[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reports from a health center in Esfahan province show an increase in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases in the southern areas during 2000-2002, leading us to carry out an epidemiological study using standard techniques in Mobarakeh county, central Iran in 2003. Data were collected on the prevalence of scars and active lesions among 1237 households in Dehsorkh district (3086 residents) and 191 children attending primary schools in Mobarakeh city. Smears were prepared by scraping the edges of the active lesions. To determine the reservoir host of the disease, rodents and dogs were caught and examined. Sand flies were collected biweekly from indoor and outdoor locations in the study areas. Parasites isolated from humans and rodents were characterized by RAPD-PCR technique. The prevalence of scars and active lesions was 2.5% and 1.6% respectively in the 3086 residents of Dehsorkh district and 6% and 4% respectively in the schoolchildren. Among rodents, 7 of 18 Nesokia indica (39%) and 1 of 9 Meriones persicus (11%) were found to be infected with Leishmania major. Phlebotomus papatasi was the commonest sand fly species indoors and outdoors. Although CL has been present in some northern counties of Esfahan province, our investigation revealed that the disease has spread to southern parts of the province. Rapid treatment of patients, destroying gerbils, and promotion of general and health education for the local population is recommended.
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 07/2009; 103(12):1257-62. · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major vector-borne disease in Iran. A focus of VL is present in Shahreza county, Isfahan province, central Iran. The main objective of this study was to determine the probable vectors in this area.
Sand flies were collected biweekly using sticky paper traps, CDC light-traps, and aspirators from outdoors as well as indoors. All female sand flies were dissected and identified. Promastigotes were inoculated to hamsters and detected by Nested PCR. Approximately 7528 sand flies representing 12 species were collected from April 2003 to October 2004. Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) papatasi Scopoli, Phlebotomus (Larroussious) major Annandale and Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia) sintoni Pringle were the predominant species. Two percent of P. major was found with natural promastigote infections.
This is the first report of natural promastigote infection in P. major in central Iran. The activity of P. major started from April and ended in October with a peak in September. The parasites were identified as Leishmania infantum using standard PCR. P. major is a possible vector of leishmaniasis and is susceptible to DDT in this area.