Jerome Barakos

California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute, San Francisco, California, United States

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Publications (25)132.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:AD is one of the few leading causes of death without a disease-modifying drug; however, hopeful agents are in various phases of development. MR imaging abnormalities, collectively referred to as amyloid-related imaging abnormalities, have been reported for several agents that target cerebral Aβ burden. ARIA includes ARIA-E, parenchymal or sulcal hyperintensities on FLAIR indicative of parenchymal edema or sulcal effusions, and ARIA-H, hypointense regions on gradient recalled-echo/T2* indicative of hemosiderin deposition. This report describes imaging characteristics of ARIA-E and ARIA-H identified during studies of bapineuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against Aβ.MATERIALS AND METHODS:Two neuroradiologists with knowledge of imaging changes reflective of ARIA reviewed MR imaging scans from 210 bapineuzumab-treated patients derived from 3 phase 2 studies. Each central reader interpreted the studies independently, and discrepancies were resolved by consensus. The inter-reader κ was 0.76, with 94% agreement between neuroradiologists regarding the presence or absence of ARIA-E in individual patients.RESULTS:Thirty-six patients were identified with incident ARIA-E (17.1%, 36/210) and 26 with incident ARIA-H (12.4%, 26/210); of those with incident ARIA-H, 24 had incident microhemorrhages and 2 had incident large superficial hemosiderin deposits.CONCLUSIONS:In 49% of cases of ARIA-E, there was the associated appearance of ARIA-H. In treated patients without ARIA-E, the risk for incident blood products was 4%. This association between ARIA-E and ARIA-H may suggest a common pathophysiologic mechanism. Familiarity with ARIA should permit radiologists and clinicians to recognize and communicate ARIA findings more reliably for optimal patient management.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 04/2013; · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Quantitative neuroimaging analyses have demonstrated gray and white matter abnormalities in group comparisons of different types of non-lesional partial epilepsy. It is unknown to what degree these type-specific patterns exist in individual patients and if they could be exploited for diagnostic purposes. In this study, a two-level multi-modality imaging Bayesian network approach is proposed that uses information about individual gray matter volume loss and white matter integrity to classify non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy with (TLE-MTS) and without (TLE-no) mesial-temporal sclerosis and frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). METHODS: 25 controls, 19 TLE-MTS, 22 TLE-no and 14 FLE were studied on a 4T MRI and T1 weighted structural and DTI images acquired. Spatially normalized gray matter (GM) and fractional anisotropy (FA) abnormality maps (binary maps with voxels 1 SD below control mean) were calculated for each subject. At the first level, each group's abnormality maps were compared with those from all the other groups using Graphical-Model-based Morphometric Analysis (GAMMA). GAMMA uses a Bayesian network and a Markov random field based contextual clustering method to produce maps of voxels that provide the maximal distinction between two groups and calculates a probability distribution and a group assignment based on this information. The information was then combined in a second level Bayesian network and the probability of each subject to belong to one of the three epilepsy types calculated. RESULTS: The specificities of the two level Bayesian network to distinguish between the three patient groups were 0.87 for TLE-MTS and TLE-no and 0.86 for FLE, the corresponding sensitivities were 0.84 for TLE-MTS, 0.72 for TLE-no and 0.64 for FLE CONCLUSION: The two-level multi-modality Bayesian network approach was able to distinguish between the three epilepsy types with a reasonably high accuracy even though the majority of the images were completely normal on visual inspection.
    NeuroImage 01/2013; · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amyloid-related imaging abnormalities (ARIA) have been reported in patients with Alzheimer's disease treated with bapineuzumab, a humanised monoclonal antibody against amyloid β. ARIA include MRI signal abnormalities suggestive of vasogenic oedema and sulcal effusions (ARIA-E) and microhaemorrhages and haemosiderin deposits (ARIA-H). Our aim was to investigate the incidence of ARIA during treatment with bapineuzumab, and evaluate associated risk factors. Two neuroradiologists independently reviewed 2572 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI scans from 262 participants in two phase 2 studies of bapineuzumab and an open-label extension study. Readers were masked to the patient's treatment, APOE ɛ4 genotype, medical history, and demographics. Patients were included in risk analyses if they had no evidence of ARIA-E in their pre-treatment MRI, had received bapineuzumab, and had at least one MRI scan after treatment. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis to examine the distribution of incident ARIA-E from the start of bapineuzumab treatment and proportional hazards regression models to assess risk factors associated with ARIA. 210 patients were included in the risk analyses. 36 patients (17%) developed ARIA-E during treatment with bapineuzumab; 15 of these ARIA-E cases (42%) had not been detected previously. 28 of these patients (78%) did not report associated symptoms. Adverse events, reported in eight symptomatic patients, included headache, confusion, and neuropsychiatric and gastrointestinal symptoms. Incident ARIA-H occurred in 17 of the patients with ARIA-E (47%), compared with seven of 177 (4%) patients without ARIA-E. 13 of the 15 patients in whom ARIA were detected in our study received additional treatment infusions while ARIA-E were present, without any associated symptoms. Occurrence of ARIA-E increased with bapineuzumab dose (hazard ratio [HR] 2·24 per 1 mg/kg increase in dose, 95% CI 1·40-3·62; p=0·0008) and presence of APOE ɛ4 alleles (HR 2·55 per allele, 95% CI 1·57-4·12; p=0·0001). ARIA consist of a spectrum of imaging findings with variable clinical correlates, and some patients with ARIA-E remain asymptomatic even if treatment is continued. The increased risk of ARIA among APOE ɛ4 carriers, its association with high bapineuzumab dose, and its timecourse in relation to dosing suggest an association between ARIA and alterations in vascular amyloid burden. Elan Corporation, Janssen Alzheimer Immunotherapy, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, and Pfizer.
    The Lancet Neurology 03/2012; 11(3):241-9. · 23.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A yearling male California sea lion Zalophus californianus with hypermetric ataxia and bilateral negative menace reflexes was brought to The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, California, U.S.A., in late 2009 for medical assessment and treatment. The clinical signs were due to multiple gas bubbles within the cerebellum. These lesions were intraparenchymal, multifocal to coalescing, spherical to ovoid, and varied from 0.5 to 2.4 cm diameter. The gas composed 21.3% of the total cerebellum volume. Three rib fractures were also noted during diagnostic evaluation and were presumed to be associated with the gas bubbles in the brain. The progression of clinical signs and lesion appearance were monitored with magnetic resonance imaging, cognitive function testing and computed tomography. Gas filled voids in the cerebellum were filled with fluid on follow up images. Clinical signs resolved and the sea lion was released with a satellite tag attached. Post release the animal travelled approximately 75 km north and 80 km south of the release site and the tag recorded dives of over 150 m depth. The animal re-stranded 25 d following release and died of a subacute bronchopneumonia and pleuritis. This is the first instance of clinical injury due to gas bubble formation described in a living pinniped and the first sea lion with quantifiable cerebellar damage to take part in spatial learning and memory testing.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 09/2011; 96(2):89-96. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: VBM, DBM, and cortical thickness measurement techniques are commonly used automated methods to detect structural brain changes based on MR imaging. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the pathology detected by the 3 methods and to provide guidance as to which method to choose for specific research questions. This goal was accomplished by 1) identifying structural abnormalities associated with TLE with (TLE-mts) and without (TLE-no) hippocampal sclerosis, which are known to be associated with different types of brain atrophy, by using these 3 methods; and 2) determining the aspect of the disease pathology identified by each method. T1-weighted MR images were acquired for 15 TLE-mts patients, 14 TLE-no patients, and 33 controls on a high-field 4T scanner. Optimized VBM was carried out by using SPM software, DBM was performed by using a fluid-flow registration algorithm, and cortical thickness was analyzed by using FS-CT. In TLE-mts, the most pronounced volume losses were identified in the ipsilateral hippocampus and mesial temporal region, bilateral thalamus, and cerebellum, by using SPM-VBM and DBM. In TLE-no, the most widespread changes were cortical and identified by using FS-CT, affecting the bilateral temporal lobes, insula, and frontal and occipital lobes. DBM revealed 2 clusters of reduced volume complementing FS-CT analysis. SPM-VBM did not show any significant volume losses in TLE-no. These results demonstrate that the 3 methods detect different aspects of brain atrophy and that the choice of the method should be guided by the suspected pathology of the disease.
    American Journal of Neuroradiology 08/2011; 32(9):1669-76. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MR spectroscopy has demonstrated extrahippocampal NAA/(Cr+Cho) reductions in medial temporal lobe epilepsy with (TLE-MTS) and without (TLE-no) mesial temporal sclerosis. Because of the limited brain coverage of those previous studies, it was, however, not possible to assess differences in the distribution and extent of these abnormalities between TLE-MTS and TLE-no. This study used a 3D whole brain echoplanar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) sequence to address the following questions: (1) Do TLE-MTS and TLE-no differ regarding severity and distribution of extrahippocampal NAA/(Cr+Cho) reductions? (2) Do extrahippocampal NAA/(Cr+Cho) reductions provide additional information for focus lateralization? Forty-three subjects (12 TLE-MTS, 13 TLE-no, 18 controls) were studied with 3D EPSI. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) was used to identify regions of significantly decreased NAA/(Cr+Cho) in TLE groups and in individual patients. TLE-MTS and TLE-no had widespread extrahippocampal NAA/(Cr+Cho) reductions. NAA/(Cr+Cho) reductions had a bilateral fronto-temporal distribution in TLE-MTS and a more diffuse, less well defined distribution in TLE-no. Extrahippocampal NAA/(Cr+Cho) decreases in the single subject analysis showed a large inter-individual variability and did not provide additional focus lateralizing information. Extrahippocampal NAA/(Cr+Cho) reductions in TLE-MTS and TLE-no are neither focal nor homogeneous. This reduces their value for focus lateralization and suggests a heterogeneous etiology of extrahippocampal spectroscopic metabolic abnormalities in TLE.
    Journal of Neurology 10/2010; 258(4):603-12. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our goal in this study was to compare magnetic resonance images and volumes of brain structures obtained alive versus postmortem of California sea lions Zalophus californianus exhibiting clinical signs of domoic acid (DA) toxicosis and those exhibiting normal behavior. Proton density-(PD) and T2-weighted images of postmortem-intact brains, up to 48 h after death, provided similar quality to images acquired from live sea lions. Volumes of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) of the cerebral hemispheres were similar to volumes calculated from images acquired when the sea lions were alive. However, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes decreased due to leakage. Hippocampal volumes from postmortem-intact images were useful for diagnosing unilateral and bilateral atrophy, consequences of DA toxicosis. These volumes were similar to the volumes in the live sea lion studies, up to 48 h postmortem. Imaging formalin-fixed brains provided some information on brain structure; however, images of the hippocampus and surrounding structures were of poorer quality compared to the images acquired alive and postmortem-intact. Despite these issues, volumes of cerebral GM and WM, as well as the hippocampus, were similar to volumes calculated from images of live sea lions and sufficient to diagnose hippocampal atrophy. Thus, postmortem MRI scanning (either intact or formalin-fixed) with volumetric analysis can be used to investigate the acute, chronic and possible developmental effects of DA on the brain of California sea lions.
    Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 09/2010; 91(3):243-56. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Carbon-11-labelled Pittsburgh compound B ((11)C-PiB) PET is a marker of cortical fibrillar amyloid-beta load in vivo. We used (11)C-PiB PET to investigate whether bapineuzumab, a humanised anti-amyloid-beta monoclonal antibody, would reduce cortical fibrillar amyloid-beta load in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease were randomly assigned to receive intravenous bapineuzumab or placebo in a ratio of seven to three in three ascending dose groups (0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg). Each dose group was enrolled after safety review of the previous group. Randomisation was by interactive voice response system; masking was achieved with numbered kit allocation. Patients, investigators, study site personnel, sponsor staff, and carers were masked to treatment. Patients received up to six infusions, 13 weeks apart, and had (11)C-PiB PET scans at baseline and at weeks 20, 45, and 78. The primary outcome was the difference between the pooled bapineuzumab group and the pooled placebo group in mean change from screening to week 78 in (11)C-PiB cortical to cerebellar retention ratio averaged across six cortical regions of interest. Analysis was by modified intention to treat. This study is registered with EudraCT, number 2004-004120-12; ISRCTN17517446. 28 patients were assigned to bapineuzumab (n=20) or placebo (n=8). 19 patients in the bapineuzumab group and seven in the placebo group were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. Estimated mean (11)C-PiB retention ratio change from baseline to week 78 was -0.09 (95% CI -0.16 to -0.02; p=0.014) in the bapineuzumab group and 0.15 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.28; p=0.022) in the placebo group. Estimated mean difference in (11)C-PiB retention ratio change from baseline to week 78 between the bapineuzumab group and the placebo group was -0.24 (95% CI -0.39 to -0.09; p=0.003). Differences between the bapineuzumab group and the placebo group in the individual regions of interest were similar to the overall mean difference. Adverse events were typically mild to moderate in severity and transient. Two patients in the 2.0 mg/kg bapineuzumab group had transient cerebral vasogenic oedema. Treatment with bapineuzumab for 78 weeks reduced cortical (11)C-PiB retention compared with both baseline and placebo. (11)C-PiB PET seems to be useful in assessing the effects of potential Alzheimer's disease treatments on cortical fibrillar amyloid-beta load in vivo. Elan Pharmaceuticals and Wyeth Research.
    The Lancet Neurology 02/2010; 9(4):363-72. · 23.92 Impact Factor
  • Lancet Neurology - LANCET NEUROL. 01/2010; 9(4):363-372.
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    ABSTRACT: Domoic acid (DA) is a neuroexcitatory toxin increasingly causing strandings and mortality of marine mammals. The hippocampus of mammalian brains, associated with learning, memory, and spatial navigation, is one of the predominant regions affected by DA exposure. California sea lions stranding from 2003 to 2006 as a result of DA toxicosis were classified as having acute (n= 12) or chronic neurologic (n= 22) clinical signs. Chronic neurologic cases were examined by magnetic resonance imaging to determine the extent of brain damage related to DA exposure. Brain damage included hippocampal and parahippocampal atrophy, temporal horn enlargement, and pathological T2 hyperintensity. Posttreatment, animals were fitted with satellite transmitters and their movement and dive behaviors compared with those of a control group. The only significant difference between acute and chronic animals was distance traveled per day. There were, however, significant differences between chronic neurologic cases and controls: chronic neurologic cases dove shallower for shorter durations, traveled further from shore, and spent less time hauled out and more time surface swimming than control animals. There was no relationship between severity of brain damage and behavioral patterns for chronic neurologic cases. Sea lions with chronic neurologic changes had a poor prognosis for survival following release.
    Marine Mammal Science 12/2009; 26(1):36 - 52. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The thalamus plays an important role in seizure propagation in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This study investigated how structural abnormalities in the focus, ipsilateral thalamus and extrafocal cortical structures relate to each other in TLE with mesiotemporal sclerosis (TLE-MTS) and without hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-no). T₁ and high-resolution T₂ images were acquired on a 4T magnet in 29 controls, 15 TLE-MTS cases, and 14 TLE-no. Thalamus volumes were obtained by warping a labeled atlas onto each subject's brain. Deformation-based morphometry was used to identify regions of thalamic volume loss and FreeSurfer for cortical thickness measurements. CA1 volumes were obtained from high-resolution T₂ images. Multiple regression analysis and correlation analyses for voxel- and vertex-based analyses were performed in SPM2 and FreeSurfer. TLE-MTS had bilateral volume loss in the anterior thalamus, which was correlated with CA1 volume and cortical thinning in the mesiotemporal lobe. TLE-no had less severe volume loss in the dorsal lateral nucleus, which was correlated with thinning in the mesiotemporal region but not with extratemporal thinning. The findings suggest that seizure propagation from the presumed epileptogenic focus or regions close to it into the thalamus occurs in TLE-MTS and TLE-no and results in circumscribed neuronal loss in the thalamus. However, seizure spread beyond the thalamus seems not to be responsible for the extensive extratemporal cortical abnormalities in TLE.
    Epilepsia 12/2009; 51(8):1436-45. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bapineuzumab, a humanized anti-amyloid-beta (Abeta) monoclonal antibody for the potential treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD), was evaluated in a multiple ascending dose, safety, and efficacy study in mild to moderate AD. The study enrolled 234 patients, randomly assigned to IV bapineuzumab or placebo in 4 dose cohorts (0.15, 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mg/kg). Patients received 6 infusions, 13 weeks apart, with final assessments at week 78. The prespecified primary efficacy analysis in the modified intent-to-treat population assumed linear decline and compared treatment differences within dose cohorts on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive and Disability Assessment for Dementia. Exploratory analyses combined dose cohorts and did not assume a specific pattern of decline. No significant differences were found in the primary efficacy analysis. Exploratory analyses showed potential treatment differences (p < 0.05, unadjusted for multiple comparisons) on cognitive and functional endpoints in study "completers" and APOE epsilon4 noncarriers. Reversible vasogenic edema, detected on brain MRI in 12/124 (9.7%) bapineuzumab-treated patients, was more frequent in higher dose groups and APOE epsilon4 carriers. Six vasogenic edema patients were asymptomatic; 6 experienced transient symptoms. Primary efficacy outcomes in this phase 2 trial were not significant. Potential treatment differences in the exploratory analyses support further investigation of bapineuzumab in phase 3 with special attention to APOE epsilon4 carrier status. Classification of evidence: Due to varying doses and a lack of statistical precision, this Class II ascending dose trial provides insufficient evidence to support or refute a benefit of bapineuzumab.
    Neurology 11/2009; 73(24):2061-70. · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    George Fein, Ryan Shimotsu, Jerome Barakos
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    ABSTRACT: Background: We previously demonstrated, in a small sample, steeper age-related gray matter shrinkage in treatment naïve alcohol-dependent (TxN) men compared to nonalcoholic controls, but could not separate out the contributions of age and lifetime duration of alcohol use (which were highly correlated) to this effect. In the current study, we have quadrupled the sample size and expanded it to include both men and women to try to replicate and extend the previous findings and to separate the contributions of age and alcohol use to the phenomenon. Methods: In the current study, we examine cortical gray matter volumes in 18- to 50-year-old TxN (n = 84) versus age and gender comparable controls (n = 67). We used a new Region of Interest Analysis method which accounts for differences in sulcal and gyral enfolding between individuals (Fein et al., 2009a). Results: We found greater age-related gray matter shrinkage in TxN than in controls. Partial correlation analysis showed that the effect was a function of age and not lifetime alcohol burden. Conclusions: Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of their contribution toward our knowledge of differences between different subpopulations of alcoholics and in terms of their implications for the morbidity of alcohol dependence in an aging national population.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 10/2009; 34(1):175-82. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) has been a focal point for sensory, communication, cognition, and neurological disease studies in marine mammals. However, as a scientific community, we lack a noninvasive approach to investigate the anatomy and size of brain structures in this species and other free-ranging, live marine mammals. In this article, we provide the first anatomically labeled, magnetic resonance imaging-based atlas derived from a live marine mammal, the California sea lion. The brain of the California seal lion contained more secondary gyri and sulci than the brains of terrestrial carnivores. The olfactory bulb was present but small. The hippocampus of the California sea lion was found mostly in the ventral position with very little extension dorsally, quite unlike the canids and the mustelids, in which the hippocampus is present in the ventral position but extends dorsally above the thalamus. In contrast to the canids and the mustelids, the pineal gland of the California sea lion was strikingly large. In addition, we report three-dimensional reconstructions and volumes of cerebrospinal fluid, cerebral ventricles, total white matter (WM), total gray matter (GM), cerebral hemispheres (WM and GM), cerebellum and brainstem combined (WM and GM), and hippocampal structures all derived from magnetic resonance images. These measurements are the first to be determined for any pinniped species. In California sea lions, this approach can be used not only to relate cognitive and sensory capabilities to brain size but also to investigate the neurological effects of exposure to neurotoxins such as domoic acid.
    The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 09/2009; 292(10):1523-47. · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated relatively intact cognitive function (with the exception of suggestive evidence for persistent deficits in spatial information processing) in middle-aged long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA, abstinent for 6 months or more) compared to age and gender comparable nonalcoholic controls (NAC) (Fein et al., 2006). In the current study, we examine cortical gray matter volumes in the same samples to determine whether gray matter volumes in LTAA are consistent with the cognitive results--i.e., exhibiting gray matter volumes comparable to NAC in most brain regions, except for possible indications of persistent shrinkage in the parietal lobe subserving spatial information processing. We found gray matter shrinkage in LTAA in the parietal lobe consistent with the spatial processing deficits in this same sample. More compelling, in LTAA, the magnitude of parietal gray matter shrinkage was negatively associated with spatial processing domain performance and positively associated with alcohol dose. Gray matter volume deficits were present in the occipital and other cortical tissue, but poorer visuospatial test performance correlated significantly with smaller volumes in the parietal cortex only. Taken together, the cognitive and structural imaging data provide compelling evidence that chronic alcohol abuse results in shrinkage of the parietal cortex with associated deficits in spatial information processing.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 08/2009; 33(10):1806-14. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extrafocal structural abnormalities have been consistently described in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with mesial temporal lobe sclerosis (TLE-MTS). In TLE without MTS (TLE-no) extrafocal abnormalities are more subtle and often require region of interest analyses for their detection. Cortical thickness measurements might be better suited to detect such subtle abnormalities than conventional whole brain volumetric techniques which are often negative in TLE-no. The aim of this study was to seek and characterize patterns of cortical thinning in TLE-MTS and TLE-no. T1 weighted whole brain images were acquired on a 4 T magnet in 66 subjects (35 controls, 15 TLE-MTS, 16 TLE-no). Cortical thickness measurements were obtained using the FreeSurfer software routine. Group comparisons and correlation analyses were done using the statistical routine of FreeSurfer (FDR, p=0.05). TLE-MTS and TLE-no showed both widespread temporal and extratemporal cortical thinning. In TLE-MTS, the inferior medial and posterior temporal regions were most prominently affected while lateral temporal and opercular regions were more affected in TLE-no. The correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between the ipsilateral hippocampal volume and regions of thinning in TLE-MTS and between inferior temporal cortical thickness and thinning in extratemporal cortical regions in TLE-no. The pattern of thinning in TLE-no was different from the pattern in TLE-MTS. This finding suggests that different epileptogenic networks could be involved in TLE-MTS and TLE and further supports the hypothesis that TLE-MTS and TLE-no might represent two distinct TLE syndromes.
    NeuroImage 03/2009; 46(2):353-9. · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 4 Tesla depicts details of the internal structure of the hippocampus not visible at 1.5 Tesla, and so allows for in vivo parcellation of different hippocampal subfields. The aim of this study was to test if distinct subfield atrophy patterns can be detected in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with mesial temporal sclerosis (TLE-MTS) and without (TLE-no) hippocampal sclerosis. High-resolution T(2)-weighted hippocampal images were acquired in 34 controls: 15 TLE-MTS and 18 TLE-no. Entorhinal cortex (ERC), subiculum (SUB), CA1, CA2, and CA3, and dentate (CA3&DG) volumes were determined using a manual parcellation scheme. TLE-MTS had significantly smaller ipsilateral CA1, CA2, CA3&DG, and total hippocampal volume than controls or TLE-no. Mean ipsilateral CA1 and CA3&DG z-scores were significantly lower than ipsilateral CA2, ERC, and SUB z-scores. There were no significant differences between the various subfield or hippocampal z-scores on either the ipsi- or the contralateral side in TLE-no. Using a z-score <or=-2.0 to identify severe volume loss, the following atrophy patterns were found in TLE-MTS: CA1 atrophy, CA3&DG atrophy, CA1 and CA3&DG atrophy, and global hippocampal atrophy. Significant subfield atrophy was found in three TLE-no: contralateral SUB atrophy, bilateral CA3&DG atrophy, and ipsilateral ERC and SUB atrophy. Using a manual parcellation scheme on 4 Tesla high-resolution MRI, we found the characteristic ipsilateral CA1 and CA3&DG atrophy described in TLE-MTS. Seventeen percent of the TLE-no had subfield atrophy despite normal total hippocampal volume. These findings indicate that high-resolution MRI and subfield volumetry provide superior information compared to standard hippocampal volumetry.
    Epilepsia 03/2009; 50(6):1474-83. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The harmful effects of alcohol dependence on brain structure and function have been well documented, with many resolving with sufficient abstinence. White matter signal hyperintensities (WMSH) are thought to most likely be consequences secondary to the vascular (i.e., hypertension and atherosclerosis) effects of AD. We hypothesized that such effects would persist into long-term abstinence, and evaluated them in middle-aged long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA) compared with age and gender comparable nonalcoholic controls (NAC). Ninety-seven participants (51 LTAA and 46 NAC) underwent cognitive, psychiatric, and structural brain magnetic resonance image evaluations. WMSH were identified and labeled as deep or periventricular by an automated algorithm developed in-house. WMSH volumes were compared between groups, and the associations of WMSH measures with demographic, alcohol use, psychiatric, and cognitive measures were examined within group. Long-term abstinent alcoholics had more WMSH than NAC. There was a significant group by age interaction, with WMSH increasing with age in LTAA, but not in NAC. Within LTAA, WMSH load was independently positively associated with alcohol burden and with age. No associations were evident between WMSH volumes and abstinence duration, family drinking history, years of education, or psychiatric or cognitive variables. The magnitude of alcohol abuse was related to increased WMSH volume. The presence of an age effect in the LTAA but not the controls indicates a synergistic effect wherein alcohol advances the onset of aging-related WMSH formation. The increased WMSH load did not appear to have any significant clinical correlates, indicating that the white matter lesions in our sample may not have been severe enough to manifest as cognitive deficits. A limitation of the study is that we did not have data on the presence or severity of lifetime or current indices of vascular risk factors such as hypertension, smoking, or diabetes.
    Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 11/2008; 33(1):70-8. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Harmful algal blooms are increasing worldwide, including those of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. producing domoic acid off the California coast. This neurotoxin was first shown to cause mortality of marine mammals in 1998. A decade of monitoring California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) health since then has indicated that changes in the symptomatology and epidemiology of domoic acid toxicosis in this species are associated with the increase in toxigenic blooms. Two separate clinical syndromes now exist: acute domoic acid toxicosis as has been previously documented, and a second novel neurological syndrome characterized by epilepsy described here associated with chronic consequences of previous sub-lethal exposure to the toxin. This study indicates that domoic acid causes chronic damage to California sea lions and that these health effects are increasing.
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 03/2008; 275(1632):267-76. · 5.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently demonstrated impairment on the Simulated Gambling Task (SGT) in long-term abstinent alcoholics (AbsAlc). Brain regions that have been shown to be necessary for intact SGT performance are the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and the amygdala; patients with VMPFC or amygdalar damage demonstrate SGT impairments similar to those of substance abusing populations. We examined these brain regions, using T1-weighted MRIs, in the 101 participants from our previous study using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). VBM was performed using a modification we developed [Fein, G., Landman, B., Tran, H., Barakos, J., Moon, K., Di Sclafani, V., Shumway, R., 2006. Statistical parametric mapping of brain morphology: sensitivity is dramatically increased by using brain-extracted images as inputs. Neuroimage] of Baron's procedure, [], in which we use skull-stripped images as input. We also restricted the analysis to a ROI consisting of the amygdala and VMPFC as defined by the Talairach Daemon resource. Compared to the controls, the AbsAlc participants had significant foci of reduced gray matter density within the amygdala. Thus, SGT decision-making deficits are associated with reduced gray matter in the amygdala, a brain region previously implicated in similar decision-making impairments in neurological samples. This structurally based abnormality may be the result of long-term alcohol abuse or dependence, or it may reflect a pre-existing factor that predisposes one to severe alcoholism. From an image analysis perspective, this work demonstrates the increased sensitivity that results from using skull-stripped inputs and from restricting the analysis to a ROI. Without both of these methodological advances, no statistically significant finding would have been forthcoming from this work.
    NeuroImage 10/2006; 32(3):1465-71. · 6.25 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

887 Citations
132.03 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2013
    • California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • University of South Florida
      • College of Marine Science
      Tampa, FL, United States
    • Neurobehavioral Research, Inc.
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 2008
    • University of the Pacific (California - USA)
      Stockton, California, United States
  • 2005
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • Veterans Affairs Medical Center
      San Francisco, CA, United States