Jürgen Scheller

Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (140)697.42 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interleukin 23 (IL-23), composed of the cytokine subunit p19 and the soluble α receptor subunit p40, binds to the receptor complex consisting of the IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) and the IL-12 receptor β1 (IL-12Rβ1). Complex formation was hypothesized to follow the site I-II-III architectural paradigm with site I of p19 being required for binding to p40, whereas site II and site III of p19 mediate binding to IL-12Rβ1 and IL-23R, respectively. Here we show that the binding mode of p19 to p40 and of p19 to IL-23R follow the canonical site I and III paradigm but interaction of IL-23 to IL-12Rβ1 is independent of site II in p19. Instead, binding of IL-23 to the cytokine binding module (CBM) of IL-12Rβ1 is mediated by the domains 1 and 2 of p40 via corresponding site II amino acids of the IL-12Rβ1. Moreover, domains 2 and 3 of p40 were sufficient for complex formation with p19 and to induce binding of p19 to IL-23R. The Fc-tagged fusion protein of p40_D2D3/p19 did, however, not act as a competitive IL-23 antagonist but at higher concentrations induced proliferation via IL-23R but independent on IL-12Rβ1. Based on our experimental validation, we propose a non-canonical topology of the IL-23/IL-23R/IL-12Rβ1 complex. Furthermore, our data help to explain why p40 is an antagonist of IL-23 and IL-12 signaling and shows that site II of p19 is dispensable for IL-23 signaling.
    The Journal of biological chemistry. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine that orchestrates the immune response to a wide variety of pathophysiologic challenges but also contributes to tissue homeostasis. Furthermore, IL-6 is elevated in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Hyaluronan (HA) is an extracellular carbohydrate that has been implicated in wound healing and accumulates after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of IL-6 in the regulation of the HA-matrix in the early phase of infarct healing. In the present study, we show by the use of a blocking anti-IL-6 antibody, that endogenous IL-6 rapidly but transiently increased HA-synthase (HAS) 1 and 2 expression resulting in the formation of a HA-rich matrix acutely after AMI in mice. In vitro, IL-6 induced HAS1 and 2 via STAT3 phosphorylation in cardiac fibroblasts (CF) and supported a myofibroblastic phenotype in a HA-dependent manner. Furthermore, CCL5 and MCP1 expression were dependent on IL-6, HA-synthesis and the HA-receptor CD44 as shown in cultured CF derived from CD44 knockout mice. In vivo after AMI, blocking IL-6 decreased HA-matrix formation in the peri-infarct region and alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts. Blocking IL-6 also reduced neutrophil infiltration in infarcted left ventricles. Moreover, treatment with the blocking IL-6 antibody reduced cardiac ejection fraction and increased infarct size 3 weeks after AMI. These findings support a functionally important role for IL-6 in CF by transiently inducing a HA-rich matrix that in turn promotes a myofibroblastic phenotype and inflammatory responses, and ultimately establishes a cardioprotective program after AMI.
    Archiv für Kreislaufforschung 11/2014; 109(6):440. · 5.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-17A is regarded as an important cytokine to drive psoriasis, an inflammatory skin disease marked by increased cardiovascular mortality. We aimed to test the hypothesis that overproduction of IL-17A in the skin leading to dermal inflammation may systemically cause vascular dysfunction in psoriasis-like skin disease.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 10/2014; · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Immune cells regulate cell surface receptor expression during their maturation, activation, and motility. Although many of these receptors are regulated largely at the level of expression, protease-mediated ectodomain shedding represents an alternative means of refashioning the surface of immune cells. Shedding is largely attributed to a family of a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain (ADAM) metalloproteases, including ADAM17. Although ADAM17 is well known to contribute to the innate immune response, mainly by releasing TNF-α, much less is known about whether/how this metalloprotease regulates adaptive immunity. To determine whether ADAM17 contributes to regulating adaptive immune responses, we took advantage of ADAM17 hypomorphic (ADAM17(ex/ex)) mice, in which ADAM17 expression is reduced by 90-95% compared with wild-type littermates. In this study, we show that that ADAM17 deficiency results in spleen and lymph node enlargement, as well as increased levels of Ag-specific class-switched Ig production following immunization with OVA together with anti-CD40 mAbs and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. Moreover, we demonstrate that the costimulatory ligand ICOS ligand (ICOSL) is selectively downregulated on the surface of B cells in an ADAM17-specific manner, although it is not proteolitically processed by recombinant ADAM17 in vitro. Finally, we show that higher cell surface levels of ICOSL in ADAM17(ex/ex) mice may contribute to the development of excessive Ab responses. Therefore, our data suggest a functional link between ADAM17 and ICOSL in controlling adaptive immune responses.
    Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-6-deficient, but not IL-6 receptor (IL-6R)‑deficient mice present with a delayed skin wound healing phenotype. Since IL-6 solely signals via the IL-6R and glycoprotein 130 (gp130), Il-6r-deficient mice are expected to exhibit a similar phenotype as Il-6-deficient mice. However, p28 (IL-30) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) have been identified as additional low‑affinity ligands of the IL-6R/gp130/LIFR complex. IL-6 plays an inflammatory and regenerative role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, we compared Il-6r-deficient mice with mice treated with neutralizing IL-6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in a model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Our results, in agreement with those of previous reports, demonstrated that IL-6 mAbs slightly attenuated DSS-induced colitis during the regeneration phase. Il-6r-deficient mice and mice with tissue-specific deletion of the Il-6r in the myeloid cell lineage (LysMCre) with acute and chronic DSS-induced colitis were, however, indistinguishable from wild-type mice. Our data suggest that IL-6 and IL-6R have an additional role in colitis, apart from the IL-6/IL-6R classic and trans-signaling.
    International Journal of Molecular Medicine 06/2014; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-6 signals via a receptor complex composed of the signal-transducing β-receptor gp130 and the non-signaling membrane-bound or soluble IL-6 receptor α (IL-6R, sIL-6R), which is referred to as classic and trans-signaling, respectively. IL-6 trans-signaling is functionally associated with the development of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Soluble gp130 (sgp130) variants are natural inhibitors of trans-signaling. Differential splicing yields sgp130 isoforms. Here, we describe that alternative intronic polyadenylation (IPA) in intron 10 of the gp130 transcript results in a novel mRNA coding for a sgp130 protein isoform (sgp130-E10) of 70-80 kDa. The sgp130-E10 protein was expressed in vivo in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). To assess the biological activity of sgp130-E10, we expressed this variant as Fc-tagged fusion protein (sgp130-E10Fc). Recombinant sgp130-E10Fc binds to a complex of IL-6 and sIL-6R, but not to IL-6 alone, and specifically inhibits IL-6 trans-signaling. Thus, it might play an important role in the regulation of trans-signaling in vivo.
    The Journal of biological chemistry. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The pleiotropic activities of Interleukin (IL-)6 are controlled by membrane-bound and soluble forms of the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) in processes called classic and trans-signaling, respectively. The coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2228145 of the Interleukin 6 receptor (IL-6R Asp358Ala variant) is associated with an 2fold increase in soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) serum levels resulting in reduced IL-6-induced C-reactive protein (CRP) production and a reduced risk for coronary heart disease. It was suggested that the increased sIL-6R level lead to decreased IL-6 classic or increased IL-6 trans-signaling. Irrespective of the functional outcome of increased sIL-6R serum level, it is still under debate, whether the increased sIL-6R serum levels emerged from differential splicing or ectodomain shedding. Here we show that increased proteolytic ectodomain shedding mediated by the A Disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain (ADAM) proteases ADAM10 and ADAM17 caused increased sIL-6R serum level in vitro as well as in healthy volunteers homozygous for the IL-6R Asp358Ala allele. Differential splicing of the IL-6R appears to have only a minor effect on sIL-6R level. Increased ectodomain shedding resulted in reduced cell-surface expression of the IL-6R Asp358Ala variant compared to the common IL-6R variant. In conclusion, increased IL-6R ectodomain shedding is a mechanistic explanation for the increased serum IL-6R levels found in persons homozygous for the rs2228145 IL-6R Asp358Ala variant.
    Biochimica et biophysica acta. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a neurotrophic factor with therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, therapeutic application of CNTF reduced body weight in mice and humans. CNTF binds to high or low affinity receptor complexes consisting of CNTFR/gp130/LIFR or IL-6R/gp130/LIFR, respectively. Clinical studies of the CNTF derivative Axokine revealed intolerance at higher concentrations, which may rely on the low-affinity binding of CNTF to the IL-6R. Here, we aimed to generate a CNTFR-selective CNTF variant (CV). CV-1 contained the single amino acid exchange R28E. R28 is in close proximity to the CNTFR binding site. Using molecular modelling we hypothesised that R28 might contribute to IL-6R/CNTFR plasticity of CNTF. CV-2 to CV-5 were generated by transferring parts of the CNTFR binding site from Cardiotrophin-like cytokine (CLC) to CNTF. CLC selectively signals via the CNTFR/gp130/LIFR complex, albeit with a much lower affinity compared to CNTF. As shown by immunoprecipitation, all CNTF variants retained the ability to bind to CNTFR. CV-1, CV-2 and CV-5, however, lost the ability to bind to IL-6R. Although all variants induced cytokine-dependent cellular proliferation and STAT3 phosphorylation via CNTFR/gp130/LIFR, only CV-3 induced STAT3 phosphorylation via IL-6R/gp130/LIFR. Quantification of CNTF-dependent proliferation of CNTFR-gp130-LIFR expressing cells indicated that only CV-1 was as biologically active as CNTF. Thus, the CNTFR-selective CV-1 will allow discriminating between CNTFR- and IL-6R-mediated effects in vivo.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease-17 (ADAM17) is a major sheddase involved in the regulation of a wide range of biological processes. Key substrates of ADAM17 are the interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The extracellular region of ADAM17 consists of a pro-, a catalytic, a disintegrin and a membrane-proximal domain (MPD) as well as a small stalk region. This study demonstrates that this juxtamembrane segment is highly conserved, α-helical and involved in IL-6R binding. This process is regulated by the structure of the preceding MPD, which acts as molecular switch of ADAM17 activity operated by a protein-disulfide isomerase. Hence, we have termed the conserved stalk region "Conserved ADAM-SeventeeN Dynamic Interac-tion Sequence" (CANDIS). Finally, we identified the region in IL-6R, which binds to CANDIS. In contrast to the type-I transmembrane protein IL-6R, CANDIS does not bind the type-II transmembrane protein TNF-α, demonstrating fundamental differ-ences in the respective shedding by ADAM17.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Janus kinase / signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak/STAT) pathway can be activated by many different cytokines, among them all members of the Interleukin (IL-)6 family. Dysregulation of this pathway, resulting in its constitutive activation, is associated with chronic inflammation and cancer development. In the present study, we show that activity of protein kinase II (CK2), a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine kinase, is needed for induced activation of STAT1 and STAT3 by IL-6 classic and trans-signaling, IL-11, IL-27, oncostatin M (OSM), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1). Inhibition of CK2 efficiently prevented STAT phosphorylation and inhibited cytokine-dependent cell proliferation in a Jak1-dependent manner. Conversely, forced activation of CK2 alone was not sufficient to induce activation of the Jak/STAT signaling pathway. Inhibition of CK2 in turn inhibited Jak1-dependent STAT activation by oncogenic gp130 mutations. Furthermore, CK2 inhibition diminished the Jak1- and Src kinase-dependent phosphorylation of a constitutively active STAT3 mutant recently described in human large granular lymphocytic leukemia. In conclusion, we characterize CK2 as an essential component of the Jak/STAT pathway. Pharmacologic inhibition of this kinase is therefore a promising strategy to treat human inflammatory diseases and malignancies associated with constitutive activation of the Jak/STAT pathway.
    Oncotarget 03/2014; · 6.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL-6 is implicated in the pathogenesis of various neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders of the CNS. IL-6 signals via binding to either the membrane bound IL-6Rα (classic signaling) or soluble (s)IL-6Ra (trans-signaling) that then form a complex with gp130 to activate the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. The importance of classic versus trans-signaling in mediating IL-6 actions in the living CNS is relatively unknown and was the focus of this investigation. Bigenic mice (termed GFAP-IL6/sgp130 mice) were generated with CNS-restricted, astrocyte-targeted production of IL-6 and coproduction of the specific inhibitor of IL-6 trans-signaling, human sgp130-Fc. Transgene-encoded IL-6 mRNA levels were similar in the brain of GFAP-IL6 and GFAP-IL6/sgp130 mice. However, GFAP-IL6/sgp130 mice had decreased pY(705)-STAT3 in the brain due to a reduction in the total number of pY(705)-STAT3-positive cells and a marked loss of pY(705)-STAT3 in specific cell types. Blockade of trans-signaling in the brain of the GFAP-IL6 mice significantly attenuated Serpina3n but not SOCS3 gene expression, whereas vascular changes including angiogenesis and blood-brain barrier leakage as well as gliosis were also reduced significantly. Hippocampal neurogenesis which was impaired in GFAP-IL6 mice was rescued in young GFAP-IL6 mice with cerebral sgp130 production. Finally, degenerative changes in the cerebellum characteristic of GFAP-IL6 mice were absent in GFAP-IL6/sgp130 mice. The findings indicate that in the CNS: (1) sgp130 is able to block IL-6 trans-signaling, (2) trans-signaling is important for IL-6 cellular communication with selective cellular and molecular targets, and (3) blocking of trans-signaling alleviates many of the detrimental effects of IL-6.
    Journal of Neuroscience 02/2014; 34(7):2503-13. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pleiotropic activities of Interleukin (IL-)6 are controlled by membrane-bound and soluble forms of the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) in processes called classic and trans-signaling, respectively. The coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2228145 of the Interleukin 6 receptor (IL-6R Asp358Ala variant) is associated with an 2fold increase in soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) serum levels resulting in reduced IL-6-induced C-reactive protein (CRP) production and a reduced risk for coronary heart disease. It was suggested that the increased sIL-6R level lead to decreased IL-6 classic or increased IL-6 trans-signaling. Irrespective of the functional outcome of increased sIL-6R serum level, it is still under debate, whether the increased sIL-6R serum levels emerged from differential splicing or ectodomain shedding. Here we show that increased proteolytic ectodomain shedding mediated by the A Disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain (ADAM) proteases ADAM10 and ADAM17 caused increased sIL-6R serum level in vitro as well as in healthy volunteers homozygous for the IL-6R Asp358Ala allele. Differential splicing of the IL-6R appears to have only a minor effect on sIL-6R level. Increased ectodomain shedding resulted in reduced cell-surface expression of the IL-6R Asp358Ala variant compared to the common IL-6R variant. In conclusion, increased IL-6R ectodomain shedding is a mechanistic explanation for the increased serum IL-6R levels found in persons homozygous for the rs2228145 IL-6R Asp358Ala variant.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease 01/2014; · 4.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 and 4 (TIM-1 and -4) proteins serve as phosphatidylserine receptors to engulf apoptotic cells. Here we show that human TIM-1 and TIM-4 proteins are targets of A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease (ADAM)-mediated ectodomain shedding resulting in soluble forms of TIM-1 and TIM-4. We identified ADAM10 and ADAM17 as major sheddases of TIM-1 and TIM-4 as shown by protease-specific inhibitors, the ADAM10 prodomain, siRNA and ADAM10/ADAM17 deficient murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). TIM-1 and TIM-4 lacking the intracellular domain were efficiently cleaved after ionomycin- and PMA-treatment, indicating that the intracellular domain was not necessary for ectodomain shedding. Soluble TIM-1 and -4 were able to bind to phosphatidylserine, suggesting that soluble TIM-1 and -4 might act as negative regulators of cellular TIM-1 and -4. In summary, we describe TIM-1 and TIM-4 as novel targets for ADAM10- and ADAM17-mediated ectodomain shedding.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 01/2014; 1843(2):275–287. · 4.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myocardial inflammation is critical for ventricular remodeling after ischemia. Phospholipid mediators play an important role in inflammatory processes. In the plasma membrane they are degraded by phospholipase D1 (PLD1). PLD1 was shown to be critically involved in ischemic cardiovascular events. Moreover, PLD1 is coupled to tumor necrosis factor-α signaling and inflammatory processes. However, the impact of PLD1 in inflammatory cardiovascular disease remains elusive. Here, we analyzed the impact of PLD1 in tumor necrosis factor-α–mediated activation of monocytes after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion using a mouse model of myocardial infarction. PLD1 expression was highly up-regulated in the myocardium after ischemia/reperfusion. Genetic ablation of PLD1 led to defective cell adhesion and migration of inflammatory cells into the infarct border zone 24 hours after ischemia/reperfusion injury, likely owing to reduced tumor necrosis factor-α expression and release, followed by impaired nuclear factor-κB activation and interleukin-1 release. Moreover, PLD1 was found to be important for transforming growth factor-β secretion and smooth muscle α-actin expression of cardiac fibroblasts because myofibroblast differentiation and interstitial collagen deposition were altered in Pld1−/− mice. Consequently, infarct size was increased and left ventricular function was impaired 28 days after myocardial infarction in Pld1−/− mice. Our results indicate that PLD1 is crucial for tumor necrosis factor-α–mediated inflammation and transforming growth factor-β–mediated collagen scar formation, thereby augmenting cardiac left ventricular function after ischemia/reperfusion.
    American Journal Of Pathology 01/2014; · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) plays a pivotal role in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. Although anti-TNF antibody therapy is now commonly used to treat patients suffering from these inflammatory conditions, the cost of treatment continues to be a concern. Here, we developed a rice transgenic system for the production of a llama variable domain of a heavy-chain antibody fragment (VHH) specific for mouse TNF in rice seeds (MucoRice-mTNF-VHH). MucoRice-mTNF-VHH was produced at high levels in the rice seeds when we used our most recent transgene-overexpression system with RNA interference technology that suppresses the production of major rice endogenous storage proteins while enhancing the expression of the transgene-derived protein. Production levels of mTNF-VHH in rice seeds reached an average of 1.45% (w/w). Further, approximately 91% of mTNF-VHH was released easily when the powder form of MucoRice-mTNF-VHH was mixed with PBS. mTNF-VHH purified by means of single-step gel filtration from rice PBS extract showed high neutralizing activity in an in vitro mTNF cytotoxicity assay using WEHI164 cells. In addition, purified mTNF-VHH suppressed progression of collagen-induced arthritis in mice. These results show that this rice-expression system is useful for the production of neutralizing VHH antibody specific for mTNF.
    Journal of Biotechnology 01/2014; · 3.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Interleukin (IL)-12 family contains several heterodimeric composite cytokines which share subunits among each other. IL-12 consists of the subunits p40 (shared with IL-23) and p35. p35 is shared with the composite cytokine IL-35 which comprises of the p35/EBI3 heterodimer (EBI3 shared with IL-27). IL-35 signals via homo- or heterodimers of IL-12Rβ2, gp130 and WSX-1, which are shared with IL-12 and IL-27 receptor complexes, respectively. p35 was efficiently secreted in complex with p40 as IL-12 but not with EBI3 as IL-35 in several transfected cell lines tested which complicates the analysis of IL-35 signal transduction. p35 and p40 but not p35 and EBI3 form an inter-chain disulfide bridge. Mutation of the responsible cysteine residue (p40C197A) reduced IL-12 formation and activity only slightly. Importantly, the p40C197A mutation prevented the formation of antagonistic p40 homodimers which enabled the in vitro reconstitution of biologically active IL-12 with p35 produced in bacteria (p35bac). Reconstitution of IL-35 with p35bac and EBI3 did, however, fail to induce signal transduction in Ba/F3 cells expressing IL-12Rβ2 and gp130. In summary, we describe the in vitro reconstitution of IL-12, but fail to produce recombinant IL-35 by this novel approach.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e107990. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17) controls pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling events by promoting ectodomain shedding of cytokine-precursors and cytokine receptors. Despite the well documented substrate repertoire of ADAM17 little is known about regulatory mechanisms, leading to substrate recognition and catalytic activation. Here we report a direct interaction of the acidophilic kinase polo-like kinase 2 (PLK2, also known as SNK) with the cytoplasmic portion of ADAM17 through the C-terminal noncatalytic region of PLK2 containing the Polo-box domains (PBDs). PLK2 activity leads to ADAM17 phosphorylation at serine-794, which represents a novel phosphorylation site. Activation of ADAM17 by PLK2 results in the release of pro-TNFα and TNFRs from the cell surface and pharmacological inhibition of PLK2 leads to down-regulation of LPS-induced ADAM17-mediated shedding on primary macrophages and dendritic cells. Importantly, PLK2 expression is upregulated during inflammatory conditions increasing ADAM17-mediated proteolytic events. Our findings suggest a new role of PLK2 in the regulation of inflammatory diseases by modulating ADAM17 activity.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Jürgen Scheller, Christoph Garbers, Stefan Rose-John
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    ABSTRACT: Cytokines receptors exist in membrane bound and soluble form. A soluble form of the human IL-6R is generated by limited proteolysis and alternative splicing. The complex of IL-6 and soluble IL-6R stimulates target cells not stimulated by IL-6 alone, since they do not express the membrane bound IL-6R. We have named this process trans-signaling. Soluble gp130 is the natural inhibitor of IL-6/soluble IL-6R complex responses. Recombinant soluble gp130 protein is a molecular tool to discriminate between gp130 responses via membrane bound and soluble IL-6R responses. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies for global blockade of IL-6 signaling and the sgp130Fc protein for selective blockade of IL-6 trans-signaling have been used in several animal models of human diseases. Using the sgp130Fc protein or sgp130Fc transgenic mice we demonstrate in models of inflammatory bowel disease, peritonitis, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis pancreatitis, colon cancer, ovarian cancer and pancreatic cancer, that IL-6 trans-signaling via the soluble IL-6R is the crucial step in the development and the progression of the disease. Therefore, sgp130Fc is a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer and it undergoes phase I clinical trials as an anti-inflammatory drug since June 2013.
    Seminars in Immunology 12/2013; · 5.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously characterized mouse CMV (MCMV)-encoded immune-evasive IFN signaling inhibition and identified the viral protein pM27 as inducer of proteasomal degradation of STAT2. Extending our analysis to STAT1 and STAT3, we found that MCMV infection neither destabilizes STAT1 protein nor prevents STAT1 tyrosine Y701 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, or the capability to bind γ-activated sequence DNA-enhancer elements. Unexpectedly, the analysis of STAT3 revealed an induction of STAT3 Y705 phosphorylation by MCMV. In parallel, we found decreasing STAT3 protein amounts upon MCMV infection, although STAT3 expression normally is positive autoregulative. STAT3 phosphorylation depended on the duration of MCMV infection, the infectious dose, and MCMV gene expression but was independent of IFNAR1, IL-10, IL-6, and JAK2. Although STAT3 phosphorylation did not require MCMV immediate early 1, pM27, and late gene expression, it was restricted to MCMV-infected cells and not transmitted to bystander cells. Despite intact STAT1 Y701 phosphorylation, IFN-γ-induced target gene transcription (e.g., IRF1 and suppressor of cytokine signaling [SOCS] 1) was strongly impaired. Likewise, the induction of STAT3 target genes (e.g., SOCS3) by IL-6 was also abolished, indicating that MCMV antagonizes STAT1 and STAT3 despite the occurrence of tyrosine phosphorylation. Consistent with the lack of SOCS1 induction, STAT1 phosphorylation was prolonged upon IFN-γ treatment. We conclude that the inhibition of canonical STAT1 and STAT3 target gene expression abrogates their intrinsic negative feedback loops, leading to accumulation of phospho-tyrosine-STAT3 and prolonged STAT1 phosphorylation. These findings challenge the generalization of tyrosine-phosphorylated STATs necessarily being transcriptional active and document antagonistic effects of MCMV on STAT1/3-dependent target gene expression.
    The Journal of Immunology 12/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 and 4 (TIM-1 and -4) proteins serve as phosphatidylserine receptors to engulf apoptotic cells. Here we show that human TIM-1 and TIM-4 proteins are targets of A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease (ADAM)-mediated ectodomain shedding resulting in soluble forms of TIM-1 and TIM-4. We identified ADAM10 and ADAM17 as major sheddases of TIM-1 and TIM-4 as shown by protease-specific inhibitors, the ADAM10 prodomain, siRNA and ADAM10/ADAM17 deficient murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). TIM-1 and TIM-4 lacking the intracellular domain were efficiently cleaved after ionomycin- and PMA-treatment, indicating that the intracellular domain was not necessary for ectodomain shedding. Soluble TIM-1 and -4 were able to bind to phosphatidylserine, suggesting that soluble TIM-1 and -4 might act as negative regulators of cellular TIM-1 and -4. In summary, we describe TIM-1 and TIM-4 as novel targets for ADAM10- and ADAM17-mediated ectodomain shedding.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 11/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
697.42 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf
      • Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology II
      Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2004–2013
    • Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
      • Institute of Biochemistry
      Kiel, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany
  • 2005–2011
    • Cardiff University
      • • Department of Infection, Immunity and Biochemistry
      • • Department of Medical Biochemistry and Immunology
      Cardiff, WLS, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2001–2010
    • Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research
      • Department of Molecular Genetics
      Gatersleben, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany