[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The organization of microtubules is determined in most cells by a microtubule-organizing center, which nucleates microtubule assembly and anchors their minus ends. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking She1, cytoplasmic microtubules detach from the spindle pole body at high rates. Increased rates of detachment depend on dynein activity, supporting previous evidence that She1 inhibits dynein. Detachment rates are higher in G1 than in metaphase cells, and we show that this is primarily due to differences in the strengths of microtubule attachment to the spindle pole body during these stages of the cell cycle. The minus ends of detached microtubules are stabilized by the presence of γ-tubulin and Spc72, a protein that tethers the γ-tubulin complex to the spindle pole body. A Spc72-Kar1 fusion protein suppresses detachment in G1 cells, indicating that the interaction between these two proteins is critical to microtubule anchoring. Overexpression of She1 inhibits the loading of dynactin components, but not dynein, onto microtubule plus ends. In addition, She1 binds directly to microtubules in vitro, so it may compete with dynactin for access to microtubules. Overall, these results indicate that inhibition of dynein activity by She1 is important to prevent excessive detachment of cytoplasmic microtubules, particularly in G1 cells.
Molecular biology of the cell 04/2012; 23(12):2319-26. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E12-03-0223 · 4.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In many organisms, polo kinases appear to play multiple roles during M-phase progression. To provide new insights into the function of the budding yeast polo kinase Cdc5, we generated novel temperature-sensitive cdc5 mutants by mutagenizing the C-terminal noncatalytic polo box domain, a region that is critical for proper subcellular localization. One of these mutants, cdc5-11, exhibited a temperature-sensitive growth defect with an abnormal spindle morphology. Strikingly, provision of a moderate level of benomyl, a microtubule-depolymerizing drug, permitted cdc5-11 cells to grow significantly better than the isogenic CDC5 wild type in a FEAR (cdc Fourteen Early Anaphase Release)-independent manner. In addition, cdc5-11 required MAD2 for both cell growth and the benomyl-remedial phenotype. These results suggest that cdc5-11 is defective in proper spindle function. Consistent with this view, cdc5-11 exhibited abnormal spindle morphology, shorter spindle length, and delayed microtubule regrowth at the nonpermissive temperature. Overexpression of CDC5 moderately rescued the spc98-2 growth defect. Interestingly, both Cdc28 and Cdc5 were required for the proper modification of the spindle pole body components Nud1, Slk19, and Stu2 in vivo. They also phosphorylated these three proteins in vitro. Taken together, these observations suggest that concerted action of Cdc28 and Cdc5 on Nud1, Slk19, and Stu2 is important for proper spindle functions.