ABSTRACT: To investigate the correlation between the dose predicted by the treatment planning system using digitally reconstructed radiographs or three-dimensional (3D)-reconstructed CT images and the dose measured by semiconductor detectors, under clinical conditions of high-dose-rate brachytherapy of the cervix uteri.
Thirty-two intracavitary brachytherapy applications were performed for 12 patients with cancer of the cervix uteri. The prescribed dose to Point A was 7 Gy. Dose was calculated for both International Commissioning on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) bladder and rectal points based on digitally reconstructed radiographs and for 3D CT images-based volumetric calculation of the bladder and rectum. In vivo diode dosimetry was performed for the bladder and rectum.
The ICRU reference point and the volumes of 1, 2, and 5cm(3) received 3.6±0.9, 5.6±2.0, 5.1±1.7, 4.3±1.4 and 5.0±1.2, 5.3±1.3, 4.9±1.1, and 4.2±0.9 Gy for the bladder and rectum, respectively. The ratio of the 1cm(3) and the ICRU reference point dose to the diode dose was 1.8±0.7 and 1.2±0.5 for the bladder and 1.9±0.6 and 1.7±0.5 for the rectum, respectively.
3D image-based dose calculation is the most accurate and reliable method to evaluate the dose given to critical organs. In vivo diode dosimetry is an important method of quality assurance, but clinical decisions should be made based on 3D-reconstructed CT image calculations.
Brachytherapy 06/2011; 10(6):498-502. · 1.47 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To compare the inverse planning optimization based on total dose constraints versus conventional treatment plan (point A planning method) for cervical carcinoma, and evaluate the benefit of CT-based image-guided brachytherapy.
We prospectively analyzed data of 10 consecutive patients with cervical cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy to the whole pelvis (45 Gy in 25 fractions) followed by high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (21 Gy in 3 fractions). For treatment planning of HDR brachytherapy, the basic equations of the linear-quadratic model were used to calculate the physical dose for each brachytherapy fraction needed to achieve a given total iso-effective dose for the whole treatment. Specific dosimetric parameters are evaluated for high risk (HR CTV), intermediate risk (IR CTV) clinical target volumes, and organs at risk (OARs).
In conventional plans, the HR CTV was well covered in only 15/31, and the IR CTV in 7/31 of the brachytherapy implants, while dose constraints of OARs bladder and rectum were respected in 28/31 and 14/31 implants. After optimization, the HR CTV and IR CTV dose constraints were respected in all the implants, and the bladder and rectum of cases dose constraints were respected in 25/31 and 17/31 of cases.
Point A is a poor surrogate of target dose. Significant differences between point doses and dose volume histogram parameters indicate the need for inverse planning in image-guided brachytherapy of cervical cancer.
Saudi medical journal 05/2011; 32(5):495-503. · 0.52 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Women in Saudi Arabia develop breast cancer at a young age with high prevalence of poor prognostic features. Because of such features, it is necessary to examine prognostic factors in this population. One such factor is the prognostic role of lymph node ratio (LNR).
We performed retrospective analyses of patients with invasive non-metastatic breast cancer who underwent axillary lymph node dissection and had one or more positive axillary lymph nodes.
Two hundred and seventeen patients were considered eligible for the analysis. The median age was 46 years. At a median follow-up of 39.8 months, the median disease-free survival (DFS) was 67.3 months (95% CI, 50.4 to 84.3 months). Neither the classification of patients based on positive lymph node (pN) staging system, nor the absolute number of pN prognosticated DFS. Conversely, age <or= 35 years at diagnosis, grade 3 tumors and the intermediate (>0.20 to <or=0.65) and high (>0.65) LNR categories were the only variables that were independently associated with adverse DFS. Using these variables in a prognostic model allowed the classification of patients into three distinctive risk strata. The overall survival (OS) in this series was 92.5 months (95% CI, 92.1-92.6). Only ER negative tumor adversely influenced OS.
Analysis of survival outcome of mostly young patients with early breast cancer identified adverse prognostic variables affecting DFS. If the utility of the derived model including LNR is proven in a larger patient population, it may replace the use of absolute number of positive axillary lymph nodes.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2010; 6(2):130-7. · 0.58 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Brachytherapy is an integral part in the treatment of cervical uteri cancer patients. Orthogonal treatment planning is the standard mode of calculation based on reference points. Introduction of the innovative 3-D computer based treatment planning allows accurate calculation based on volumetric information as regards the target volume and organs at risk (OAR). Also provide dose volume histogram (DVH) for proper estimation of the dose in relation to the volume.
To correlate and compare the information obtained from the two approaches for high dose rate brachytherapy of cervical uteri cancer; the orthogonal conventional method and the computerized tomography (CT) three dimensions (3D) based calculation method in relation to the target and organ at risk (OAR).
From 6 patients of cervical uteri cancer, 21 applications with orthogonal planning using the Brachy Vision treatment planning system version 7.3.10 were performed. In 10 applications; comparison between orthogonal and CT based planning was done. In orthogonal planning; the dose to point A, rectum and bladder were defined according to the American Brachytherapy Society (ABS) recommendation. From the CT based planning the target volume and dose volume histogram lpar;DVH) were calculated for the clinical target volume (CTV), rectum and bladder. From these two sets, information was obtained and compared and mean values were derived.
For dose prescription at point A, an average of 63.5% of CTV received the prescribed dose. The mean ICRU dose to the bladder point is 2.9 Gy+/-1.2 SD (Standard Deviation) and 17% of the bladder volume derived from CT was encompassed by 2.9 Gy isodose line. The mean ICRU dose at the rectum point is 3.4 Gy+/-1.2 SD and 21% of the rectum volume from CT was encompassed by 3.4 Gy isodose line. The maximum dose to the rectum and the bladder derived from the CT and compared to the maximal dose at ICRU is 1.7 and 2.8 times higher than the orthogonal reference points; with the corresponding p value of (p=0.53 and p=0.005) for the rectum and the bladder respectively.
CT based treatment planning for HDR brachytherapy of cervical uteri cancer is reliable and more accurate in definition and calculation of the dose to the target as well as the critical organs. It allows dose calculation based on the actual volume rather than points or bony landmarks.
Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute 03/2008; 20(1):1-9.
ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study is to assess the response rate and toxicity profile in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer using brachytherapy (BT) boost following external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), concomitant with chemotherapy as a component of the neoadjuvant treatment.
This is a prospective phase II study of neoadjuvant chemo-radiation therapy for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who presented to the department of radiation oncology, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Seventeen patients had been included in the study. Radiation therapy was given as: phase I, 45 Gy/25 fractions/5 weeks of EBRT, followed by brachytherapy boost (within one week after the end of EBRT) using high dose rate iridium 192 (Ir192) aiming at 800 cGy given in 2 fractions (each 400 cGy) separated by 1 week. All patients received the same concomitant chemotherapy in the form of Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin. The clinical and pathological response rates, together with the toxicity profile were assessed.
Seventeen patients had been studied; the majority (14; 82%) were males, while 3 only (18%) were females, their mean age was 57.4 years. All patients had low anterior resection (LAR). The clinical response rate, assessed by digital rectal examination+/-endoscopy examination 4 weeks after the end of EBRT and BT, revealed that complete clinical response (cCR) was noted in 3 patients (18%), clinical partial response (cPR) in 14 patients (82%); while the pathological response rate was: complete pathological response (pCR) in 8 patients (47%), pathological partial response (pPR) in 9 patients (53%). The toxicity profile showed that grade III radiation proctitis was seen in one patient (6%), grade III dermatitis in 2 (12%), while no patients developed grade III cystitis. For chemotherapy toxicities, three patients (18%) developed grade III nausea and/or vomiting, 2 (12%) developed grade III diarrhea.
The use of high dose rate brachytherapy as a boost in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy setting in locally advanced rectal cancer is an acceptable modality with an appreciable clinical and pathological response rates as well as an acceptable toxicity profile.
Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute 03/2008; 20(1):10-6.