Sanjay Behari

Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lakhnau, Uttar Pradesh, India

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Publications (167)228.69 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Context: Multiple glioblastomas (GBMs) have a reported incidence of 2–20%. Aims: We intend to study these subsets of GBMs to know whether these are similar to their solitary counterparts. Setting and Design: A retrospective study. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 7 cases of biopsy-proven multiple GBMs. Multiple GBMs were described if there were >1 lesion which was at least 1 cm apart. The clinical data, radiological features, histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis and follow-up were recorded. Results: The mean age was 45 years (range 17–69 years). All cases presented with features of raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Totally, 3 cases presented with hemiparesis and 2 cases with altered sensorium and generalized tonic clonic seizures each. The median Karnofsky performance status (KPS) was 50. Mean duration of symptoms was 40 days. All lesions were contrast enhancing (2 with homogenous enhancement and 5 had ring enhancement). Total excision of the lesion causing mass effect was done in all cases. Histopathologically, small cells were significantly present in 4 cases, and satellitosis was seen in 5 cases. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was absent in all cases in which small cells were significant. In these 4 cases, the proliferation index ranged from 40% to 95%. Totally, 3 patients died within 2 months of surgery, whereas remaining 4 patients underwent chemo-radiotherapy. Conclusions: We conclude that the cases usually present with features of raised ICP and poor KPS. Histopathologically these lesions show significant small cell population, satellitosis, and GFAP negativity.
    10/2015; 10(4):266-271. DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.162685
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Gliosarcoma (GS), a subtype of glioblastoma (GBM), is a rare primary neoplasm of the central nervous system. Certain features like temporal lobe affinity, tendency for extraneural metastasis and poorer outcome compared to GBM indicate that GS may indeed be a separate clinicopathologic entity. This led us to revisit this entity in our settings. Materials and methods: Between 2009 and 2014, 16 cases of histologically proven GSs (14 primary, two secondary) were treated. Patient data were retrieved retrospectively. Statistical analysis was performed with? Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 17.0. (Chicago, Illinois, USA). Survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method. Results: GS predominantly affected males in their fifth decade of life. Raised intracranial pressure was the most common mode of clinical presentation. Temporal lobe was the most commonly affected part of the brain and majority of primary and all of secondary GBM were located peripherally. In 7 (43.8%) patients, tumor was radiologically well-demarcated and enhanced strongly and homogenously on contrast as compared to 9 (56.2%) patients where the tumor was ill-defined and showed heterogenous patchy or ring enhancement. Extent of excision was total in seven patients (43.8%), near total in 4 (25%) and subtotal in five patients (31.2%). Median survival was 6 months. Patients with well-demarcated, enhancing mass on imaging intraoperatively had firm tumors with a good plane of cleavage and had a better survival (8 months) compared to those in whom the tumor radiologically and intraoperatively mimicked GBM (2 months). Conclusion: GS is associated with poor survival (median survival 6 months). Radiological and intraoperative findings help categorize these tumors into GBM like GS and meningioma like GS. While the former histologically mimics GBM and has very poor survival (2 months), GS with meningioma like feature tends to have better survival (8 months).
    09/2015; 10(3):195-202. DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.161173
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    ABSTRACT: To study outcomes with endoscopic-assisted midfacial degloving for Fisch stage III nasopharyngeal angiofibroma and propose a new staging system. Retrospective study of patients with Fisch stage III juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) including preoperative angiography, intraoperative blood loss and residue/recurrence following surgery. Tertiary care superspecialty referral center. Fifteen consecutive patients with Fisch stage III JNA undergoing operations over a period of 18 months. Preoperative angiography details, intraoperative blood loss, residue/recurrence, complications of surgery. Transarterial embolization with particulate agents followed by endoscopic-assisted midfacial degloving provides excellent outcomes with Fisch stage III JNAs. The modified Fisch staging system proposed would allow better preoperative evaluation and comparison of outcomes with different treatment options for stage III JNAs. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery: official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jcms.2015.07.025 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurenteric cysts (NC) occur due to failure of separation of neurectoderm from endoderm at the 3rd week of embryogenesis. This study focuses on key clinico-radiological features of NCs, with emphasis on surgical nuances involved in resecting anteriorly placed NC, especially at the foramen magnum (FM). Sixteen consecutive patients having a spinal NC were included. Their clinico-radiological status, surgical nuances and follow-up status were noted. The duration of spasticity/paraparesis/quadriparesis ranged from 15 days to 48 months. Twelve patients had an intradural extramedullary (IDEM; nine anterior and three anterolateral) cyst and four had an intramedullary (IM) cyst. Six of them had an anteriorly placed FM lesion (five IDEM and one IM). Amongst ten subaxial NCs, four were anterior, two antero-lateral and one postero-lateral; three were IM. Three patients had the characteristic stigmata of occult spinal dysraphism: two, a large mesenteric cyst, and one, a posterior mediastinal cyst. Excision was total in 13 patients. Subtotal excision of tumour capsule was performed for two recurrent cysts and an IM cyst. A far lateral approach was adopted for anteriorly placed FM lesions and posterior laminectomy for subaxial lesions. Histopathology revealed eight type A cysts, four type B cysts and four type C cysts. At follow-up (range, 8 months to 12 years; median, 60 ± 45.84 months), complete neurological recovery occurred in seven patients; six patients had persistent spasticity but only minor disability; two patients had difficulty in walking; and one patient with an anteriorly placed thoracic recurrent NC had sustained neurological deterioration. Surgical difficulties in addressing NCs are related to their anterior or IM location, presence of adhesions and inability to dissect the tumour capsule from the spinal cord due to fibrous or lipomatous connections. The associated developmental anomalies must be specifically sought and addressed.
    Acta Neurochirurgica 07/2015; 157(9). DOI:10.1007/s00701-015-2484-7 · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Variability in dimensions and course of vertebral artery (VA) makes it vulnerable to injury during surgery for congenital atlanto-axial dislocation (AAD) with or without an occipitalized atlas. This prospective study attempts to define anatomical variations that render VA at the craniovertebral junction (CVJ) vulnerable to injury during transoral decompression and posterior stabilization procedures; and, to propose a classification that helps in preoperative risk stratification. A prospective study. 104 patients (65 with AAD; 39 controls) underwent a three-dimensional multiplanar computed tomographic angiogram to study anatomical variations in VA size, course, and anomalous medial deviation as well as in the type of axial isthmus and rotational deformity/tilt at the CVJ. The VA/foramen transversarium diameter; "stretched loop" sign of VA; and C1-2 facet joint angle were also assessed. A medial VA deviation that brought it in close proximity to the trajectory of the surgical approach was evaluated (P ≤ 0.05 significant). An increased predisposition to VA injury was present in 23 (35.4%) patients (persistent first intersegmental artery [n = 20; 30%]; fenestrated VA [n = 1; 1.53%], and low-lying posterior inferior cerebellar artery [n = 2; 3.0%]) where VA crossed the C1-2 facet joint; 8 (12%) with an anomalous medial deviation; 12 (18%) with a high-riding VA at C2 and a narrow axial isthmus; and 13 (20%) with rotation/tilt at the CVJ. A normal score of 5 was obtained in 21 patients; and a score of 6-9 (that progressively indicated an increased vulnerability of VA to iatrogenic injury) in 44 patients. The "AAD with an occipitalized atlas" group was associated with a significant medial deviation of VA (right: P = 0.00 and left: P = 0.001). A preoperative detailed risk assessment of anatomical variations in the size and course of VA at the CVJ significantly reduces chances of its iatrogenic injury.
    Neurology India 05/2015; 63(3):382-391. DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.158218 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors present a case of 15 years male child who presented with neck pain and progressive ascending quadriparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed lytic mass involving C5 and C6 vertebra with soft tissue extension. Surgical excision of mass done using anterior cervical approach. Postoperatively, patient showed improvement in spasticity and power. Histopathological examination of mass was suggestive of juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG). At 6 months follow-up, patient was improving without any evidence of recurrence. Only 12 cases of JXG of spine have been reported till date including only four cases involving the cervical spine and among these four cases only two were of pediatric age group.
    03/2015; 10(1):57. DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.151525
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    ABSTRACT: An 11-year-old boy presented with holocranial headache associated with vomiting and heaviness in right paranasal region. On examination, he had left sided upper motor neuron type facial palsy along with a subtle ipsilateral hemiparesis (grade 4/5 Medical Research Council). Magnetic resonance imaging brain revealed a contrast enhancing large well-defined extra-axial mass lesion in right middle cranial fossa with extension into the infratemporal fossa. The mass was excised in two stages. Histopathology was suggestive of clear cell meningioma (CCM). Supratentorial pediatric CCM is a rare entity. The case is discussed along with review of literature on this rare clinico-pathological entity.
    03/2015; 10(1):53. DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.151520
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    ABSTRACT: Giant cell granuloma is a rare benign granulomatous lesion of the bone. The local aggressiveness, potentiation with trauma and complex anatomy of the skull base makes the surgical management in this location challenging. We report a series of three cases along with the clinical presentation, radiological and histopathological findings and the management issues while dealing with this lesion. A review of literature reveals the rarity of the lesion, alternate management modalities and the outcomes for such lesion involving the jaw bones and the skull base. For best outcomes differential diagnosis from giant cell tumor and brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism is essential. Further it may be concluded that there is a need for maximal surgical excision to avoid recurrence as the second line management options are not as effective.
    Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12070-015-0831-x · 0.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trends in pre- and postoperative fluid, electrolyte and osmolarity changes, and incidence of diabetes insipidus (DI) were assessed in pediatric patients with anterior visual pathway gliomas (AVPGs). Thirty-three patients with AVPGs (age < 16 years) were divided into two groups: (1) no hypothalamic involvement [NHI; n = 17 (51.5 %) including optic (5, 15.2 %); chiasmal (5, 15.2 %); and optico-chiasmal (7, 21.2 %)] and (2) hypothalamic involvement [HI; n = 16 (48.5 %) including chiasmal-hypothalamic (12, 36.4 %) and optico-chiasmal-hypothalamic (4, 12.1 %)]. Frontotemporal transylvian decompression/biopsy was undertaken in 32 patients, while one patient (with severe diencephalic syndrome) was treated conservatively. Their endocrinal and fluid/electrolyte balance, serum osmolarity, and DI status were noted. Chi-square test compared clinical/endocrinological parameters, and unpaired T test evaluated mean daily water/electrolyte changes (p value < 0.05: significant). Significant visual deterioration (perception of light (PL) positive (left: n = 4; right: n = 4) and PL negative (left: n = 5; right: n = 5) was encountered due to optic atrophy. Larger lesions (>3 cm), hydrocephalus [(NHI: n = 7, 41.18 %; HI: n = 12, 75 %), endocrinopathies (p = 0.047), Na(+)/K(+) derangements, and preoperative DI (n = 8, p = 0.004)] were present in the group HI. Increased postoperative urine output (almost double in those with hypothalamic involvement) and hypernatremia/hyperkalemia were seen in group HI until the sixth postoperative day (p < 0.05). Two patients with progressive hypernatremia without increased urine output showed dehydration on central venous pressure monitoring and improved with vasopressin administration. Five patients [NHI: n = 4 (23.5 %); HI: n = 1 (6.3 %)] had neurofibromatosis types I and 3 (NHI: n = 1, 5.9 %; HI: n = 2, 12.5 %) had a diencephalic syndrome. Hypothalamic infiltration significantly increases the incidence of DI and fluid and electrolyte disturbances. Strict vigilance over postoperative fluid balance is mandatory during the first postoperative week. Rapidly rising serial serum sodium values without increased urine output mandates immediate central venous pressure measurement to detect DI associated with dehydration.
    Child s Nervous System 12/2014; 31(3). DOI:10.1007/s00381-014-2606-1 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical management of foramen magnum (FM) tumors is challenging by virtue of their location and vital neurovascular relationships. The ideal approach to anterior/anterolateral tumors continue to evoke controversy even in the modern era. In this article, we present and discuss our experience in the surgical management of these tumors. This retrospective study includes 29 consecutive patients (mean age 36.6 years, M: F = 2.63:1) of extramedullary tumors at the surgical foramen magnum, operated at our center, between 2007 and 2012. Their mean duration of symptoms was 14. 6 months. A majority of the patients presented with motor symptoms (quadri/paraparesis, n = 21, 72.4%), neck pain with/without suboccipital radiation (n = 16, 55.2%) and sensory symptoms like tingling/numbness (n = 16, 55.2%). There were nine extradural (31%) and 20 intradural tumors (69%). Most of the tumors were located posterolateral to the neuraxis (n = 13, 44.8%). Nerve sheath tumors (n = 11, 38%) and meningiomas (n = 5, 17.2%) were the most commonly encountered histologies in our series. The standard posterior approach was the most frequently employed surgical approach (n = 20, 69%). Operative mortality and morbidity were 3.4 and 18.9%, respectively. At a mean follow-up of 27.3 months, 13 out of the 18 available patients improved. A majority of the foramen magnum tumors are amenable to excision via the standard posterior approach. Small anterior dural-based meningiomas/recurrent tumors may require a lateral approach like the far lateral approach.
    10/2014; 9(4):223-32. DOI:10.4103/1793-5482.146616
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    ABSTRACT: Background: In some cases of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the cause of bleed remains obscure on initial evaluation. These patients may harbor structural lesions. We aim to determine the utility of repeat angiogram in these subsets of patients. Methods: In this prospective study, patients with SAH with a negative computed tomographic angiogram (CTA) and digital subtraction angiogram (DSA) were included. A repeat angiogram was done after 6 weeks of initial angiogram. Patients were divided into perimesencephalic SAH (PM-SAH) and diffuse classic SAH (Classic-SAH) groups. Outcome was determined by modified Rankin score (mRS). Results: A total of 22% (39/178) of all SAH were angio-negative. A total of 90% (n = 35) of these were in Hunt and Hess grade 1-3. A total of 22 patients had PM-SAH and 17 had a Classic-SAH. Repeat angiogram did not reveal any pathology in the PM-SAH group, whereas two patients with Classic-SAH were found to have aneurysms. At 6 months follow-up, 95% patients of PM-SAH and 83.3% of Classic-SAH had mRS of 0. Conclusion: Repeat angiogram is probably not necessary in patients of PM-SAH and they tend to have better outcome. Classic-SAH pattern of bleed is associated with fair chances of an underlying pathology and a repeat angiogram is recommended and these cases and they have poorer outcome.
    Surgical Neurology International 08/2014; 5:125. DOI:10.4103/2152-7806.138367 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Aneurysms of proximal (A1)-segment of anterior cerebral artery (ACA) constitute <1% of all intracranial aneurysms. Aim: Management dilemmas of A1-segment aneurysms were studied utilizing a new classification based upon their location on the longitudinal and circumferential axis of A1-segment. Setting and Design: Tertiary care referral center. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 14 patients (0.98%; mean age: 38.02 ± 15.74 years) with A1-segment aneurysms. The data collected included clinical features, computed tomography (CT) scan and CT-angiography (CTA)/digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings, modified Hunt and Hess (H and H) grade, surgical steps and difficulties encountered. Results: The modified Hunt and Hess (H and H) grades in the 14 patients were: grade I in two, grade II in two, grade III in four, grade IV in five and grade V in 1. The mean ictus-admission duration was 5.07 ± 2.30 days (range: 1-10 days). Multiple aneurysms were two. Thirteen patients underwent clipping and one, wrapping. Bilateral lateral ventricle hemorrhage occurred in 8 (66%) patients and frontal intracerebral hematoma in 2 (16.66%) patients. In one patient, the aneurysm could only be detected following the third angiogram. A1-aneurysms were classified as proximal (n = 6), distal (n = 7), and mid-segment (n = 1); and, anterior (n = 2), posterior-inferior (n = 7) and posterior-superior (n = 5). Follow-up (range: 6 months-10 years, mean: 2.9 years) recovery (assessed using Modified Rankin's score or mRS) correlated with preoperative status. The preoperative H and H grade and follow-up mRS status were as follows: H and H I (n = 2): mRS 0 (asymptomatic, n = 2); H and H II (n = 2): mRS 1 (minor symptoms without disability, n = 2); H and H III (n = 4):mRS 1 (n = 2) and mRS 2 (slight disability but performing unassisted activities of daily living, n = 1); H and H IV (n = 5): mRS 3 (moderate disability, requiring help for daily living but unassisted walking, n = 2) and mRS 4 (moderately severe disability, requiring help for daily living and walking, n = 2). One patient each from H and H grade III, IV and V died (mRS 6) during treatment due to severe vasospasm, pneumonitis and septicemia. Conclusions: A1-segment aneurysms have unique properties: rupturing of small-sized aneurysms; multiplicity; undetectable on initial imaging; frontal lobar/intraventricular bleeding; origin from main trunk and not bifurcating points; neck obscuration by A1-trunk; close proximity to perforators; and, associated A1-segment and ACA anomalies. A new classification identifies surgical difficulties inherent in different sites of origin of A1-aneurysms.
    Neurology India 07/2014; 62(4):410-416. DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.141284 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spinal intramedullary tuberculoma (SIT) is a rare manifestation of neurotuberculosis. Concurrent SIT and intracranial tuberculoma are further unusual. Most of these tuberculomas respond completely to medical therapy, and surgical excision is seldom required. In this report, we describe a 17-year-old boy who developed cervical intramedullary tuberculoma at C3-C6 level with a concurrent lesion involving the right cerebellar hemisphere while on treatment for tubercular meningitis. This patient had paradoxical increase in size of the cervical lesion even though the cerebellar lesion showed regression in size. In this article, we discuss the paradoxical response to anti-tubercular therapy in central nervous system tuberculosis, possible causes of nonresolution of tuberculoma on medical therapy and evaluate the role of surgery in these cases.
    Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences 05/2014; 9(2):162-5. DOI:10.4103/1817-1745.139336
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical excision of rare, large-to-giant posterior third ventricular (PTV) meningiomas [including velum-interpositum meningiomas (VIM; postero-superior venous complex displacement; without falco-tentorial attachment) and falco-tentorial meningiomas (FTM; falco-tentorial attachment; displacing major veins antero-inferiorly)] is extremely challenging. To study the management nuances in the excision of large-to-giant PTV meningiomas. Tertiary care referral center. Four patients with large (>3 cm; n = 2) and giant (>5 cm; n = 2) meningiomas (FTM = 2; VIM = 2, mean tumor size = 4.9 cm) underwent occipital transtentorial approach (OTT) for tumor excision. One also underwent a second-stage supracerebellar infratentorial (SCIT) approach. The side of approach was determined by lateral tumor extension and venous displacement (right = 3, left = 1). Near-total removal or subtotal excision (<10% remaining) with radiotherapy was performed in 2 patients each, respectively. At follow-up (mean: 14.75 months), clinical improvement without tumor recurrence/re-growth was achieved. Extent of excision was determined by position of great vein of Galen; tumor attachment to falco-tentorium or major veins; its consistency; its lateral and inferior extent; and, presence of a good tumor-neuraxial arachnoidal plane. OTT is the preferable approach for large-to-giant meningiomas as it provides a wider corridor and better delineation of tumor-neurovascular arachnoidal interface.
    Neurology India 05/2014; 62(3):290-5. DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.136934 · 1.23 Impact Factor
  • Sanjay Behari
    Neurology India 03/2014; 62(2):121-3. DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.132316 · 1.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased glycine concentration in the brain is associated with altered metabolism in cancer and can be detected by using in vivo MR spectroscopy. This has been proposed as a marker for grade IV gliomas; however, little is known about the potential significance and frequency of in vivo glycine observation. The purpose of this study was to examine the rate of occurrence and spatial distribution of glycine observation with respect to other MR imaging parameters. Data from volumetric whole-brain MR spectroscopic imaging of 59 subjects with glioma were analyzed with glycine included in the spectral model. The associations of the signal amplitude and spatial distributions of glycine with findings from contrast-enhanced T1, perfusion, and diffusion MR imaging were then examined. Glycine was detected in 24% of all studies, though with a wide range of signal amplitude and extent of the spatial distributions. While more commonly seen in grade IV tumors (42% of studies), relatively large concentrations were also detected in grade II and III gliomas. Coanalysis with other metabolites indicated a strong association with choline and that glycine was frequently seen to be overlapping with, and adjacent to, areas of high lactate concentration. Increased glycine was always associated with contrast enhancement and areas of increased cerebral blood flow, but without any clear association with other image parameters. Detection of increased glycine in gliomas appears to identify a subgroup of tumors and areas of increased proliferation.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 01/2014; 35(Supplement 6). DOI:10.3174/ajnr.A3845 · 3.59 Impact Factor
  • 01/2014; 3(1):19. DOI:10.4103/2277-9167.131997
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    ABSTRACT: We report a rare case of a post-traumatic subdural hygroma occurring with a giant frontotemporal arachnoid cyst in a 6-year old child and discuss its pathogenesis and management implications. Awareness regarding the association of a subdural hygroma associated with an arachnoid cyst is of immense clinical importance as the former may precipitate intracranial hypertension in a previously asymptomatic arachnoid cyst and yet may remain undetectable on a CT scan.
    12/2013; 10(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijnt.2013.11.003
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of brain tumors have identified altered tissue metabolism and water diffusion in MRI normal appearing tissue regions. In this retrospective study the relationship of these imaging measures with tumor grade in gliomas was investigated. MR spectroscopic imaging of whole brain and mean diffusivity (MD) measurements were obtained in subjects with untreated glioma and from normal control subjects. Mean metabolite values for N-acetylaspartate (NAA), total creatine (Cre), and total choline (Cho) were obtained in gray- and white-matter regions for the hemisphere contralateral to the tumor location, and MD values were obtained from contralateral normal-appearing white matter. Analyses tested for differences in mean values between subject groups while accounting for age. Analysis demonstrated increased NAA/Cre and MD, and decreased Cho/NAA for all tumor grades relative to control values. Differences between tumor grades were also observed for NAA, NAA/Cre, and Cho/NAA. Abnormal values of water diffusion were also observed, but with only a weak association between alterations in diffusion and tissue metabolites. This study supports previous observations of altered tissue metabolism and water diffusion in normal-appearing white matter while additionally finding differences of metabolite values in gray matter and an association with tumor grade.
    Journal of neuroimaging: official journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging 11/2013; 24(6). DOI:10.1111/jon.12063 · 1.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
228.69 Total Impact Points


  • 1996–2015
    • Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences
      • Department of Neurosurgery
      Lakhnau, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • 2013
    • King George's Medical University
      Lakhnau, Uttar Pradesh, India