[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes from HLA-matched donors are effective for treatment and prophylaxis of viral infections in immune-compromised recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Adoptive immune reconstitution is based on selection of specific T cells or on generation of specific T-cell lines from the graft donor. Unfortunately, the graft donor is not always immune to the relevant pathogen or the graft donor may not be available (registry-derived or cord blood donors).Study Design and Methods
Since the possibility of using T cells from a third-party subject is now established, we screened potential donors for T-cell responses against cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and adenovirus, the viruses most frequently targeted by adoptive immune reconstitution. Specific T-cell responses against viral antigens were analyzed in 111 donors using a miniaturized interferon-γ release assay.ResultsResponders to CMV were 64%, to EBV 40%, and to adenovirus 51%. Simultaneous responders to the three viruses were 49%. CMV-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell lines could be generated from 11 of 12 donors defined as positive responders according to the T-cell assay.Conclusions
These data demonstrate that a large fraction of volunteers can be recruited in a donor registry for selection or expansion of virus specific T cells and that our T-cell assay predicts the donors' ability to give rise to established T-cell lines endowed with proliferative potential and effector function for adoptive immune reconstitution.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monitoring of antigen specific T-cell responses is valuable in numerous conditions that include infectious diseases, vaccination and opportunistic infections associated with acquired or congenital immune defects. A variety of assays is currently available that make use of peripheral lymphocytes to test activation markers, T-cell receptor expression or functional responses. The last group calls for large numbers of functional lymphocytes. The number of cells increases with the number of antigens to be tested. Consequently, cells may be the limiting factor in particular in lymphopenic subjects and in children, the groups that more often require immune monitoring. We have developed immunochemical assays that measure secreted cytokines in the very same wells in which PBMC are cultured. This procedure lent itself to miniaturization and automation. Lymphoproliferation and ELISPOT have been adapted to a miniaturized format. Here we provide examples of immune profiles and describe a comparison between miniaturized assays based on cytokine secretion or proliferation. We also demonstrate that these assays are convenient to test antigen specificity in established T-cell lines, in addition to analysis of PBMC. In summary, the applicability of miniaturization to save cells and reagents, and of automation to save time and increase accuracy, was demonstrated here using different methodological approaches valuable in the clinical immunology laboratory.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-dose chemotherapy followed by reinfusion of autologous stem cells harvested from peripheral blood has been increasingly applied for a variety of disorders. The critical importance of cell dose in the clinical outcome, after transplant, has motivated the need to develop techniques aimed at reducing cell losses and increasing reproducibility.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the Sepax S-100 device to process thawed HPC-A products in comparison with manual procedure.
We have analysed viability, total nucleated cells (TNC), haematopoietic progenitors and CD34+ cells recovery.
The TNC and CD34+ cells recovery in the automatic procedure was of 91.9% (73-100; SD ± 12.60) and 86.7% (69-100; SD ± 10.21), respectively. Instead the recovery of TNC and CD34+ cells using the manual method was of 84.7% (47-100; SD ± 22.9) and 80.29% (23-100; SD ± 25.96). The results, obtained from the assessment of viability of CD34+ both 7-AAD)+ and AnnV+ showed a high percentage of necrosis and apoptosis in this cell subset by using the manual procedure in respect to the Sepax automated system.
Overall, our data suggest that the automated washing procedure is safe and suitable for processing of thawed HPC-A products and can be daily used in clinical routine.
Transfusion Medicine 12/2011; 21(6):402-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3148.2011.01103.x · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is commonly used to treat several oncohematologic diseases. The autologous hematopoietic progenitor cells collected through apheresis (HPC-A) must be cryopreserved and stored before use in vivo. Cell processing that precedes cryopreservation of HPC-A includes volume reduction aimed at reducing the amount of dimethyl sulfoxide used, as well as storage space.
The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of volume reduction performed with an automated closed system, namely, the Sepax S100 cell separation device (Biosafe SA). A total of 165 procedures were carried out on concentrates collected from 104 adult and pediatric patients. As a control group, 30 HPC-A units processed according to the standard method (i.e., centrifugation at a speed of 850 × g for 10 minutes, followed by manual plasma reduction) were evaluated.
The volume reduction obtained was 59% (range, 20.54%-84.21%; standard deviation [SD], ± 12.19%), going from 236 mL (range, 100-443 mL; SD, ± 80.41 mL) to 97 mL (range, 33.00-263.00 mL; SD, ± 47.41 mL); recovery of nucleated cells was 90% (range, 64.84%-105.93%; SD, ± 8.76%), while that of CD34+ cells was 91% (range, 59.30%-119.37%; SD, ± 13.30%). These values did not differ from those obtained using the standard method. Automated processing required 20 minutes versus 40 minutes of manual processing.
Our data demonstrate that volume reduction carried out with the Sepax S100 automated system was particularly effective; cell recovery was excellent and the time spent was short. Moreover, the closed system allows cell processing to be carried out in a contamination-controlled environment, in accordance with good manufacturing practice guidelines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T regulatory cells are fundamental in the maintenance of immune homeostasis and self-tolerance. Experimental models suggest the existence of two functional types of T(reg) cells designated naturally occurring and induced. Interest in T(reg) cells increased with evidence from experimental mouse and human models demonstrating that the immunosuppressive potential of these cells can be utilized in the treatment of various pathological conditions. The existence of a subpopulation of suppressive T cells was the subject of significant controversy among immunologists for many years. T regulatory cells limit immune activation through a variety of direct and indirect interactions, many of which are yet to be determined. Fully understanding T(reg) cells biology will lead us to harnessing the capacity of these cells in order to develop strategies to prevent autoimmune disorders and tolerance to transplantation. Efficient isolation, expansion and cryopreservation strategies that comply with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines are prerequisites for the clinical application of human CD4+ CD25+ CD127(low) FOXP3+ regulatory T cells.
Pathology - Research and Practice 03/2011; 207(4):209-15. DOI:10.1016/j.prp.2011.02.003 · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a valid alternative to be used in transplanted patients. Limitations of the use of stem cells depends on the small number of cells available; this is the reason why UCB can be used only in very low-weight patients. In this study we have evaluated the efficacy of cellular manipulation before transplant and in particular, before thawing the units through the Rubinstein method.
We have evaluated the results obtained after thawing 40 UCB to be used for as many patients affected by several pathologies (21 ALL, 6 AML, 3 MDS, 2 LNH, 2 histiocytosis, 2 β-thalassemia, 1 Chédiak-Higashi syndrome, 1 Fanconi anemia, 1 Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and 1 Omenn syndrome).
After thawing, nucleated cells (NC) mean recovery was 76.81% (SD±15.41). The quantity of NC obtained was 124.29×107 (SD±43.18) and in only 5 cases the number of NC after the procedure was lower than the requested graft dose. Among the last ones, in two cases only we did not achieve the target after manipulation. The post-manipulation cellular viability was 83.48% (SD±10.6). For all the units shipment complied with all the necessary procedures; in fact the temperature never rose above -120°C.
In our study we highlighted the efficacy of UCB thawing technique, with the same method defined in 1995 at the New York Blood Centre that guarantees an excellent NC recovery and maintains a high level of cell viability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunomagnetic CD34(+) cell selection (ICS) is utilized in autologous and allogeneic transplants. In the first case it is used to reduce the neoplastic contamination of concentrates, while in the second case it is needed to carry out a T-depletion of cell concentrates in order to reduce the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in patients who have undergone haplo-identical transplants.
The efficacy of CliniMACS technology, after reduction of platelet contamination, incubation of monoclonal antibodies (MAb) and successive washings of concentrates, performed in 16 ICS using the standard method without reducing platelet content, was compared with the use of the automated system CytoMate, which was carried out in 46 ICS.
In the group of ICS carried out after automatic manipulation, a significant statistical difference in purity was noted (91.39% versus 83.57, P = 0.017) compared with the group of ICS carried out with the standard procedure. The same significant difference was noted in relation to the remaining percentages of CD3(+) and CD19(+) cells (2.31% versus 5.68%, P = 0.012, and 1.58% versus 2.71%, P = 0.014, respectively). Recovery of CD34+ cells overlapped in the two groups (70.49% versus 68.39%, P = 0.774).
Immunomagnetic selection carried out using the automated procedure was more efficient, producing a purer sample, more efficient T-depletion and optimal reduction of B cells, without influencing cell recovery. Furthermore, conforming to good manufacturing practice (GMP) guidelines, the entire procedure with CytoMate took place in a contamination-controlled environment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunomagnetic selection of peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) in patients with tumoral infiltration in marrow makes it possible to reduce contamination of cellular concentrates, but this procedure cannot always be used, mainly because of the low cellular count in apheresis concentrates.
In this case two cellular concentrates taken separately at two different times were selected and cryopreserved; they were thawed with an automatic instrument.
After manipulation, a selected concentrate containing 24.16 x 106 CD34+ cells with a purity of 90.15 percent was obtained; vitality after thawing and selection was 88 and 96 percent, respectively. The engraftment was achieved on Day +17 from the infusion of the previously selected PBPCs, as the literature also shows us.
The time passed between the infusion and the engraftment gives us evidence of the efficacy of immunomagnetic selection carried out after thawing 2 cell units that were collected at different times from the same patient. In this way, it has been possible to perform an autologous transplant in a patient in which CD34+ cells transplant is recommended, but from whom the number of collected cells after a single mobilization cycle would not have been sufficient for the engraftment.