[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 120 freshly harvested wheat samples from the 2004 season in nine locations from Northern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, were analysed for trichothecene natural occurrence and associated mycoflora, and for determining the influence of commonly used fungicide field treatment and the cultivar type on trichothecene contamination. The trichothecenes T-2 tetraol, T-2 triol, HT-2 and T-2 toxin (HT-2, T-2), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), nivalenol (NIV), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON) were analysed by gas chromatography and electron capture detection. Detection limits ranged from 4 to 20 microg/kg. The isolation frequencies of species were calculated. Alternaria alternata, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium poae and Fusarium semitectum were the predominant fungal species identified as endogenous mycoflora. The type of cultivar and the fungicide field treatment did not affect significantly the trichothecene contamination. The trichothecenes type A detected were HT-2 and T-2 triol toxins and the type B were DON, NIV and 3-ADON. Based on 120 samples the incidences were 21.7% for 3-ADON, 22.5% for HT-2, 27.5% for T-2 triol and 85% for DON. NIV was confirmed in one sample. Mean levels of trichothecene positive samples were between 7 and 2788 microg/kg.