ABSTRACT: Functional gastrointestinal symptoms are frequently found in elderly dementia patients. In such a case, we attempt treatment by the administration of antidepressants or second-generation antipsychotics. However, these medications have a risk of side-effects. In the present study, we carried out oral administration of Rikkunshi-to to elderly dementia patients with appetite loss, and examined its effects on food intake.
Six elderly dementia patients were recruited from inpatients. They showed appetite loss, but no organic abnormalities of the gastrointestinal organs. These patients were given Rikkunshi-to, at 7.5 g per day, t.i.d. for 4 weeks. We examined the food intake, weight, total protein, albumin and potassium in plasma before administration and for 4 weeks after administration. In statistical analyses, the percentage of food consumed for 4 weeks was analyzed by anova. We also examined the side-effects of Rikkunshi-to.
In patient 3, we stopped investigation after 3 weeks because of the development of cholecystitis. The values of 4 weeks in patient 3 were calculated as the mean values of 4 weeks in the other five patients. anova and Tukey's multiple comparison showed a marginally significant difference in weight between before Rikkunshi-to was given and 4 weeks after. In change of food intake, there were no significant differences between before Rikkunshi-to was given and 1 day after, 1 day and 2 days after, 2 days and 3 days after, 3 days and 1 week after, and 1 week and 2 weeks after; however, there were significant increases in food intake between other times. With regard to the side-effects, mild lower limb oedema appeared in the two patients.
In the present study, we showed the effect of Rikkunshi-to in improving appetite loss in elderly dementia patients. The present study suggests that Rikkunshi-to might be useful in improving functional appetite loss in elderly dementia patients, because there are no serious side-effects.
Psychogeriatrics 03/2011; 11(1):34-9. · 1.21 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Donepezil 10 mg/day gained approval in Japan in August 2007 for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in advanced Alzheimer's disease.
We evaluated the efficacy and adverse effects of donepezil when the dose was increased to 10 mg/day in 61 Japanese patients with Alzheimer's disease. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale and mini-mental state examination at the day before starting, and at 4, 8 and 24 weeks after starting donepezil 10 mg/day. The relationship with apolipoprotein E4 was also investigated.
The Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale and mini-mental state examination scores were not statistically significantly different at any time after starting donepezil 10 mg/day. It can be anticipated that donepezil 10 mg/day will especially inhibit deterioration of cognitive function in advanced Alzheimer's disease. The incidence of adverse events was 11.5%, lower than the rate of 40% or higher recorded during previous clinical trials.
The progression of cognitive dysfunction could be inhibited by increasing the dose of donepezil to 10 mg/day. It was suggested that longer-term treatment with 5 mg/day might lead to fewer adverse events when the dose is increased to 10 mg/day.
Psychogeriatrics 07/2009; 9(2):50-5. · 1.21 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The monitoring of plasma olanzapine concentrations has been found to be an important and useful tool for optimizing psychiatric treatment. The present study investigated the effect that clinical factors, such as smoking and age, and functional polymorphisms of UGT1A4, CYP1A2, and CYP2D6 genes have on plasma olanzapine concentration, as well as the effects of plasma olanzapine concentrations on Japanese schizophrenic patients' clinical symptoms. The subjects included 51 chronic schizophrenic patients whose symptoms were not controlled with chronic conventional antipsychotics and therefore were switched to olanzapine. Male smokers had a significantly lower olanzapine concentration-dose ratio and olanzapine/4'-N-desmethyl olanzapine ratio (which reflects CYP1A2 activity) than male nonsmokers and female nonsmokers. The results of a 2-way analysis of covariance showed that smoking had the main effect, rather than gender or age. The functional gene polymorphisms that were studied had no effect on the plasma olanzapine and metabolite concentrations. An improved total Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) score was not correlated with the plasma olanzapine concentration, but individual BPRS scores related to improvement of suspiciousness, hallucinations, and blunted affect were significantly correlated with plasma olanzapine concentration. Clinical factors, especially smoking, were more important modulators of olanzapine metabolism than the functional genotypes. Long-term olanzapine treatment with adequate plasma olanzapine concentrations could be more effective in improving some symptoms than treatment with conventional antipsychotics.
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 03/2008; 30(1):35-40. · 2.49 Impact Factor