[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: In adults, an increase in CD8(+)CD38(+) T cell levels is a strong indicator of disease progression in HIV infection. However, in children, data are conflicting. Slow-progressing children (SPC) provide an exceptional resource for the investigation and clarification of the immunological and virological mechanisms of natural control of HIV infection and can be used to investigate prognostic indicators of disease progression. Objectives: To investigate the immune activation status and T regulatory (Treg) cell levels in SPC. Study design: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 28 children 8 years old and older who were vertically infected with HIV. The children were stratified into 3 groups according to their clinical outcome: SPC (anti-retroviral-therapy-naïve; ≥8 years-old; CD4 ≥20%; viral load <25,000 copies), IF/VF (anti-retroviral-therapy but with no therapeutic response), and IS/VS (anti-retroviral therapy with good therapeutic response). Uninfected children (NI) were assessed as healthy control group. RESULTS: A higher percentage of activated CD8(+) T cells were found in all HIV infected children, regardless of the evolution of disease. The activation of CD8(+) T cells was not associated with either viral load or the percentage of CD4(+) T cells. In addition, Treg cell levels did not show any correlation with the clinical outcome or the activation status of CD8(+) T cells. Conclusions: HIV-1-infected children presented an increased percentage of activated CD8(+) T cells and an unaltered percentage of Treg cells, regardless of their clinical evolution. Thus, these immunological parameters should not be used for prognostic evaluation.
Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC) 10/2011; 11(3):164-8.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Th17 cells have been associated with immune-mediated diseases in humans but it has still not been determined whether they play a role in immune thrombocytopenia. We evaluated representative cytokines of the Th17, Th1, Th2 and Treg cell commitment in the serum of patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia, as well as the cell source of IL-17A. Higher levels of IL-17A and Th17-related cytokines, and an increased percentage of IL-17A producing CD4+ and neutrophils were observed in patients. The levels of cytokines involved in Th1 cell commitment IFN-γ, IL-2, IL12-p70 and the percentages of Th1 cells were also increased, but IL-4 was not detected. Although the concentrations of IL-10 were higher, the levels of TGF-β were similar in both groups. In conclusion, our results point to a putative role for Th-17 cells/IL-17A cytokine in the pathogenesis of chronic immune thrombocytopenia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The live attenuated yellow fever (YF) vaccines have been available for decades and are considered highly effective and one of the safest vaccines worldwide.
The impact of YF-17DD-antigens recall on cytokine profiles of YF-17DD-vaccinated children were characterized using short-term cultures of whole blood samples and single-cell flow cytometry. This study enrolled seroconverters and nonseroconverters after primovaccination (PV-PRNT⁺ and PV-PRNT⁻), seroconverters after revaccination (RV-PRNT⁺), and unvaccinated volunteers (UV-PRNT⁻).
The analysis demonstrated in the PV-PRNT⁺ group a balanced involvement of pro-inflammatory/regulatory adaptive immunity with a prominent participation of innate immunity pro-inflammatory events (IL-12⁺ and TNF-α⁺ NEU and MON). Using the PV-PRNT⁺ cytokine signature as a reference profile, PV-PRNT⁻ presented a striking lack of innate immunity proinflammatory response along with an increased adaptive regulatory profile (IL-4⁺CD4⁺ T cells and IL-10⁺ and IL-5⁺CD8⁺ T cells). Conversely, the RV-PRNT⁺ shifted the overall cytokine signatures toward an innate immunity pro-inflammatory profile and restored the adaptive regulatory response.
The data demonstrated that the overall cytokine signature was associated with the levels of PRNT antibodies with a balanced innate/adaptive immunity with proinflammatory/regulatory profile as the hallmark of PV-PRNT(MEDIUM⁺), whereas a polarized regulatory response was observed in PV-PRNT⁻ and a prominent proinflammatory signature was the characteristic of PV-PRNT(HIGH⁺).
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2011; 204(6):873-83. · 5.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms of immune response following yellow fever (YF-17DD) vaccination are still poorly understood. In this study, we have performed a longitudinal investigation (days 0, 7, 15 and 30) to characterize the cytokine profile of innate and adaptive immunity following YF-17DD first-time vaccination. Data from non-stimulated cultures demonstrated a prominent participation of the innate immunity with increased frequency of TNF-α(+) neutrophils and IFN-γ(+) NK-cells at day 7 besides TNF-α(+) monocytes at day 7, day 15 and day 30. Increased frequency of IL-10(+) monocytes was observed at day 15 and day 30, and decreased percentage of IL-4(+) NK-cells were detected at day 7, day 15 and day 30. Time-dependent and oscillating cytokine pattern was observed in CD4(+) T-cells, with low percentage of IL-12(+), IL-4(+) and IL-10(+) cells at day 7 and increased frequency of TNF-α(+) cells at day 15 besides IFN-γ(+) and IL-5(+) cells at day 15 and day 30. Later changes with increased percentage of IL-12(+) and IL-5(+)CD8(+) T-cells were observed at day 30. Increased frequency of IL-10(+) B-cells was observed at day 15, when seroconversion was detected in all vaccinees. The overall cytokine analysis of non-stimulated leukocytes showed a transient shift towards a pro-inflammatory profile at day 7, mainly due to changes in the innate immunity, which draws back toward a mixed/regulatory pattern at day 15 and day 30. The changes induced by the in vitro YF-17DD vaccine-stimulation were mainly observed at day 0 and day 7 (before seroconversion) with minor changes at day 15 and day 30 (after seroconversion). These data support the hypothesis that a complex network with mixed pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine profile is associated with the establishment of the protective immunity following YF-17DD primo-vaccination, free of adverse events.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Yellow fever (YF) vaccines (17D-204 and 17DD) are well tolerated and cause very low rates of severe adverse events (YEL-SAE), such as serious allergic reactions, neurotropic adverse diseases (YEL-AND), and viscerotropic diseases (YEL-AVD). Viral and host factors have been postulated to explain the basis of YEL-SAE. However, the mechanisms underlying the occurrence of YEL-SAE remain unknown. The present report provides a detailed immunological analysis of a 23-year-old female patient. The patient developed a suspected case of severe YEL-AVD with encephalitis, as well as with pancreatitis and myositis, following receipt of a 17D-204 YF vaccination. The patient exhibited a decreased level of expression of Fc-gammaR in monocytes (CD16, CD32, and CD64), along with increased levels of NK T cells (an increased CD3(+) CD16(+/-) CD56(+/-)/CD3(+) ratio), activated T cells (CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells), and B lymphocytes. Enhanced levels of plasmatic cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-17, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10) as well as an exacerbated ex vivo intracytoplasmic cytokine pattern, mainly observed within NK cells (gamma interferon positive [IFN-gamma(+)], tumor necrosis factor alpha positive [TNF-alpha(+)], and IL-4 positive [IL-4(+)]), CD8(+) T cells (IL-4(+) and IL-5(+)), and B lymphocytes (TNF-alpha(+), IL-4(+), and IL-10(+)). The analysis of CD4(+) T cells revealed a complex profile that consisted of an increased frequency of IL-12(+) and IFN-gamma(+) cells and a decreased percentage of TNF-alpha(+), IL-4(+), and IL-5(+) cells. Depressed cytokine synthesis was observed in monocytes (TNF-alpha(+)) following the provision of antigenic stimuli in vitro. These results support the hypothesis that a strong adaptive response and abnormalities in the innate immune system may be involved in the establishment of YEL-AND and YEL-AVD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Detailed multiparametric phenotypic investigation aiming to characterize the kinetics of the innate immune response in the peripheral blood following 17DD yellow fever (17DD-YF) first-time vaccination was performed. Results showed increased frequency of monocytes and NK cell subpopulations besides unexpected up-regulation of granulocytes activation status (CD28+/CD23+ and CD28+/HLA-DR+, respectively). Up-regulation of Fcgamma-R and IL-10-R expression emerge as putative events underlying the mixed pattern of phenotypic features triggered by the 17DD yellow fever (17DD-YF) vaccination. Mixed pattern of chemokine receptors expression further support our hypothesis that a parallel establishment of activation/modulation microenvironment plays a pivotal role in the protective immunity triggered by the 17DD-YF vaccine.