9. However, SJE I/II had little effect on inhibition of CE-induced cytotoxicity. These results suggest the possibility that the use of SJE I/II may be useful for improvement of many symptoms by nicotine.
    Journal of Ethnopharmacology 06/2003; 86(1):15-20. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    Jun-Ho Lee, Jong-Hyun Lee, Jong-Sik Jin
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    ABSTRACT: Traditional medicine has been used for a very long time, but scientific evidence regarding the therapeutic properties of traditional medicine has recently been required. Many components of herbs have been isolated, and their biological activities, evaluated. However, many of these herbs need to be biotransformed by bacteria in the large intestine in order to be biologically activated. The presence or absence of metabolically active bacteria in the large intestine is therefore important for biological activation. Inter-individual differences exist in the composition of human intestinal bacteria; biotransformation of traditional medicine outside the human body by using bacterial strains such as lactic acid bacteria (which are considered safe) has been used in an attempt to overcome such differences. This process yields what is referred to as fermented traditional medicine (FTM). FTMs have garnered attention for their enhanced biological activity compared to traditional medicine. Several studies using single herbs and formula support the availability of FTMs. However, the concrete concept of FTM is not yet established, and further discussions regarding the bacterial strains that have been used during fermentation and their safety are necessary. This report provides a general review and discussion of FTM with a view to promote better usage and safety in the future.
    Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine 12(3).
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    Jong-Sik Jin, Jong-Hyun Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Siraitia grosvenorii, an herbaceous perennial vine, is native to Southern China and Northern Thailand. This species is well known for its fruit, which is commonly called “luo han guo” or “luo han kuo” in Chinese; “la han qua” in Vietnamese; or arhat, Buddha, or monk fruit in English. Phytochemical research has shown that the fruit of this species is rich in triterpene glycosides that are very sweet, low in calories, and may be used as a substitute for sugar. In addition, many compounds have been isolated from the vines and leaves of S. grosvenorii, including β-amyrin, aloe emodin, aloe-emodin acetate, 5α,8α-epidioxy-24(R)-methylcholesta-6,22-dien-3β-ol, p-hydroxyl benzyl acid, n-hexadecaoic acid, 12-methyltetradecanoic acid, β-sitosterol, and daucosterol. Moreover, a new flavandiol, siraitiflavandiol, has been obtained from ripe S. grosvenorii fruit, while 2 kaempferol glycosides have been isolated from the unripe fruit. Pharmacological results have also shown that S. grosvenorii extracts and purified mogrosides exhibit antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, antibacterial, antioxidant, and antiallergic effects. Overall, S. grosvenorii could potentially serve as an important source of pharmaceutical and sweetener compounds for a wide range of food products.
    Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine 12(4).