[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The BCR-ABL fusion protein generated by t(9;22)(q34;q11) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of the myeloproliferative disorder status at the chronic phase of the disease, but progression from the chronic phase to blast crisis (BC) is believed to require additional mutations. To explore the underlying mechanisms for BC, which is characterized by a blockage of blood cell differentiation, we screened several genes crucial to hematopoiesis and identified 10 types of mutations in RUNX1 among 11 of 85 (12.9%) patients with acute transformation of CML. Most of the mutations occurred in the runt homology domain, including H78Q, W79C, R139G, D171G, R174Q, L71fs-ter94, and V91fs-ter94. Further studies indicated that RUNX1 mutants not only exhibited decreased transactivation activity but also had an inhibitory effect on the WT RUNX1. To investigate the leukemogenic effect of mutated RUNX1, H78Q and V91fs-ter94 were transduced into 32D cells or BCR-ABL-harboring murine cells, respectively. Consistent with the myeloblastic features of advanced CML patients with RUNX1 mutations, H78Q and V91fs-ter94 disturbed myeloid differentiation and induced a BC or accelerated phase-like phenotype in mice. These results suggest that RUNX1 abnormalities may promote acute myeloid leukemic transformation in a subset of CML patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance developed by leukemic cells, unsatisfactory efficacy on patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) at accelerated and blastic phases, and potential cardiotoxity, have been limitations for imatinib mesylate (IM) in treating CML. Whether low dose IM in combination with agents of distinct but related mechanisms could be one of the strategies to overcome these concerns warrants careful investigation.
We tested the therapeutic efficacies as well as adverse effects of low dose IM in combination with proteasome inhibitor, Bortezomib (BOR) or proteasome inhibitor I (PSI), in two CML murine models, and investigated possible mechanisms of action on CML cells. Our results demonstrated that low dose IM in combination with BOR exerted satisfactory efficacy in prolongation of life span and inhibition of tumor growth in mice, and did not cause cardiotoxicity or body weight loss. Consistently, BOR and PSI enhanced IM-induced inhibition of long-term clonogenic activity and short-term cell growth of CML stem/progenitor cells, and potentiated IM-caused inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis of BCR-ABL+ cells. IM/BOR and IM/PSI inhibited Bcl-2, increased cytoplasmic cytochrome C, and activated caspases. While exerting suppressive effects on BCR-ABL, E2F1, and beta-catenin, IM/BOR and IM/PSI inhibited proteasomal degradation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), leading to a re-activation of this important negative regulator of BCR-ABL. In addition, both combination therapties inhibited Bruton's tyrosine kinase via suppression of NFkappaB.
These data suggest that combined use of tyrosine kinase inhibitor and proteasome inhibitor might be helpful for optimizing CML treatment.
PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(7):e6257. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acquisition of additional genetic and/or epigenetic abnormalities other than the BCR/ABL fusion gene is believed to cause disease progression in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) from chronic phase to blast crisis (BC). To gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of progression to BC, we screened DNA samples from CML patients during blast transformation for mutations in a number of transcription factor genes that are critical for myeloid-lymphoid development. In 85 cases of CML blast transformation, we identified two new mutations in the coding region of GATA-2, a negative regulator of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell differentiation. A L359V substitution within zinc finger domain (ZF) 2 of GATA-2 was found in eight cases with myelomonoblastic features, whereas an in-frame deletion of 6 aa (delta341-346) spanning the C-terminal border of ZF1 was detected in one patient at myeloid BC with eosinophilia. Further studies indicated that L359V not only increased transactivation activity of GATA-2 but also enhanced its inhibitory effects on the activity of PU.1, a major regulator of myelopoiesis. Consistent with the myelomonoblastic features of CML transformation with the GATA-2 L359V mutant, transduction of the GATA-2 L359V mutant into HL-60 cells or BCR/ABL-harboring murine cells disturbed myelomonocytic differentiation/proliferation in vitro and in vivo, respectively. These data strongly suggest that GATA-2 mutations may play a role in acute myeloid transformation in a subset of CML patients.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2008; 105(6):2076-81. · 9.81 Impact Factor