José Luis Molinuevo

Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcino, Catalonia, Spain

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Publications (184)779.74 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) are the most common neurodegenerative disorders. For both diseases, early intervention is thought to be essential to the success of disease-modifying treatments. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can reflect some of the pathophysiological changes that occur in the brain, and the number of CSF biomarkers under investigation in neurodegenerative conditions has grown rapidly in the past 20 years. In AD, CSF biomarkers are increasingly being used in clinical practice, and have been incorporated into the majority of clinical trials to demonstrate target engagement, to enrich or stratify patient groups, and to find evidence of disease modification. In PD, CSF biomarkers have not yet reached the clinic, but are being studied in patients with parkinsonism, and are being used in clinical trials either to monitor progression or to demonstrate target engagement and downstream effects of drugs. CSF biomarkers might also serve as surrogate markers of clinical benefit after a specific therapeutic intervention, although additional data are required. It is anticipated that CSF biomarkers will have an important role in trials aimed at disease modification in the near future. In this Review, we provide an overview of CSF biomarkers in AD and PD, and discuss their role in clinical trials.
    Nature Reviews Neurology 12/2014; · 15.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High-oligomeric and low-total-α-synuclein cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels have been found in Parkinson's disease (PD), but with inconsistent or limited data, particularly on their clinical and structural correlates in earliest (premotor) or latest (dementia) PD stages. We determined CSF oligomeric- and total-α-synuclein in 77 subjects: 23 with idiopathic REM-sleep behaviour disorder (iRBD, a condition likely to include a remarkable proportion of subjects in the premotor stage of PD) and 41 with PD [21 non-demented (PDND) + 20 demented (PDD)], intended to reflect the premotor-motor-dementia PD continuum, along with 13 healthy controls. The study protocol also included the Unified PD Rating Scale motor-section (UPDRS-III), mini mental state examination (MMSE), neuropsychological cognitive testing, 3T brain MRI for cortical-thickness analyses, CSF τ and CSF Aβ. CSF oligomeric-α-synuclein was higher in PDND than iRBD and in PDD than iRBD and controls, and correlated with UPDRS-III, MMSE, semantic fluency and visuo-perceptive scores across the proposed premotor-motor-dementia PD continuum (iRBD + PDND + PDD). CSF total-α-synuclein positively correlated with age, CSF Aβ, and, particularly, CSF τ, tending towards lower levels in PD (but not iRBD) vs. controls only when controlling for CSF τ. Low CSF total-α-synuclein was associated with dysfunction in phonetic-fluency (a frontal-lobe function) in PD and with frontal cortical thinning in iRBD and PDND independently of CSF τ. Conversely, the associations of high (instead of low) CSF total-α-synuclein with posterior-cortical neuropsychological deficits in PD and with posterior cortical thinning in PDD were driven by high CSF τ. These findings suggest that CSF oligomeric- and total-α-synuclein have different clinical, neuropsychological and MRI correlates across the proposed premotor-motor-dementia PD continuum. CSF total-α-synuclein correlations with CSF τ and Aβ support the hypothesis of an interaction among these proteins in PD, with CSF τ probably influencing the presence of high (instead of low) CSF total-α-synuclein and its correlates mostly in the setting of PD-related dementia.
    Journal of neurology. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra visualized by transcranial sonography occurs in most Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (IRBD) subjects eventually develop PD and other synucleinopathies. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether in IRBD, transcranial sonography identifies subjects who convert to PD and other synucleinopathies, and whether substantia nigra echogenic size changes with time. It was a prospective study in which 55 IRBD patients underwent transcranial sonography at baseline and were invited to follow-up after 5 years. Patients were assessed by the same experienced sonographer who was blinded to clinical data and baseline transcranial sonography results, and used the same equipment and adjustments. Twenty-one (38.2%) subjects were diagnosed with a synucleinopathy (PD in 11, dementia with Lewy bodies in nine, and multiple system atrophy in one). Sensitivity of baseline substantia nigra hyperechogenicity for the development of a synucleinopathy was 42.1%, specificity 67.7%, positive predictive value 44.4%, negative predictive value 65.6%, and relative risk 1.29. No differences were detected between the first and second examination in mean size of the substantia nigra (0.20 ± 0.09 cm2 vs. 0.19 ± 0.07 cm2; P = 0.777) and in percentage of patients with substantia nigra hyperechogenicity (33.3% vs. 42.8%, P = 0.125). Transcranial sonography of the substantia nigra alone is not a useful tool to identify IRBD subjects at risk for the development of PD or a synucleinopathy after 5 years of follow-up. In IRBD, transcranial sonography cannot be used to monitor the degenerative process in the substantia nigra, because echogenicity size remains stable over time. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
    Movement Disorders 11/2014; · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimsTo assess the sensitivity of the FTDC revised criteria of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) in a pathological cohort and to determine their predictive values in a clinical context suggestive of bvFTD. To assess the influence of the age at onset and underlying pathology in the clinico-pathological correlations.Methods Retrospective, blinded review of the clinical and neuropathological data from the Neurological Tissue Bank (NTB) of the Biobank-Hospital Clinic-IDIBAPS, Barcelona (Spain) assessing the fulfillment of the diagnostic criteria on a case-by-case basis. Two separate nonexclusive cohorts were selected: Cohort 1 (n=58) subjects with pathological diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and Cohort 2 (n=66) subjects with the premortem diagnosis of bvFTD.ResultsThe FTDC criteria reached a sensitivity of 93% for possible and 80% for probable bvFTD. Early-onset cases displayed significantly more disinhibition, loss of empathy and compulsive behavior with respect to late-onset bvFTD leading to a slightly higher sensitivity of the diagnostic criteria (97% vs 91%). There were no differences in the diagnostic performance between tau-positive and tau-negative cases. In subjects clinically diagnosed as bvFTD, a “possible bvFTD” diagnosis reached a positive predictive value for FTLD pathology of 90%, irrespective of underlying proteinopathy. False-positive clinical diagnoses were mainly Alzheimer's disease. These cases were significantly older, had less family history of dementia and had a predominantly apathetic clinical picture.Conclusions The revised bvFTD criteria present good sensitivity and positive predictive value in both early and late-onset cases and regardless of the underlying FTLD pathology.
    Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 11/2014; · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic variants in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) have been linked to Nasu-Hakola disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and FTD-like syndrome without bone involvement. TREM2 is an innate immune receptor preferentially expressed by microglia and is involved in inflammation and phagocytosis. Whether and how TREM2 missense mutations affect TREM2 function is unclear. We report that missense mutations associated with FTD and FTD-like syndrome reduce TREM2 maturation, abolish shedding by ADAM proteases, and impair the phagocytic activity of TREM2-expressing cells. As a consequence of reduced shedding, TREM2 is virtually absent in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma of a patient with FTD-like syndrome. A decrease in soluble TREM2 was also observed in the CSF of patients with AD and FTD, further suggesting that reduced TREM2 function may contribute to increased risk for two neurodegenerative disorders.
    Science translational medicine 07/2014; 6(243). · 10.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: An increase in YKL-40 levels seems to correlate with disease severity and poor prognosis in many diseases, including several neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Specifically, YKL-40 protein is increased in mild AD with respect to controls, both in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma. Objective: We hypothesize that subjects in the preclinical (Pre-AD) and prodromal (Prod-AD) stage of AD could already present an increase in CSF YKL-40 levels with respect to healthy controls and idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) subjects, included as a control group of a distinct neurological disease. Methods: We measured CSF YKL-40 levels using a commercial ELISA kit in a cohort of 95 subjects, consisting of controls (n = 43), Pre-AD (n = 18), Prod-AD (n = 22), and iRBD (n = 12) subjects. We explored for possible correlations of YKL-40 levels with demographic characteristics, a wide battery of neuropsychological tests, and the AD CSF biomarkers: amyloid-β42 (Aβ42), total-tau protein (t-tau), and phosphorylated-tau protein (p-tau). Results: We detected statistically significant differences between Prod-AD patients and controls. YKL-40 levels showed a significant correlation with t-tau and p-tau levels in the predementia AD continuum and the Pre-AD group. We also observed significant correlations with the MMSE, FCSRT, and M@T tests within the AD continuum, but not in iRBD subjects. Conclusion: Our data suggest that CSF YKL-40 levels, although not useful as a diagnostic marker for Prod-AD, may be a valuable marker to detect early physiopathological changes potentially linked with the neurodegenerative process.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 07/2014; · 4.17 Impact Factor
  • European Journal of Neurology 07/2014; 21(7):e56-7. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers could facilitate early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and the differential diagnosis between AD and non-AD dementias. The aim of this study is to assess the clinical and economic value of CSF biomarkers to diagnose AD. Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of the use of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ42), total tau, and phosphorylated tau proteins in CSF to diagnose AD in MCI and dementia patients. Methods: An economic evaluation was performed by means of cost-effectiveness analysis comparing two AD diagnostic alternatives: the combined determination of Aβ42 proteins, total tau, and phosphorylated tau in CSF as biomarkers of AD, and the standard clinical diagnosis based on the Related Disorders Association (NINDS-ADRDA) criteria. A decision analytic model was developed to synthesize the identified evidence and to compare the costs and effectiveness associated with each diagnostic strategy. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis using 2nd order Monte Carlo simulations was performed. Subsequently, acceptability curves were calculated and ANCOVA models were applied to the results of the Monte Carlo simulations in order to identify the parameters that led greater variability in the model outcomes. Results: The use of CSF biomarkers as an early diagnostic strategy of AD in MCI patients is a dominant alternative (less costly and more effective strategy than diagnostic criteria). In dementia patients, although there is a higher uncertainty, biomarkers in CSF seem a more cost-effective alternative than diagnostic criteria. Conclusions: Detecting AD in MCI patients by determining Aβ42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau proteins biomarkers in CSF is a cost-effective diagnostic alternative. No conclusive results were obtained on dementia patients.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 06/2014; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging measures to determine the existence of white matter microstructural differences in the preclinical phases of Alzheimer's disease, assessing cognitively normal older individuals with positive amyloid β protein (Aβ42) levels (CN_Aβ42+) on the basis of normal cognition and cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42 levels below 500 pg/mL. Nineteen CN_Aβ42+ and 19 subjects with Aβ42 levels above 500 pg/mL (CN_Aβ42-) were included. We encountered increases in axial diffusivity (AxD) in CN_Aβ42+ relative to CN_Aβ42- in the corpus callosum, corona radiata, internal capsule, and superior longitudinal fasciculus bilaterally, and also in the left fornix, left uncinate fasciculus, and left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. However, no differences were found in other diffusion tensor imaging indexes. Cognitive reserve scores were positively associated with AxD exclusively in the CN_Aβ42+ group. The finding of AxD alteration together with preserved fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and radial diffusivity indexes in the CN_Aβ42+ group may indicate that, subtle axonal changes may be happening in the preclinical phases of Alzheimer's disease, whereas white matter integrity is still widely preserved.
    Neurobiology of aging. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that subjective cognitive decline (SCD) in individuals with unimpaired performance on cognitive tests may represent the first symptomatic manifestation of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The research on SCD in early AD, however, is limited by the absence of common standards. The working group of the Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) addressed this deficiency by reaching consensus on terminology and on a conceptual framework for research on SCD in AD. In this publication, research criteria for SCD in pre-mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are presented. In addition, a list of core features proposed for reporting in SCD studies is provided, which will enable comparability of research across different settings. Finally, a set of features is presented, which in accordance with current knowledge, increases the likelihood of the presence of preclinical AD in individuals with SCD. This list is referred to as SCD plus.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 05/2014; · 14.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers total tau, abnormally phosphorylated tau and amyloid β 1-42 are strongly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Apart from the pathologic hallmarks that these biomarkers represent, other processes such as inflammation and microglial activation are present in the brains of patients with AD. New biomarkers related to these processes could be valuable for the diagnosis and follow-up of AD patients and for the evaluation of inflammation-related pathologies.
    Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders extra. 05/2014; 4(2):297-304.
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    ABSTRACT: Health-care stakeholders increasingly recognize that the scientific and economic challenges associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are simply too great for individual stakeholder groups to address solely from within their own silos. In the necessary spirit of collaboration, we present in this perspective a set of multicountry multistakeholder recommendations to improve the organization of existing AD and dementia care and the development of new treatments. In brief, the five recommendations are (1) health-care systems must make choices regarding the patient populations to be diagnosed and treated, (2) health-care systems should use an evidence-based standard of care, (3) increased collaboration between public and private institutions is needed to enhance research, (4) reimbursement end points need to be agreed on and validated, and (5) innovative business models should be used to spur the introduction of new medicines.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 04/2014; · 14.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to characterize the neuropsychological and neuroimaging profiles of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, and to study the magnitude of the differences by comparing both outcomes with healthy subjects in a cross-sectional manner. Five hundred and thirty-five subjects (356 cognitively normal adults (CONT), 79 MCI, and 100 AD) were assessed with the NEURONORMA neuropsychological battery. Thirty CONT, 23 MCI, and 23 AD subjects from this sample were included in the neuroimaging substudy. Patients' raw cognitive scores were converted to age and education-adjusted scaled ones (range 2-18) using co-normed reference values. Medians were plotted to examine the cognitive profile. MRIs were processed by means of FreeSurfer. Effect size indices (Cohen's d) were calculated in order to compare the standardized differences between patients and healthy subjects. Graphically, the observed cognitive profiles for MCI and AD groups produced near to parallel lines. Verbal and visual memories were the most impaired domains in both groups, followed by executive functions and linguistic/semantic ones. The largest effect size between AD and cognitively normal subjects was found for the FCSRT (d = 4.05, AD versus CONT), which doubled the value obtained by the best MRI measure, the right hippocampus (d = 1.65, AD versus CONT). Our results support the notion of a continuum in cognitive profile between MCI and AD. Neuropsychological outcomes, in particular the FCSRT, are better than neuroimaging ones at detecting differences among subjects.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 04/2014; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers amyloid-β peptide of 42 amino acids (Aβ1-42), total tau-protein (T-tau), and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (P-tau181P) are used to diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD). In order to increase diagnostic power, several biomarker combinations have been proposed. In that sense, a new CSF biomarker index was developed, the AD-CSF-index, which has been validated in clinically diagnosed AD patients using electrochemoluminescence based MesoScaleDiscovery and single-analyte ELISA kits. This study validated the AD-CSF-index in neuropathologically diagnosed AD patients, using both single-analyte ELISA and multi-analyte Luminex assays. CSF of 51 neuropathologically diagnosed AD patients and of 95 controls was analyzed by commercially available single-analyte ELISA-kits (INNOTEST®, Innogenetics) and by a Research Use Only version of the multi-analyte Luminex xMAP® assay (INNO-BIA AlzBio3, Innogenetics). Subsequently the AD-CSF-indices were calculated. Both T-tau and P-tau181P AD-CSF-indices were significantly increased in AD patients when compared to controls (p < 0.001). The diagnostic power of the indices was calculated using ROC analyses, resulting in excellent sensitivity and specificity values that systematically exceeded the 80% threshold for discriminating autopsy-confirmed AD patients from controls, independent of the analytical platform. The power to discriminate between AD and non-AD dementias was not included in this study and should be validated in the future. In conclusion, this study validated the AD-CSF index in autopsy-confirmed AD patients and has shown that its excellent diagnostic accuracy is independent of the analytical platform.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 04/2014; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a 54-year-old man who was admitted to the hospital because of acute neurological symptoms due to a cerebral haemorrhage. Postmortem brain examination revealed a lobar haemorrhage and advanced AD neuropathologic changes associated with severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Genetic study evidenced the presence of a large APP locus duplication (APPdup) in the patient and a PSEN1 p.E318G polymorphism in him and his older asymptomatic sibling. The APPdup spanned 14.5 Mb and blocks of segmental duplications were detected in the breakpoints. We propose the replication-based mechanism of Fork Stalling Template Switching (FoSTeS) to explain this APPdup rearrangement.
    Neurogenetics 04/2014; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) is gaining importance as a focus of investigation, but adequate tools are needed for its quantification. Objective: To develop and validate a questionnaire to quantify SCD, termed the Subjective Cognitive Decline Questionnaire (SCD-Q). Methods: 124 controls (CTR), 144 individuals with SCD, 83 mild cognitive impairment subjects, 46 Alzheimer's disease patients, and 397 informants were included. The SCD-Q contains: part I, named MyCog, which is answered by the subject; and part II, TheirCog, which includes the same questions and is answered by the informant or caregiver. The 24 SCD-Q items assess the perceived subjective decline in memory, language, and executive functions in the last two years. Results: The MyCog scores of controls differed significantly from those of the other groups (p < 0.05) and there were significant differences in TheirCog scores between all groups. The optimal TheirCog cut-off score for discriminating between individuals with and without cognitive impairment was 7/24 (sensitivity 85%, specificity 80%). MyCog scores correlated significantly with anxiety and depression (r = 0.29, r = 0.43, p < 0.005), but no correlations were found with neuropsychological tests. TheirCog scores correlated significantly with most of the neuropsychological tests (p < 0.05). Informants' depression and anxiety influenced TheirCog scores in controls and SCD groups. Conclusion: Self-perceived cognitive decline, measured by the SCD-Q part I (MyCog), discriminated SCD from CTR. Part II (TheirCog) was strongly related to subjects' objective cognitive performance, and discriminated between subjects with or without cognitive impairment. The SCD-Q is a useful tool to measure self-perceived cognitive decline incorporating the decliner and the informant perspective.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 03/2014; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blood-cell-free circulating micro-RNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed as potential accessible biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we analyzed the serum levels of 377 miRNAs in a discovery set of 10 idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) patients, 10 PD patients carriers of the LRRK2 G2019S mutation (LRRK2 PD), and 10 controls by using real-time quantitative PCR-based TaqMan MicroRNA arrays. We detected candidate differentially expressed miRNAs, which were further tested in a first validation set consisting of 20 IPD, 20 LRRK2 PD, and 20 control samples. We found four statistically significant miRNAs that were downregulated in either LRRK2 or IPD (miR-29a, miR-29c, miR-19a, and miR-19b). Subsequently, we validated these findings in a third set of samples consisting of 65 IPD and 65 controls and confirmed the association of downregulated levels of miR-29c, miR-29a, and miR-19b in IPD. Differentially expressed miRNAs are predicted to target genes belonging to pathways related to ECM–receptor interaction, focal adhesion, MAPK, Wnt, mTOR, adipocytokine, and neuron projection. Results from our exploratory study indicate that downregulated levels of specific circulating serum miRNAs are associated with PD and suggest their potential use as noninvasive biomarkers for PD. Future studies should further confirm the association of these miRNAs with PD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Neuroscience Research 03/2014; · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early-onset cognitive impairment diagnosis is often challenging due to the overlapping symptoms between the different degenerative and non-degenerative conditions. We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in early-onset cognitive impairment differential diagnosis, to assess their contribution to the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on the new National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) workgroup's recommendations and their capacity to predict subsequent decline in early-onset mild cognitive impairment (MCI). 37 controls and 120 patients (clinical onset <65 years) with diagnosis based on criteria available in 2009 (51 MCI, 42 AD, 10 frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 3 posterior cortical atrophy, and 14 primary progressive aphasia (PPA)) were included. In addition, all subjects were also reclassified according to the revised criteria for MCI, AD, FTD, and PPA, excluding CSF data. We assessed the impact of adding the CSF data to the subject categorization according to the NIA-AA criteria. After inclusion of CSF results, 90% of amnestic and 82% of the non-amnestic AD presentation could be categorized as "high probability", while 3% of AD patients fit into the category "dementia probably not due to AD". All the 24 MCI patients who progressed to AD dementia and only 1/27 stable MCI presented pathological CSF at baseline. Only 4% of the FTD clinical diagnosis had pathological CSF levels. CSF biomarkers provide high diagnostic accuracy in a clinical context in differentiating AD, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and controls in presenile subjects and can be used equally in amnestic and non-amnestic AD. Abnormal CSF-AD biomarker levels predict subsequent progression to AD dementia in subjects with early-onset MCI.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 02/2014; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The Alzheimer's Disease Functional Assessment and Change Scale (ADFACS) is a functional assessment instrument widely used in clinical research. Aims: To test the diagnostic and concurrent validity of the Spanish version of this scale and to describe the functional deficit pattern for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. Methods: The ADFACS, the Interview for Deterioration in Daily Living Activities in Dementia (IDDD), and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) were administered to 146 control subjects (CS) and 165 patients (67 MCI and 98 AD). Nonparametric tests were used to compare the diagnostic groups. Cronbach's α and correlations with the MMSE and the IDDD were calculated. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values were studied. Results: The ADFACS had a high internal consistency (α = 0.95). Three cutoff points of 1, 4, and 17 were provided to separate CS and MCI patients, MCI and mild AD patients, and mild AD and moderate AD patients, respectively. The ADFACS strongly correlated with functional (IDDD, 0.927) and cognitive (MMSE, 0.747) measures. A similar pattern of dysfunction, but in different grades, was found for the MCI and AD groups. Conclusion: The ADFACS is a reliable, valid, and sensitive instrument to assess functional abilities; it is useful in dementia assessment for elderly populations. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 02/2014; 37(5-6):366-375. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The application of the Boston Naming Test (BNT) is time-consuming and shortened versions need to be developed for screening purposes. The aims of this study were to develop four equivalent 15-item forms of a Spanish adaptation of the BNT, to test the equivalence of the new versions in a clinical sample, and to provide normative data. The normative sample consisted of 340 subjects. The clinical sample included 172 patients (76 Mild Cognitive Impairment and 96 Alzheimer's disease). An empirical procedure was used to develop the shortened versions. All new versions demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency. Pearson's coefficient analysis showed strong relationships among the four short-form versions as well as between each of them and the 60-item test. The inferential confidence interval method demonstrated the equivalence between the four shortened versions. Age and education affected the score of all short-form versions, but sex was found to be unrelated to the performance. Normative data were calculated for midpoint age groups. This paper proposes four 15-item equivalent versions that could be useful and time-saving tools for screening purposes.
    Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 02/2014; 29(1):60. · 2.00 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
779.74 Total Impact Points


  • 1998–2014
    • Hospital Clínic de Barcelona
      • Servicio de Neurología
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2009–2013
    • Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • Institut Marqués, Spain, Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • Institut d'Assistència Sanitaria
      Girona, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2008–2013
    • Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red, Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2012
    • Autonomous University of Barcelona
      Cerdanyola del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain
    • McGill University
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2001–2012
    • University of Barcelona
      • • Departament de Psiquiatria i Psicobiologia Clínica
      • • Departament de Medicina
      Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2000–2010
    • IDIBAPS August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • Hospital Universitario de Getafe
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2002
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
    • Országos Epidemiológiai Központ
      Budapeŝto, Budapest, Hungary
  • 2000–2002
    • Southern Medical Clinic
      San Fernando, City of San Fernando, Trinidad and Tobago