[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lethal outcomes can be expressed as a case fatality ratio (CFR) or as a mortality rate per 100,000 population per year (MR). Population surveillance for community-onset methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia was conducted in Canada, Australia, Sweden and Denmark to evaluate 30-day CFR and MR trends between 2000-2008. The CFR was 20.3% (MSSA 20.2%, MRSA 22.3%) and MR was 3.4 (MSSA 3.1, MRSA 0.3) per 100,000 per year. Although MSSA CFR case was stable the MSSA MR increased; MRSA CFR decreased while its MR remained low during the study. Community-onset S. aureus bacteraemia, particularly MSSA, is associated with major disease burden. This study highlights complementary information provided by evaluating both CFR and MR. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 01/2014; · 4.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: Although the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (BSI) has been changing, international comparisons are lacking. We sought to determine the incidence of S. aureus BSI and assess trends over time and by region. Population-based surveillance was conducted nationally in Finland and regionally in Canberra, Australia, western Sweden, and three areas in each of Canada and Denmark during 2000-2008. Incidence rates were age-standardized and gender-standardized to the EU 27-country 2007 population. During 83 million person-years of surveillance, 18 430 episodes of S. aureus BSI were identified. The overall annual incidence rate for S. aureus BSI was 26.1 per 100 000 population, and those for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were 24.2 and 1.9 per 100 000, respectively. Although the overall incidence of community-onset MSSA BSI (15.0 per 100 000) was relatively similar across regions, the incidence rates of hospital-onset MSSA (9.2 per 100 000), community-onset MRSA (1.0 per 100 000) and hospital-onset MRSA (0.8 per 100 000) BSI varied substantially. Whereas the overall incidence of S. aureus BSI did not increase over the study period, there was an increase in the incidence of MRSA BSI. Major changes in the occurrence of community-onset and hospital-onset MSSA and MRSA BSI occurred, but these varied significantly among regions, even within the same country. Although major changes in the epidemiology of community-onset and hospital-onset MSSA and MRSA BSIs are occurring, this multinational population-based study did not find that the overall incidence of S. aureus BSI is increasing.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection 04/2012; · 4.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to delineate the potential risks and dynamics of the prolonged carriage of resistant E. coli in returned travellers. A sample of 274 previously collected E. coli resistant to ceftriaxone (CRO), ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and/or nalidixic acid recovered from 102 travellers was studied. Travellers were assessed pre-travel then longitudinally (maximum 6 months) with peri-rectal/rectal swabs. Clonality was determined by REP-PCR and the presence of O25b-ST131 was assessed. Comparison was made longitudinally for individuals and between identified co-travellers. The risk of prolonged carriage was lower for CRO than for ciprofloxacin or gentamicin resistance. Repeated isolation of the same phenotype at different time points occurred in 19% of initial CRO-resistant carriers compared with 50% of ciprofloxacin- or gentamicin-resistant carriers. The duration of carriage was also longer for the latter resistance phenotypes (75th quartile 8 vs 62 and 63 days respectively). In multivariate analysis, risks of prolonged carriage included antimicrobial use whilst travelling (3.3, 1.3-8.4) and phylogenetic group B2 (9.3, 3.4-25.6) and D (3.8, 1.6-8.8). Clonality amongst longitudinal isolates from the same participant was demonstrated in 92% of participants who were assessable and most marked amongst CRO-resistant isolates. ST-131 was surprisingly infrequent (3% of participants). Prolonged carriage of ciprofloxacin- and gentamicin-resistant isolates is more frequent and prolonged than CRO resistance after travel. Risks of prolonged carriage indicate a contribution of host and bacterial factors to this carriage. These require further elucidation. The strong clonality identified suggests that carriage of a "phenotype" was mediated by persistence of bacteria/plasmid combinations rather than persistence of the plasmid after horizontal transfer to other bacteria.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 03/2012; 31(9):2413-20. · 3.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of invasive infection but contemporary data in non-selected populations is limited.
Population-based surveillance for Haemophilus influenzae bacteremia was conducted in seven regions in Australia, Canada, and Denmark during 2000-2008.
The overall annual incidence rate was 1.31 per 100,000 population and type specific rates were 0.08 for H. influenzae serotype b (Hib), 0.22 for H. influenzae serotypes a, c-f (Hiac-f), and 0.98 per 100,000 for non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi). Very young and old patients were at highest risk. The serotypes causing disease varied according to age with nearly all cases in the elderly due to NTHi. The presence of comorbid medical illness was common with 14%, 16%, and 29% patients having Charlson comorbidity scores of 1, 2, and ≥ 3, respectively. The 30-day all-cause case-fatality rate was 18%. Factors independently associated with death at 30-days in logistic regression analysis included male gender, hospital-onset disease, older age, and lower respiratory tract, central nervous system, or unknown focus of infection.
Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of morbidity and mortality particularly with NTHi in the elderly. These data serve as a baseline to assess the future effectiveness of new preventative interventions.
The Journal of infection 02/2011; 62(2):142-8. · 4.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antimicrobial resistance among community-acquired isolates of Escherichia coli is increasing globally, with international travel emerging as a risk for colonisation and infection. The aim was to determine the rate and duration of colonisation with resistant E. coli following international travel. One hundred and two adult hospital staff and contacts from Canberra, Australia, submitted perianal/rectal swabs before and following international travel. Swabs were cultured selectively to identify E. coli resistant to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and/or third-generation cephalosporins. Those with resistant E. coli post-travel were tested monthly for persistent colonisation. Colonisation with antibiotic-resistant E. coli increased significantly from 7.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8-14.9) pre-travel to 49% (95% CI 39.5-58.6) post-travel. Those colonised were more likely to have taken antibiotics whilst travelling; however, travel remained a risk independent of antibiotic use. Colonisation with resistant E. coli occurred most frequently following travel to Asia. While over half of those carrying resistant E. coli post-travel had no detectable resistant strains two months after their return, at least 18% remained colonised at six months. Colonisation with antibiotic-resistant E. coli occurs commonly after international travel, and can be persistent. Medical practitioners should be aware of this risk, particularly when managing patients with suspected Gram-negative sepsis.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 12/2010; 29(12):1501-6. · 3.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella enterica is an important emerging cause of invasive infections worldwide. However, population-based data are limited. The objective of this study was to define the occurrence of S. enterica bacteremia in a large international population and to evaluate temporal and regional differences.
We conducted population-based laboratory surveillance for all salmonella bacteremias in six regions (annual population at risk 7.7 million residents) in Finland, Australia, Denmark, and Canada during 2000-2007.
A total of 622 cases were identified for an annual incidence of 1.02 per 100,000 population. The incidence of typhoidal (serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi) and non-typhoidal (other serotypes) disease was 0.21 and 0.81 per 100,000/year. There was major regional and moderate seasonal and year to year variability with an increased incidence observed in the latter years of the study related principally to increasing rates of non-typhoidal salmonella bacteremias. Advancing age and male gender were significant risk factors for acquiring non-typhoidal salmonella bacteremia. In contrast, typhoidal salmonella bacteremia showed a decreasing incidence with advancing age and no gender-related excess risk.
Salmonella enterica is an important emerging pathogen and regional determinants of risk merits further investigation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma hominis most frequently causes diseases of the genitourinary tract. Extragenital infections are uncommon, with almost all occurring in immunosuppressed persons or those predisposed due to trauma or surgery. We present the case of a previously well man who developed an M. hominis-associated parapharyngeal abscess following acute Epstein-Barr virus infection.
Journal of clinical microbiology 08/2009; 47(9):3050-2. · 4.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper was to determine the population incidence and clinical features of Serratia sp. bacteremia in Canberra, Australia. Demographic and clinical data were collected prospectively for episodes of Serratia sp. bacteremia over a 10-year period, and was confined to Canberra residents using residential postal codes. Thirty-eight episodes of Serratia sp. bacteremia occurred, with a yearly incidence of 1.03 per 100,000 population. The majority of episodes occurred in males (68%). The respiratory tract was the most common focus of infection (21%). Twenty-nine percent of episodes were community-associated. A further 18% of episodes had their onset in the community but were healthcare-associated. The 7-day and 6-month mortality rates were 5 and 37%, respectively. Antibiotic resistance to gentamicin (3%) and ciprofloxacin (0%) was low. Serratia sp. bacteremia is more common than generally appreciated, with a large proportion (47%) of episodes having their onset in the community.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 03/2009; 28(7):821-4. · 3.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bloodstream infections are frequent causes of human illness and cause major morbidity and death. In order to best define the epidemiology of these infections and to track changes in occurrence, adverse outcome, and resistance rates over time, population based methodologies are optimal. However, few population-based surveillance systems exist worldwide, and because of differences in methodology inter-regional comparisons are limited. In this report we describe the rationale and propose first practical steps for developing an international collaborative approach to the epidemiologic study and surveillance for bacteremia.
The founding collaborative participants represent six regions in four countries in three continents with a combined annual surveillance population of more than 8 million residents.
Future studies from this collaborative should lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology of bloodstream infections.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the population incidence and clinical features of Escherichia coli bacteraemia in Canberra, Australia.
Canberra (including the nearby local government areas of Queanbeyan and Yarrowlumla) has a geographically isolated population of about 366 000 people. Its six hospitals also provide tertiary medical services for the surrounding region. Confining our analysis (by residential postcodes) to Canberra residents only, we used microbiology laboratory records and population statistics to calculate the population incidence of E. coli bacteraemia from January 2000 to December 2004. Clinical data were also collected prospectively on episodes occurring within three of the hospitals.
Population incidence of E. coli bacteraemia; place of acquisition of infection; focus of infection within body; recovery, new morbidity or death at 7 days.
During the 5-year period, 515 episodes of E. coli bacteraemia occurred in Canberra residents, an incidence of 28 per 100 000 population per year. The highest rate was in men aged > or = 80 years (463 per 100 000). Overall, E. coli bacteraemia occurred in equal numbers in males and females, but incidence was higher in males aged < 1 year and > or = 60 years. Most episodes occurred in people aged > or = 60 years (316/511 [62%]) and most were community-associated (347/511 [68%]). Half the infections (257/511) had a genitourinary focus and 28% (141/511) a gastrointestinal focus. The 7-day case-fatality rate was 5%. Prostate biopsies and urinary catheters were notable preventable foci of health care-associated bacteraemia. Resistance of isolates to gentamicin (2.1%), ciprofloxacin (1.8%) and cefotaxime (0.4%) was low.
E. coli is the most common cause of bacteraemia in Canberra, and incidence increases with age. Most cases have a community onset, but many episodes are related to health care procedures. Ongoing surveillance is important for identifying risk factors that may be modified to reduce disease.
The Medical journal of Australia 02/2008; 188(4):209-13. · 2.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nocardia species are aerobic Gram-positive bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment. Infection usually occurs through inhalation or direct cutaneous inoculation of the organism. It has been reported that infection is more common in warm, dry climates. Cerebral nocardiosis is an uncommon clinical entity, representing only 2% of all cerebral abscesses. It is an illness associated with significant morbidity and mortality.
We report 4 cases of nocardial brain abscesses presenting to TCH, Australia, within a 1-year period. All 4 cases occurred in men without any significant underlying immunocompromise. In 3 of the cases, the diagnosis was only established after craniotomy. All cases were given prolonged antimicrobial therapy. After more than 8 months of follow-up, there have been no deaths or treatment failures. There has been only one other case of nocardial brain abscess at TCH over the past 15 years. We review the current literature on cerebral nocardiosis.
Nocardial brain abscesses are uncommonly encountered at our institution. This cluster of 4 cases over a 1-year period has therefore led us to postulate that the severe drought may be aiding in the transmission of the bacteria. The cases also emphasize the propensity of nocardial infections to mimic other conditions, particularly malignancy, which may lead to delays in appropriate surgical treatment and antimicrobial therapy. The diagnosis requires a high clinical index of suspicion, with early tissue and microbiological diagnosis. Prolonged antimicrobial therapy is required to prevent relapse of the infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A woman presenting with recurrent purpura fulminans was eventually found to have inflammatory bowel disease. We suggest the inflammatory state resulted in a deficiency of functional protein C.
The Medical journal of Australia 05/2007; 186(7):373-5. · 2.85 Impact Factor