[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spectral estimation of data sequences with randomly missing samples is considered in this paper. A nonparametric missing-data method is proposed based on interpolation followed by a deconvolution procedure. Sample-and-hold interpolation is considered here. The method is based on the analytic expression of the autocorrelation function of the interpolated data as a linear function of the autocorrelation function of the data to be estimated. Bias and standard deviation of both autocorrelation function and power spectral density are detailed for simulated data based on Monte Carlo analysis. The method is also compared with a fuzzy slotting technique with local normalization and weighting algorithm. Based on the results of these simulations, it is concluded that the performance of the proposed method is better than those of the slotting technique.
Digital Signal Processing 12/2012; 22(6):994–1004. DOI:10.1016/j.dsp.2012.05.012 · 1.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An experiment has been set up to study multimodal acoustic propagation inside a cylindrical duct in presence of a turbulent mean flow. This paper describes the preliminary work which has been found necessary for assembling the experiment together with first measurement results. In order to set up this experimental facility, a high level acoustic source was developed to generate higher propagating modes in the presence of mean flow. A microphonic antenna was designed for detecting the propagating modes. LDV measurements were performed and synchronous detection was used to extract both the mean flow and the acoustic components of the particle velocity. Results of aeraulic measurements are presented. Then, results of acoustic velocity measurements are compared to results obtained from the microphonic antenna.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Streaming velocity in an acoustic standing waveguide is measured using Laser Dopper Velocimetry (LDV) from low to high acoustic amplitudes. As expected, the axial streaming velocity agrees with the slow streaming theory for low amplitudes but deviates significantly from such predictions for fast streaming. For high amplitudes, an additional outer streaming cell appears; the structure of the streaming vortices is more complex but maintains a certain consistency, symmetry and keeps stable. Different factors that can be causing such mutation of streaming pattern are discussed such as the effects of temperature gradients and the non-linear propagation in the guide.
19th International Symposium on Nonlinear Acoustics (ISNA); 01/2012
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spectral estimation of irregularly sampled velocity data issued from Laser Doppler Anemometry measurements is considered in
this paper. A new method is proposed based on linear interpolation followed by a deconvolution procedure. In this method,
the analytic expression of the autocorrelation function of the interpolated data is expressed as a linear function of the
autocorrelation function of the data to be estimated. For the analysis of both simulated and experimental data, the results
of the proposed method is compared with the one of the reference methods in LDA: refinement of autocorrelation function of
sample-and-hold interpolated signal method given by Nobach etal. (Exp Fluids 24:499–509, 1998), refinement of power spectral density of sample-and-hold interpolated signal method given by Simon and Fitzpatrick (Exp
Fluids 37:272–280, 2004) and fuzzy slotting technique with local normalization and weighting algorithm given by Nobach (Exp Fluids 32:337–345, 2002). Based on these results, it is concluded that the performances of the proposed method are better than the one of the other
methods, especially for what concerns bias and variance.
Experiments in Fluids 01/2011; 50(1):179-188. DOI:10.1007/s00348-010-0905-1 · 1.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adaptation of Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) for acoustic boundary layer measurements is considered. The specificities of acoustic boundary layer are presented and the theoretical expression of acoustic particle velocity is reminded. Appropriate parameters of the PIV system for sound measurements are determined. Results of LDV and PIV measurements of particle velocity profiles in acoustic boundary layers are compared with theoretical predictions based on the literature for different phases along the acoustic period. These results are very satisfactory and show that these two techniques are suitable for acoustic boundary layer measurements.
Acta Acustica united with Acustica 08/2009; 95(5):805-813. DOI:10.3813/AAA.918211 · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A preliminary study was conducted to observe the influence of a stack on the Rayleigh streaming pattern for application to thermoacoustic devices. The velocity field was estimated from laser Doppler velocimetry measurements in a resonator first without a stack; then a stack was placed at various positions along the resonator axis for various acoustic levels. It was observed that adding a stack locally modifies the streaming pattern and that new streaming vortices appear. When the stack position approaches the location of the streaming velocity maximum or when the acoustic velocity amplitude is increased, the amplitude of additional acoustic streaming vortices at the ends of the stack increases.
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 07/2009; 125(6):3514-7. DOI:10.1121/1.3126342 · 1.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A statistical model of the Laser Doppler signal in the case of pure acoustics is proposed. It appears that two different cases should be considered depending on the ratio of acoustic displacement amplitude to probe volume diameter. The processing of Laser Doppler Velocimetry signal in the case of high particle displacements (with oscillations across the measuring volume) is then considered. A specific signal post-processing strategy is proposed to determine the acoustic frequency, the acoustic velocity amplitude and its phase. First, the acoustic frequency is estimated by means of synchronous analysis weighted by arrival times. Then, the signal is uniformly re-sampled and the phase of the acoustic velocity is calculated. Lastly, a least-square method weighted by local probability density function is used to determine the acoustic velocity amplitude. This method permits an accurate estimation of the three acoustic parameters (frequency, velocity amplitude and phase) even in the adverse conditions induced by the proximity of a wall and is applied to oscillating viscous boundary layer measurements.
Acta Acustica united with Acustica 06/2009; 95(4):585-594. DOI:10.3813/AAA.918187 · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators with practical levels of heating or pumping power must generally operate at high pressure amplitudes. When used to describe the behavior of such high-amplitude thermoacoustic devices, the well-established foundations of thermoacoustics, based on the acoustic approximation, reach their limits. It is necessary to gain a deeper understanding of the high-amplitude phenomena in order to improve the performances of thermoacoustic devices, and efforts of several research groups have been directed towards this goal over the last decade. In this presentation, we will consider recent advances in the understanding of some of the gas-dynamics phenomena leading to limitation of devices performances, namely transition to turbulence and acoustic Rayleigh streaming. The common point for these phenomena is that they owe their origin in the dynamic of oscillating flows in very near wall regions, so that their quantification implies measurements of acoustic particle velocity in adverse conditions. Recent progresses in Laser techniques used to perform such measurements will therefore also be reviewed.
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 06/2008; 123(5):3545. DOI:10.1121/1.2934542 · 1.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acoustic streaming has harmful consequences on thermoacoustic machines behaviour because of the associated heat transfers. A preliminary study was carried out in order to study the effect of an obstacle on the Rayleigh cells to help in understanding the role of such phenomena in thermoacoustic machines. An obstacle was introduced in a half-wavelength cylindrical wave guide to study its effects on acoustic streaming. The obstacle was placed at various positions along the wave guide axis and experiments were carried out at various acoustic levels. The axial streaming velocity was measured using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). It was observed that adding an obstacle in the streaming pattern modifies the latter and that new streaming vortices appear in the vicinity of the obstacle. When the obstacle position approaches a maximum of the Rayleigh streaming velocity the number and the amplitude of acoustic streaming vortices at the ends of the obstacle increase. Similar tendencies were observed when the acoustic velocity amplitude was increased. Because streaming in the vicinity of the obstacle end is complex and has a high amplitude, heat effects can be expected to be important and complex at the ends of the thermaoacoustic stack where heat exchangers are located.
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 06/2008; 123(5):3708. DOI:10.1121/1.2935134 · 1.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Measurements of the axial streaming velocity are performed by means of laser doppler velocimetry in an experimental apparatus consisting of a waveguide having loudspeakers at each end for high intensity sound levels. Streaming is characterized by an appropriate Reynolds number Re(NL), the case Re(NL)<1 corresponding to the so-called slow streaming and the case Re(NL)>/=1 being referred to as fast streaming. The variation of axial streaming velocity with respect to the transverse coordinate is compared to the available slow streaming theory. Streaming fluid flow is measured both in the core region and in the near wall region. Streaming velocity in the center of the guide agrees reasonably well with the slow streaming theory for small Re(NL) but deviates significantly from such predictions for Re(NL)>20 and its evolution for further increasing Re(NL) is discussed. Then streaming behavior in the near wall region is particularly studied. For Re(NL)<70, two vortices are present across the guide section as predicted by slow streaming theory. Then it appears that, when the Reynolds number is increased, two other vortices become visible in the near wall region. Different stages for the generation and evolution of these inner streaming vortices are presented.
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 02/2008; 123(2):640-7. DOI:10.1121/1.2828059 · 1.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deux phénomènes de l'acoustique non-linéaire à fort niveau sont étudiés lors de cette thèse: la transition à la turbulence et les écoulements redressés en guide d'onde acoustique. Le développement récent de la Vélocimétrie Laser par effet Doppler (VLD) ouvre de nouvelles voies pour l’étude de ces phénomènes. Une partie du travail de cette thèse a ainsi consisté en l’adaptation de la VLD à des mesures acoustiques en proche paroi. Ce travail préliminaire a permis de proposer par la suite l’étude de la transition à la turbulence en fluide oscillant compressible et celle des tourbillons internes et externes des écoulements redressés. Pour ce faire, un dispositif expérimental a été conçu, réalisé, instrumenté et caractérisé, impliquant en particulier une étude de l'ensemble couplé source acoustique / résonateur. Pour isoler les phénomènes à l'étude, les autres phénomènes non-linéaires qui peuvent apparaître dans le guide d'onde sont évalués. Des mesures par VLD de vitesse acoustique et de turbulence dans la couche limite acoustique permettent de préciser l'évolution des régimes d'écoulements qui interviennent dans la transition à la turbulence et de déterminer une limite expérimentale entre le régime laminaire et le régime turbulent. Des mesures de la vitesse des écoulements redressés sont effectuées pour observer l'évolution des tourbillons internes et externes des écoulements redressés, en particulier pour des écoulements redressés rapides. Une étude préliminaire est aussi effectuée en vue d'étudier l'influence d'un obstacle sur le schéma de Rayleigh pour aider à la compréhension des phénomènes présents dans les machines thermoacoustiques.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) is now recognized as a very useful technique for estimating acoustic velocity with a good time resolution in many applications. Previous research showed that the most important parameter in LDV for acoustics is the particle displacement and particularly its magnitude compared with the size of the probe volume formed by the crossing of the laser beams. Specific techniques were developed to estimate the acoustic wave when the displacement is of the same order of magnitude as the probe diameter and when it is much smaller. In this study, we investigate situations where the displacement is much higher than the probe volume. The measuring process has been simulated numerically and it appears that the process leads to an under-estimation of the velocity around zero. This under-estimation is due to the processing of the laser Doppler signal in the case of high displacements. The associated signal is a non poissonnian randomly sampled signal to which classical processing methods are not adapted. It is compared to experimental signals obtained in the context of a study of non linear effects in an acoustic wave guide. To this end, different processing of both simulated and experimental signals are presented and compared.
The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 01/2005; 117:2493-2493. DOI:10.1121/1.4787922 · 1.56 Impact Factor