[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have significant off-target multi-kinase inhibitory effects. We aimed to study the impact of TKIs on the in vivo B-cell response to vaccination. Cellular and humoral responses to influenza and pneumococcal vaccines were evaluated in 51 chronic phase CML patients on imatinib, or second-line dasatinib and nilotinib and 24 controls. Following vaccination, CML patients on TKI had significant impairment of IgM humoral response to pneumococcus compared to controls (IgM titer 79.0 vs. 200 U/ml, p=0.0006), associated with significantly lower frequencies of peripheral blood IgM memory B cells. To elucidate whether CML itself or treatment with TKI was responsible for the impaired humoral response, we assessed memory B-cell subsets in paired samples collected before and after imatinib therapy. Treatment with imatinib was associated with significant reductions in IgM memory B-cells. In vitro co-incubation of B-cells with plasma from CML patients on TKI or with imatinib, dasatinib or nilotinib induced significant and dose-dependent inhibition of Bruton's tyrosine kinase and indirectly its downstream substrate, phospholipase-C-γ2, both important in B cell signaling and survival. These data indicate that TKI, through off-target inhibition of kinases important in B-cell signaling, reduce memory B-cell frequencies and induce significant impairment of B-cell responses in CML.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Plerixafor with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been shown to enhance stem cell mobilization in patients with multiple myeloma and lymphoma with previous mobilization failure. In this European named patient program we report the experience in insufficiently mobilizing patients diagnosed with nonhematologic diseases. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients with germ cell tumor (n = 11), Ewing sarcoma (n = 6), Wiscott-Aldrich disease (n = 5), neuroblastoma (n = 4), and other nonhematologic diseases (n = 7) were included in the study. Plerixafor was limited to patients with previous or current stem cell mobilization failure and given after 4 days of G-CSF (n = 21) or after chemotherapy and G-CSF (n = 12) in patients who mobilized poorly. RESULTS: Overall, 28 (85%) patients succeeded in collecting at least 2 × 10(6) /kg body weight (b.w.) CD34+ cells (median, 5.0 × 10(6) /kg b.w. CD34+ cells; range, 2.0 × 10(6) -29.5 × 10(6) /kg b.w. CD34+ cells), and five (15%) patients collected a median of 1.5 × 10(6) /kg b.w. CD34+ cells (range, 0.9 × 10(6) -1.8 × 10(6) /kg b.w. CD34+ cells). Nineteen patients proceeded to transplantation. The median dose of CD34+ cells infused was 3.3 × 10(6) /kg b.w. (range, 2.3 × 10(6) -6.7 × 10(6) /kg b.w. CD34+ cells). The median numbers of days to neutrophil and platelet engraftment were 11 (range, 9-12) and 15 (range, 10-25) days, respectively. CONCLUSION: These data emphasize the role of plerixafor in combination with G-CSF or chemotherapy and G-CSF as an effective mobilization regimen with the potential of successful stem cell collection. Accordingly, plerixafor seems to be safe and effective in patients with nonhematologic diseases. Larger prospective studies are warranted to further assess its use in these patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fludarabine and lenalidomide are essential drugs in the front-line treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM), respectively. Data suggests that fludarabine and lenalidomide therapy may have a deleterious effect on stem cell mobilization. In the European compassionate use program, 48 patients (median age 57 years) previously treated with fludarabine (median 5 cycles; range: 1-7 cycles) were given plerixafor plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) for remobilization following a primary mobilization attempt. The overall median number of CD34+ cells collected was 2.3 × 10(6)/kg (range: 0.3-13.4). The minimum required number of CD34+ cells (≥2.0 × 10(6)/kg) was collected from 58% of patients in a median of 2 days. Thirty-five patients (median age = 57 years) previously treated with lenalidomide (median 5 cycles; range: 1-10 cycles) were given plerixafor plus G-CSF for remobilization. The overall median number of CD34+ cells collected was 3.4 × 10(6)/kg (range: 1.1-14.8). The minimum required number of CD34+ cells (≥2.0 × 10(6) per kg) was collected from 69% of patients in a median of 2 days. In conclusion, salvage mobilization with plerixafor plus G-CSF is successful in the majority of patients with MM previously treated with lenalidomide. In fludarabine-exposed patients, only 58% of patients will achieve successful salvage mobilization with plerixafor plus G-CSF, suggesting the need for novel mobilization regimens algorithms in this subgroup of patients.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 02/2012; 18(2):314-7. · 3.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effectiveness of the novel hematopoietic stem cell mobilizing agent plerixafor was evaluated in nationwide compassionate use programs in 13 European countries. A total of 580 poor mobilizers with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and multiple myeloma (MM) were enrolled. All patients received plerixafor plus granulocyte CSF with or without chemotherapy. Overall, the collection yield was significantly higher in MM patients (>2.0 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg: 81.6%; >5.0 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg: 32.0%) than in NHL patients (>2.0 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg: 64.8%; >5.0 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg: 12.6%; P<0.0001) and also significantly higher in HL patients (>2.0 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg: 81.5%; >5.0 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg: 22.2%) than in NHL patients (P=0.013). In a subgroup analysis, there were no significant differences in mobilization success comparing patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma. Our data emphasize the role of plerixafor in poor mobilizers, but further strategies to improve the apheresis yield especially in patients with NHL are required.
Bone marrow transplantation 11/2011; 47(8):1046-50. · 3.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells are expanded in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients on tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and exert cytotoxicity. The inherited repertoire of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) may influence response to TKI. We investigated the impact of KIR-genotype on outcome in 166 chronic phase CML patients on first-line imatinib treatment. We validated our findings in an independent patient group. On multivariate analysis, KIR2DS1 genotype (RR=1.51, P=0.03) and Sokal risk score (low-risk RR=1, intermediate-risk RR=1.53, P=0.04, high-risk RR=1.69, P=0.034) were the only independent predictors for failure to achieve complete cytogenetic response (CCyR). Furthermore, KIR2DS1 was the only factor predicting shorter progression-free (PFS) (RR=3.1, P=0.03) and overall survival (OS) (RR=2.6, P=0.04). The association between KIR2DS1 and CCyR, PFS and OS was validated by KIR genotyping in 174 CML patients on first-line imatinib in the UK multi-center SPIRIT-1 trial; in this cohort, KIR2DS1(+) patients had significantly lower 2-year probabilities of achieving CCyR (76.9 vs 87.9%, P=0.003), PFS (85.3 vs 98.1%, P=0.007) and OS (94.4 vs 100%, P=0.015) than KIR2DS1(-) patients. The impact of KIR2DS1 on CCyR was greatest when the ligand for the corresponding inhibitory receptor, KIR2DL1, was absent (P=0.00006). Our data suggest a novel role for KIR-HLA immunogenetics in CML patients on TKI.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 08/2011; 26(2):296-302. · 10.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing numbers of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) are being performed for patients who have failed a previous allogeneic or autologous SCT. We investigated whether the EBMT risk score could predict outcome after a subsequent allo-SCT. We analyzed prognostic factors in 124 consecutive patients who underwent a second transplantation using an allogeneic donor at our institution. Patients with either a first autologous (N = 64) or first allogeneic (N = 60) SCT were included. Age, disease stage, time interval from diagnosis to transplantation, donor type, and donor-recipient sex combination were used to establish a score from 0 to 7 points, from which 3 groups were identified. The 5-year survival probability decreased from 51.7% for risk scores 0-3 (low, n = 25), to 29.3% for risk score 4 (intermediate, n = 42), and only 10.4% for risk scores 5-7 (high, n = 57), P = .001. We propose that the EBMT risk score can identify patients most likely to benefit from a second transplantation.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 06/2011; 18(2):235-40. · 3.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limited data are available on immunologic responses to primary H1N1 infection in patients with hematologic malignancies. We present a prospective, case-surveillance study of such patients with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed H1N1-influenza who presented to our institution between September 2009 and January 2010. Ninety-two patients presented with influenza-like symptoms, and 13 had H1N1 infection confirmed by RT-PCR, including 4 allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients (1 with acute myelogenous leukemia, 1 with chronic lymphoblastic leukemia [CLL], 1 with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and 1 with chronic myelogenous leukemia), 5 patients with multiple myeloma following autologous stem cell transplantation, 1 patient with multiple myeloma perimobilization, 2 patients with NHL post chemotherapy, and 1 patient with CLL. All 13 patients required hospitalization. Six (43%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), of whom 4 (67%) died. We evaluated B cell and T cell responses to H1N1 infection prospectively in these patients compared with those in 4 otherwise healthy controls. Within 12 weeks of diagnosis, only 6 of 11 patients developed seropositive antibody titers as measured by hemagglutination-inhibition or microneutralization assays, compared with 4 of 4 controls. H1N1-specific T cells were detected in only 2 of 8 evaluable patients compared with 4 of 4 controls. H1N1-specific T cells were functional, capable of producing interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor α, and CD107a mobilization. Furthermore, CD154 was up-regulated on CD4(+) T cells in 3 of 4 controls and 2 of 2 patients who had both B cell and T cell responses to H1N1. Post-H1N1 infection, 5 of 8 patients developed seasonal influenza-specific T cells, suggesting cross-reactivity induced by H1N1 infection. These data offer novel insights into humoral and cell-mediated immunologic responses to primary H1N1 infection.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 05/2011; 17(5):632-9. · 3.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the outcome of allogeneic transplantation for mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome (MF/SS) in terms of nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse/progression (REL), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) and to identify factors associated with the outcome.
Sixty patients with MF (n = 36) and SS (n = 24) who received a first allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from a matched related (mRD; n = 45) or unrelated donor (mUD; n = 15) between 1997 and 2007 and who were registered in the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation database were analyzed: 37 men and 23 women, median age 46.5 years (range, 22 to 66 years). Forty-four patients had TNM stage IV, and 40 patients were at advanced phase at transplantation. Forty-four patients received reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens, and 25 underwent T-cell depletion (TCD).
Allogeneic transplantation in MF/SS offers an estimated OS of 66% at 1 year and 54% at 3 years, primarily driven by donor type, disease phase, and type of conditioning. RIC decreased NRM (relative risk [RR] = 4.7; P = .008) without increasing REL, leading to a higher OS (RR = 2.8; P = .03). Advanced-phase disease increases REL (RR = 3.0; P = .03) and reduces PFS (RR = 4.4; P = .002) and OS (RR = 3.5; P = .023). Recipients of mRD allogeneic HCT had better PFS (RR = 2.7; P = .006) and OS (RR = 4.0; P = .001) than their mUD counterparts. The risk of REL increases with TCD (RR = 3.2; P = .005). Some patients who experience relapse can successfully undergo rescue treatment with donor lymphocyte infusions.
Allogeneic transplantation is a valid therapeutic alternative for high-risk patients with advanced-stage MF/SS. Our data also suggest the existence of a clinically relevant graft-versus-lymphoma effect in MF/SS.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2010; 28(29):4492-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2009 the declaration by the World Health Organization of a global pandemic of influenza-H1N1 virus led to a vaccination campaign to ensure protection for immunocompromised patients. The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of the 2009 H1N1 vaccine in patients with hematologic malignancies.
We evaluated humoral and cellular immune responses to 2009 H1N1 vaccine in 97 adults with hematologic malignancies and compared these responses with those in 25 adult controls. Patients received two injections of vaccine 21 days apart and the controls received one dose. Antibody titers were measured using a hemagglutination-inhibition assay on days 0, 21 and 49 after injection of the first dose. Cellular immune responses to H1N1 were determined on days 0 and 49.
By day 21 post-vaccination, protective antibody titers of 1:32 or more were seen in 100% of controls compared to 39% of patients with B-cell malignancies (P<0.001), 46% of allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients (P<0.001) and 85% of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (P=0.086). After a second dose, seroprotection rates increased to 68%, (P=0.008), 73%, (P=0.031), and 95% (P=0.5) in patients with B-cell malignancies, after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and with chronic myeloid leukemia, respectively. On the other hand, T-cell responses to H1N1 vaccine were not significantly different between patients and controls.
These data demonstrate the efficacy of H1N1 vaccine in most patients with hematologic malignancies and support the recommendation for the administration of two doses of vaccine in immunocompromised patients. These results may contribute towards the development of evidence-based guidelines for influenza vaccination in such patients in the future.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Astrological or Zodiac (star) sign has been shown to be a statistically significant factor in the outcome of a variety of diseases, conditions, and phenomena.
To investigate its relevance in the context of a stem cell transplant (SCT), we examined its influence in chronic myeloid leukaemia, a disease with well-established prognostic factors. Data were collected on 626 patients who received a first myeloablative allogeneic SCT between 1981 and 2006. Star sign was determined for each patient.
Univariate analyses comparing all 12 individual star signs showed considerable variation of 5-year probabilities of survival, 63% for Arians, to 45% for Aquarians, but without significance (P=.65). However, it was possible to pool together star signs likely to provide dichotomous results. Thus, grouping together Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Leo, Scorpio, and Capricorn (group A; n=317) versus others (group B; n=309) resulted in a highly significant difference (58% vs 48%; P=.007). When adjusted for known prognostic factors in a multivariate analysis, group B was associated with an increased risk of mortality when compared with group A (relative risk [RR], 1.37; P=.005).
In this study, we show that, providing adequate care is taken, a significant relationship between patient star sign and survival post SCT for CML can be observed. This is, however, a completely erroneous result, and is based on the pooling together of observations to artificially create a statistically significant result. Statistical analyses should thus be carried out on a priori hypotheses and not to find a meaningful or significant result.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells exert antimyeloma cytotoxicity. The balance between inhibition and activation of NK-cells played by the inherited repertoire of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes therefore may influence prognosis. One hundred eighty-two patients with multiple myeloma (MM) were analyzed for KIR repertoire. Multivariate analysis showed that progression-free survival (PFS) after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) was significantly shorter for patients who are KIR3DS1(+) (P = .01). This was most evident for patients in complete or partial remission (good risk; GR) at ASCT. The relative risk (RR) of progression or death for patients with KIR3DS1(+) compared with KIR3DS1(-) was 1.9 (95% CI, 1.3-3.1; P = .002). The most significant difference in PFS was observed in patients with GR KIR3DS1(+) in whom HLA-Bw4, the ligand for the corresponding inhibitory receptor KIR3DL1, was missing. Patients with KIR3DS1(+) KIR3DL1(+) HLA-Bw4(-) had a significantly shorter PFS than patients who were KIR3DS1(-), translating to a difference in median PFS of 12 months (12.2 vs 24 months; P = .002). Our data show that KIR-human leukocyte antigen immunogenetics represent a novel prognostic tool for patients with myeloma, shown here in the context of ASCT, and that KIR3DS1 positivity may identify patients at greater risk of progression.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has been successfully used in HIV-related lymphoma (HIV-Ly) patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy. We report the first comparative analysis between HIV-Ly and a matched cohort of HIV(-) lymphoma patients. This retrospective European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation study included 53 patients (66% non-Hodgkin and 34% Hodgkin lymphoma) within each cohort. Both groups were comparable except for the higher proportion of males, mixed-cellularity Hodgkin lymphoma and patients receiving granulocyte colony-stimulating factor before engraftment and a smaller proportion receiving total body irradiation-based conditioning within the HIV-Ly cohort. Incidence of relapse, overall survival, and progression-free survival were similar in both cohorts. A higher nonrelapse mortality within the first year after ASCT was observed in the HIV-Ly group (8% vs 2%), predominantly because of early bacterial infections, although this was not statistically significant and did not influence survival. Thus, within the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, HIV patients should be considered for ASCT according to the same criteria adopted for HIV(-) lymphoma patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Peripheral-blood autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients with HIV-related lymphoma (HIV-Ly) has been reported as a safe and useful procedure. Herein we report the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation experience on patients with HIV-Ly undergoing ASCT.
This was a retrospective, multicentric, registry-based analysis.
Since 1999, 68 patients from 20 institutions (median age, 41 years; range, 29 to 62 years) were included, diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL; n = 50) or Hodgkin's lymphoma (n = 18). At the time of ASCT, 16 patients were in first complete remission (CR1); 44 patients were in CR more than 1, partial remission, or chemotherapy-sensitive relapse (chemo-S); and eight patients had chemotherapy-resistant disease. The median number of CD34(+) cells infused was 4.5 x 10(6)/kg (range, 1.6 to 21.2 x 10(6)/kg). Median time to neutrophil and platelet engraftment were 11 days (range, 8 to 36 days) and 14 days (range, 6 to 455 days), respectively, with a cumulative incidence (CI) at 1 year of 95.6% and 87%, respectively. CI of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was 7.5% at 12 months after ASCT, mainly because of bacterial infections. CI of relapse was 30.4% at 24 months, statistically related with not being in CR at ASCT (relative risk [RR] = 3.6), NHL histology other than diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (RR = 3.4), and use of more than two previous treatment lines (RR = 3). At a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 2 to 81 months), progression-free survival (PFS) was 56%. Patients not in CR or with refractory disease at ASCT had poorer PFS (RR = 2.4 and 4.8, respectively).
Similarly to HIV-negative patients with lymphoma, ASCT is a useful treatment for patients with HIV-Ly and is associated with low NRM, mainly when performed in early stages and chemo-S disease.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2009; 27(13):2192-8. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 44-year-old man with relapsed HIV-associated stage IV nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's disease underwent high-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation. The transplant was uncomplicated and the patient remains in complete remission at 59 months. Autologous stem cell transplantation is safe in HIV patients and can achieve long-term durable remissions in Hodgkin's disease.
AIDS (London, England) 03/2008; 22(4):539-40. · 4.91 Impact Factor