[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Usutu virus (USUV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus antigenic group, caused bird die-offs in Austria, Hungary and Switzerland between 2001 and 2009. While the zoological gardens of Vienna and Zurich recorded USUV-associated mortality in different species of birds during this period, incidences in Budapest were limited to areas outside the zoo, and in the greater Basel area avian mortality due to USUV infection was not observed at all. The objectives of this investigation were to gain insight into USUV infection dynamics in captive birds in zoos with varying degrees of virus exposure and to study differences in susceptibility to USUV of different species of birds.
372 bird sera were collected between October 2006 and August 2007. The samples were tested in parallel by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and 90% plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT-90). 8.75%, 5.3% and 6.59% of birds in the zoos of Vienna, Zurich and Basel, respectively, showed USUV-specific antibodies by PRNT-90. No antibodies to USUV were detected in birds of the Budapest zoo. The order Strigiformes (owls) exhibited the highest USUV-seroprevalence, compared to other orders of birds.
USUV seems not to pose an imminent threat to zoo bird populations in central Europe at the moment. Depending on a variety of especially environmental factors, however, this may change at any time in the (near) future, as experienced with West Nile virus (WNV). It is therefore strongly suggested to continue with combined WNV and USUV surveillance activities in affected areas.
BMC Veterinary Research 08/2013; 9(1):153. · 1.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective To evaluate the effects of medetomidine, midazolam and ketamine (MMK) in captive gorillas after premedication with oral zuclopenthixol. Study design Case series. Animals Six gorillas, two males and four females, aged 9-52 years and weighing 63-155 kg. Methods The gorillas were given zuclopenthixol dihydrochloride 0.2 ± 0.05 mg kg(-1) per os twice daily for 3 days for premedication. On the day of anaesthesia the dose of zuclopenthixol was increased to 0.27 mg kg(-1) and given once early in the morning. Anaesthesia was induced with medetomidine 0.04 ± 0.004 mg kg(-1) , midazolam 0.048 ± 0.003 mg kg(-1) and ketamine 4.9 ± 0.4 mg kg(-1) intramuscularly (IM). Upon recumbency, the trachea was intubated and anaesthesia was maintained on 1-2% isoflurane in oxygen. Physiological parameters were monitored every 10 minutes and arterial blood gas analysis was performed once 30-50 minutes after initial darting. At the end of the procedure, 42-115 minutes after initial darting, immobilisation was antagonized with atipamezole 0.21 ± 0.03 mg kg(-1) and sarmazenil 5 ± 0.4 μg kg(-1) IM. Results Recumbency was reached within 10 minutes in five out of six animals. One animal required two additional darts before intubation was feasible. Heart rate ranged from 60 to 85 beats minute(-1) , respiratory rate from 17 to 46 breaths minute(-1) and temperature from 36.9 to 38.3 °C. No spontaneous recoveries were observed and anaesthetic level was stable. Blood gas analyses revealed mild respiratory acidosis, and mean PaO(2) was 24.87 ± 17.16 kPa (187 ± 129 mmHg) with all values being above 13.4 kPa (101 mmHg). Recovery was smooth and gorillas were sitting within 25 minutes. Conclusion and clinical relevance The drug combination proved to be effective in anaesthetizing captive gorillas of various ages and both sexes, with minimal cardio-respiratory changes.
Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia 08/2012; · 1.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty great apes (six orangutans, eight chimpanzees and six gorillas) were anaesthetised prior to being transported for undergoing diagnostic and interventional procedures. Anaesthesia was induced with a combination of medetomidine and ketamine administered intramuscularly through a dart syringe. The onset of anaesthesia varied among apes: the mean (±sd) time from darting to recumbency was 12.13 (±1.9), 18.5 (±8.7) and 22.2 (±9.2) minutes in chimpanzees, orangutans and gorillas, respectively. The depth of anaesthesia was sufficient to allow safe removal of the animals from the enclosure, intravenous catheter placement and manipulation; however, the anaesthetic effect was short-acting (20 (±7) minutes in orangutans, 16 (±14) in gorillas, and 10 (±4) minutes in chimpanzees, respectively) and isoflurane administration was necessary in the majority of the apes to prolong the duration of anaesthesia, especially when lengthier procedures were performed. The sedative effect of medetomidine was reversed at the end of each procedure with atipamezole, and recovery was smooth and uneventful for all animals.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although metabolic bone disease (MBD) is a very common disease in reptiles kept as pets, empirical data on the calcium (Ca) metabolism of reptiles are still scarce. We used the opportunity of a large-scale experimental study on growth and clinical manifestations of MBD in captive veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) to measure the apparent dry matter (DM) and Ca digestibility in 19 animals (6-49 g), receiving locust nymphs (Locusta migratoria) of two size classes (0.05 and 0.5 g) with or without supplementation of Ca, vitamin A and cholecalciferol (Group A: Ca 0.04-0.09%DM; Group B: Ca 0.47-0.84%DM). Dry matter digestibility was significantly lower for animals receiving smaller-sized prey. A regression analysis of dietary Ca vs. digestible Ca content revealed a complete 'true' digestibility of Ca for the range of investigated diets, which might indicate that requirements for this mineral were not yet exceeded by the diets used (so that a reduction in Ca absorption would be induced). Options of higher dietary Ca provision, and reactions of chameleons to such diets, should be further investigated.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Three cases of fatal septicaemia due to Plesiomonas shigelloides and one due to Edwardsiella tarda were diagnosed in newborn penguins from the Basle Zoo, Switzerland from 2003 to 2007. The affected penguins were of two different species (king penguin, Aptenodytes patagonicus, and African penguin, Spheniscus demersus) and between 2 and 10 days old at the time of death. The causative agents, E. tarda and P. shigelloides are ubiquitous bacteria which are reported to be present in the normal intestinal flora of wild and captive aquatic animals, including penguins. Their occurrence and infectious potential is discussed.
SAT Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 03/2011; 153(3):117-21. · 0.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nutritional metabolic bone disease (NMBD) is one of the most frequently observed pathological conditions in herpetoculture. To develop guidelines for NMBD prevention in growing veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus), 56 hatchlings were divided into 6 groups [group UV, with UVB exposure; group No: no supplements; group CaAUV: with calcium (Ca), vitamin A, UVB; group CaA: with Ca, vitamin A; group CaADUV: with Ca, vitamin A, cholecalciferol, UVB; and group CaAD, with Ca, vitamin A, cholecalciferol] and reared for 6 mo on locust-based diets. The nutrient composition of the locusts' diet and the locust-based diet for the chameleons was determined. The diagnosis included the detailed description of clinical findings, histopathology, measurements of serum Ca, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD(3)), liver 25-OHD(3), vitamin A, bone mineral density, and bone mineral concentration. Chameleons that received no dietary supplementation of Ca, vitamin A, and cholecalciferol developed NMBD. When Ca and vitamin A were supplemented, the chameleons did not develop NMBD, independently of additional UVB and dietary cholecalciferol. The best prevention for NMBD was achieved by chameleons that received locusts gut-loaded with 12% Ca and dusted with 250,000 IU/kg (75 mg/kg) vitamin A and 25,000 IU/kg (0.625 mg/kg) cholecalciferol plus provision of long (10 h/d), low irradiation exposure (3-120 μW/cm(2)) to UVB. Chameleons that were fed diets low in vitamin A, cholecalciferol, and Ca were diagnosed with fibrous osteodystrophy. We noticed an interaction of vitamin A and cholecalciferol supplementation in the storage of vitamin A in the liver and formation of colon calcifications. From these findings, recommendations for the rearing of juvenile chameleons were derived.
Journal of Nutrition 09/2010; 140(11):1923-31. · 4.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An increased incidence of cataract and fatty liver in plains viscachas (Lagostomus maximus) was noted for many years at the Zurich Zoo (Switzerland). Based on elevated serum fructosamine and glucose, diabetes mellitus was diagnosed; and these parameters normalized when the diet of the animals was changed from a low-fiber to a high-fiber diet. In this present study, 177 necropsy reports from before and after the diet changes were evaluated for the incidence of cataracts and fatty liver. Sixteen of 56 animals (29%) that were born before the diet change developed cataract. In contrast, only two of 121 animals (1.65%) that were born after the diet change developed cataract. The prevalence of cataract and fatty liver in animals born after the diet change (1% and 0%, respectively) was significantly lower than in animals born before (9% and 6%, respectively) the diet change. The results suggest that the plains viscachas at the Zurich Zoo were affected by an alimentary-induced diabetes mellitus (type 2) before the diet was changed.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 12/2009; 40(4):652-8. · 0.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report body weights (BW) and blood and serum analyses for 6 fully mature and 8 not-yet-mature captive plains viscachas before and 3, 6 and 9 months after switching from a low-fiber, high-energy diet to a high-fiber, low-energy diet. Initially, body weights, serum glucose, fructosamine and cholesterol levels were above the reference range in the fully mature animals. Furthermore, 4 of these animals had bilateral cataracts. After the diet change, these parameters dropped into the reference range. However, 9 months later, a slightly increased BW became evident again. The findings are consistent with a type II diabetes mellitus and underline the importance of dietary prevention.
SAT Schweizer Archiv für Tierheilkunde 03/2009; 151(2):61-8. · 0.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Scuticociliatosis is a disease of fish induced by ciliated parasites of the genus Scuticociliatida. It has been described in sea horses (Hippocampus sp.), flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus), and turbots (Scophthalmus maximus). Here we present a case study of a population of sea dragons chronically infected with scuticociliates identified as Philasterides dicentrarchi by histopathology and PCR. Beginning in 2004, over a period of 19 months, 10 sea dragons (Phycodurus eques and Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) were found dead in an aquarium of the Zoological Garden Basle, Switzerland. Clinically, the animals showed only faint symptoms of disease over a short period of time. At necropsy, macroscopic lesions were confined to the skin with multiple, often hemorrhagic, ulcerations. Histologically, epidermal ulcers were associated with necrosis and inflammation of the underlying dermis and musculature. Numerous ciliates, with a morphology consistent with scuticociliates, were present in these lesions. In several animals these ciliates had invaded blood vessels and were detected in gills and internal organs including kidney, thyroid gland, and central nervous system (CNS). In these organs, mild degenerative lesions and inflammatory reactions were evident. The ciliates were identified as Philasterides dicentrarchi based on small-subunit ribosomal RNA (SSUrRNA) gene sequences obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Our report shows that scuticociliate infections of sea dragons can develop into a systemic infection and that both species of sea dragons can be affected.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since 1956, when the Basle Zoo (Switzerland) initiated the breeding of lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis), 43% of the lesser kudu juveniles died before reaching an age of 6 mo. In this study, the objective was to obtain the pathological findings, nutritional history, and family tree information in order to evaluate the influence of husbandry on juvenile mortality in these animals. The main cause of death was white muscle disease (WMD), diagnosed in 14 cases (26%) of the deceased juveniles. Although enclosure size had remained constant and animal accessibility to the public was constantly high, both herd size and juvenile mortality had increased from 1956-2004. The diet consumed by the whole group in 2004 had deficient levels of vitamin E and selenium. The increasing linear trend of the mortality rate since the 1960s was significant, and there was a significant correlation between herd size and overall juvenile mortality. In contrast, there was no correlation between herd size and the occurrence of juvenile mortality associated specifically with WMD. Other investigated factors (sex, inbreeding, and season) had no significant effect on overall mortality up to 6 mo of age or on mortality associated with WMD. These results characterize both a dietary and a husbandry problem, and are supported by a lack of similar juvenile mortality in another facility where the diet was supplemented with vitamin E, animal numbers were kept low, and the enclosure structure offered more retreat options for the animals.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 04/2008; 39(1):86-91. · 0.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haematology, blood chemistry and urine values were determined for 44 adult free-ranging plains viscachas (Lagostomus maximus; Rodentia, Chinchillidae) in their pampas habitat in central Argentina. The study animals were captured in the wild and anaesthetized with a ketamine-xylazine combination for physical examination and sampling. Blood was obtained by venipuncture of the saphenous vein. Results for many of the blood parameters fall within the reference ranges for pet chinchillas. Differentiation of white blood cells revealed a predominantly neutrophil count for plains viscachas, while chinchillas have predominantly lymphocytes. Mean values for blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase and sodium were higher than the upper limit of the reference range for pet chinchillas. The results of seven analytes (haematocrit, haemoglobin, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium, chloride) were compared by using both a portable blood analyser (i-STAT) in the field and conventional laboratory methods. In general, correlation and agreement between the two methods were low for most parameters.
Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 07/2007; 54(5):260-4. · 0.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary renal tumors are rare neoplasms in nonhuman primates. This report describes a mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of the kidney (MESTK) in a 14.5-year-old female ringtail lemur. The well-demarcated, solid, and cystic mass was located in the pelvis of the left kidney and consisted histologically of both epithelial and mesenchymal components. The mesenchymal cells were arranged in fascicles around cysts lined by a well-differentiated epithelium. Neither the mesenchymal nor the epithelial parts showed significant nuclear atypia or mitotic figures. To our knowledge, only 1 similar case, classified as adenoleiomyofibromatous hamartoma, has been reported in a ringtail lemur. In humans this tumor affects predominantly perimenopausal women and can express estrogen and progesterone receptors. However, neither estrogen nor progesterone receptors could be identified by immunohistochemistry in the tumor of the present ringtail lemur. Therefore, a hormonal mechanism could not be demonstrated in this case.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural infections with the lancet fluke (Dicrocoelium dendriticum) were detected in a group of seven diseased or dead/euthanized South American Camelids (five Llamas, two Alpacas) from Switzerland and Southern Germany. Clinical findings in almost all the animals revealed an acute decline of general condition followed by recumbency, decreased body temperature and a varying degree of anaemia. Concurrently, all animals showed an average to poor nutritional status. All liver enzyme activities analysed in serum biochemistry conformed to the reference values and therefore offered no diagnostic clues for this disease. Necropsy however, disclosed major alterations in the liver in the form of cirrhosis, abscesses, granulomas, and a massive infestation with D. dendriticum. The coprological investigations performed at the outset of the examinations revealed eggs of the lancet fluke in only two animals. This suggests that clinical findings alone permit at best only a provisional diagnosis. Repeated coprologic follow-ups showed that the presence of eggs of D. dendriticum can be diagnosed accurately and that clinical signs appear with an excretion rate above 1000 eggs per gram faeces (EpG). In these cases, praziquantel in a single dose of 50 mg/kg per os was given. This treatment was well tolerated and achieved a quite acceptable 90% reduction of eggs in the faeces.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2007, two different events for teaching principles in zoo and wildlife medicine and for introducing veterinary students to scientific work were organized, the “Zoo Research Camp 2007” at the Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, Qatar, and the “First EAZWV Summer School” at Basle Zoo. Apart from support from the hosting facilities, events were organized by the Clinic of Zoo Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife of the Vetsuisse Faculty. The two events differed in concept – with more emphasis on research and data evaluation at the ZRC, and on lectures at the Summer School. Both events had in common that a limited group of students convened at a place different from their usual location, in a zoo setting, which was considered the key to their motivation and the success of the events. Here, we describe the two concepts in detail, also explaining the required commitments made by, and the benefits for, the participating hosts or organisations. We hope that other zoos will be open to host similar events in the future.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The decision to perform euthanasia in geriatric zoo mammals is usually a highly complex procedure involving ethical, medical, emotional and sometimes political factors. However, subsequent necropsies show that the pathological changes of organs and/or the musculoskeletal system are often already advanced. Therefore, we hypothesise that euthanasia is often delayed to the detriment of the animal's welfare. The purpose of this study was to facilitate and establish an initial, objective, decision-making framework for the euthanasia of geriatric zoo mammals. A scoring-system to assess the physical condition and quality of life in ageing zoo mammals is presented, based on retrospective and prospective investigation of 70 geriatric zoo mammals in five European zoos. Medical records and necropsy reports were studied in retrospective cases. Symptoms were monitored and recorded in prospective cases. Radiographic investigations under general anesthesia or at necropsy were performed additionally. A significant association between symptoms and pathological findings revealed that 36.9% (n = 24/65) of examined animals (n = 41/65) had pathological alterations to the muscu-loskeletal system and 26.2% (n = 17/65) suffered from neoplasia. Based on the individual reports, 28 veterinarians from different fields of veterinary medicine concluded that these animals had mild to severe pain, discomfort and a significantly reduced quality of life, thus strongly reducing welfare. The proposed scoring system includes all of these factors and offers a simple and reliable tool to support decision-making for euthanasia in geriatric zoo mammals.