[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Previous studies comparing the genome sequences of Cryptosporidium parvum with C. hominis identified a number of highly divergent genes that might reflect positive selection for host specificity. In the present study, the C. parvum DNA sequence cgd8-5370, that encodes a protein whose amino acid sequence differs appreciably from its homologue in C. hominis, was cloned by PCR and expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. Antisera raised against the recombinant cgd8-5370 antigen strongly recognized a unique 33 kDa protein in immunoblots from reducing and non-reducing SDS-PAGE of native C. parvum protein. However, anti-Cp33 sera did not recognize the native 33 kDa homologue in C. hominis. In an immunofluorescence assay (IFA), anti-Cp33 serum recognized an antigen in the anterior end of air-dried C. parvum sporozoites, but failed to bind at any sites in C. hominis sporozoites, indicating its specificity for C. parvum. IFA staining of live C. parvum sporozoites with anti-Cp33 serum failed to bind to the parasite, indicating that the CP33 antigen is not on the sporozoite surface, which is consistent with topology predictions based on the encoded amino acid sequence. RT-PCR analysis of cgd8-5370 mRNA before or during C. parvum oocyst excystation revealed transcripts only in excysting sporozoites. Thus, Cp33 represents one of a small number of proteins shown to differentiate C. parvum from C. hominis sporozoites and oocysts.
Journal of Parasitology 03/2014; · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Control of avian coccidiosis is increasingly being achieved by the administration of low doses of Eimeria oocysts to newly hatched chicks. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of gel beads containing a mixture of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts as a vaccine to protect broilers raised in contact with litter. Newly hatched chicks were either sprayed with an aqueous suspension of Eimeria oocysts or were allowed to ingest feed containing Eimeria oocysts-incorporated gel beads. Control, 1-day-old chicks were given an equivalent number of Eimeria oocysts (10(3) total) by oral gavage or received no vaccine (nonimmunized controls). All chicks were raised in floor-pen cages in direct contact with litter. At 4 wk of age, all chickens and a control nonimmunized group received a high-dose E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella challenge infection. Chickens immunized with Eimeria oocysts in gel beads or by spray vaccination displayed significantly (P < 0.05) greater weight gain (WG) compared to nonimmunized controls. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) also showed a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in both groups relative to nonimmunized controls. Moreover, WG and FCR in both groups was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from chickens immunized by oral gavage or from nonimmunized, noninfected controls. Oocyst excretion after Eimeria challenge by all immunized groups was about 10-fold less than in nonimmunized controls. These findings indicate that immunization efficacy of gel beads and spray vaccination is improved by raising immunized chicks in contact with litter.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Outbreaks of avian coccidiosis may occur when susceptible chickens are raised on litter containing viable Eimeria oocysts. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative sensitivities of E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella oocysts to dessication. Sporulated E. acervulina, E. maxima, or E. tenella oocysts were incorporated into gelatin beads, and incubated at 32oC for 0, 1, 2, or 3 days. In vitro oocyst excystation rates were measured for each combination of Eimeria species and incubation time. Day-old broiler chicks were allowed to ingest the oocysts-containing beads, and total oocyst production was measured from days 5-8 post-inoculation. Although no effect on excystation was observed, E. maxima oocysts displayed greater resistance to drying compared to E. acervulina and E. tenella oocysts. Eimeria acervulina oocyst production decreased 100-fold after 1-2 days incubation. E. tenella oocysts were slightly more resistant to drying in that a 100-fold decrease in oocyst production was delayed until 2 days. For both E. acervulina and E. tenella, very few oocysts were observed after 3 days incubation. Eimeria maxima oocyst production remained high at all timepoints. Subsequent studies revealed E. maxima oocyst production was ablated only after 5 days incubation. These findings may explain in part the observed prevalence of E. maxima in litter from commercial poultry operations.
Journal of Parasitology 04/2013; · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccines composed of either virulent or attenuated Eimeria spp. oocysts have been developed as an alternative to medication of feed with ionophore drugs or synthetic chemicals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of gel-beads containing a mixture of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts as a vaccine against coccidiosis. Newly hatched chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were either sprayed with an aqueous suspension of Eimeria oocysts or were allowed to ingest feed containing Eimeria oocysts-incorporated gel-beads. Control day-old chicks were given an equivalent number of Eimeria oocysts (10(4) total) by oral gavage. After 3 days, chicks were randomly assigned to individual cages, and feces were collected between days 5 and 8 postinfection. All samples were processed for total Eimeria oocysts. At 4 wk of age, all chickens and a control nonimmunized group received a high-dose E acervulina, E maxima, and E. tenella challenge infection. Oocyst excretion by chicks fed gel-beads or inoculated by oral gavage was 10- to 100-fold greater than that of chicks spray-vaccinated with the Eimeria oocysts mixture (log 6.3-6.6 vs. log 4.8). Subsequent protection against challenge as measured by weight gain and feed conversion efficiency was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in gel-bead and oral gavage groups compared with spray-vaccinated or nonimmunized groups. Also, gel-bead and oral gavage groups showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in weight gain and feed conversion efficiency compared with nonchallenged controls. These findings indicate that incorporation of Eimeria spp. oocysts in gel-beads may represent an effective way to deliver live oocyst vaccines to day-old chicks for preventing subsequent outbreaks of coccidiosis in the field.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The present study analyzed giardin transcription in trophozoites and cysts during encystation of Giardia lamblia. Encystment was induced using standard methods, and numbers of trophozoites and cysts were counted at various time-points during the process. At all time points, RNA from both stages were assayed for levels of alpha2-, beta-, and delta-giardin mRNA as well as cyst wall protein 3 (CWP3) mRNA using quantitative RT-PCR. In encystation medium, the number of G. lamblia trophozoites decreased, while the number of cysts increased between 0 and 72 hr. In trophozoites, alpha2- and beta-giardin transcription decreased over time, while delta-giardin transcription remained unchanged during the same time period. CWP3 transcription exhibited a slight increase in trophozoites at 8 hr, followed by a decrease at subsequent time points. Expression of alpha2-giardin increased at 48 hr in cysts, followed by decreased expression at 72 hr, while beta- and delta-giardin expression was unchanged during encystation. CWP3 transcription gradually decreased from 24 -72 hr in cysts. Consistent with previous studies, giardin proteins appeared to be disassembled into amorphous structures inside cysts during encystation. These findings represent the first analysis of giardin transcription in separate populations of trophozoites and cysts during encystation, and indicate differential regulation of giardin mRNA expression by these developmental stages.
Journal of Parasitology 04/2012; · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunolocalization of β- and δ-giardin in Giardia duodenalis trophozoites revealed that both giardins are strictly associated with the ventral disk (VD). Optical sectioning of the immunolabeled VD, together with quantitative colocalization of δ- and β-giardin immunoreactivity, demonstrated that δ-giardin is primarily localized to the ventral side, and β-giardin is localized to the dorsal side of the VD.
Parasitology Research 02/2012; 111(1):241-8. · 2.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study describes transcription of mRNA from genes encoding metabolic or structural proteins during excystation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. RNA was harvested from C. parvum oocysts before excystation, and at 5, 10, and 15 min during excystation. Subtractive cDNA libraries were prepared by using mRNA from non-excysted C. parvum oocysts to "subtract out" mRNA from excysting oocysts. The "subtracted" cDNA was used to prepare libraries enriched for transcripts possibly involved in excystation. From these libraries, over 1,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed by DNA sequencing followed by BLAST-N and BLAST-X analysis. While several gene products involved in cell metabolism and cell signaling were consistently recovered, transcription levels, as reflected by the relative number of cDNA sequences (19.2% total), were highly up-regulated in genes coding for structural proteins such as Cp2, CpTSP, CpHC10, and CpSAg. Moreover, of the greater than 1,000 clones analyzed, a high percentage (12.3%) of ESTs detected in excysting oocysts were for hypothetical C. parvum proteins (CpHyP), whose functions are presently unknown.
Parasitology Research 03/2011; 109(2):509-13. · 2.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cDNA coding for detlaq-giardin was cloned from Giardia lamblia trophozoites to localize the protein and to study its function in mediating surface attachment. Recombinant delta-giardin antigen was expressed in Escherichia coli as a poly-histidine fusion protein and was purified by affinity chromatography for production of antisera to delta-giardin. By immunoblotting analysis, antisera to recombinant delta-giardin antigen recognized a 31-kDa protein on G. lamblia trophozoites. Anti-recombinant delta-giardin was used to localize the native protein to the trophozoite ventral disk in both immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy assays. Pre-treatment of G. lamblia trophozoites with anti-delta-giardin sera caused morphological changes in the parasite and inhibited trophozoite binding to the surface of cell culture slides. Binding of antibodies to delta-giardin may provide a means of inhibiting attachment of G. lamblia trophozoites to the intestinal epithelium and thereby prevent clinical giardiasis.
Journal of Parasitology 09/2009; 95(4):895-9. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cDNA coding for delta-giardin was cloned from Giardia lamblia trophozoites in order to localize the protein and study its function in mediating surface attachment. Recombinant delta-giardin antigen was expressed in Escherichia coli as a poly-histidine fusion protein and was purified by affinity chromatography for production of antisera to delta-giardin. By immunoblotting analysis, antisera to recombinant delta-giardin antigen recognized a 31 kDa protein on G. lamblia trophozoites. Anti-recombinant delta-giardin was used to localize the native protein to the trophozoite ventral disk in both immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy assays. Pre-treatment of G. lamblia trophozoites with anti-delta-giardin sera caused morphological changes in the parasite, and inhibited trophozoite binding to cell culture surfaces. Binding of antibodies to delta-giardin may provide a means of inhibiting attachment of G. lamblia trophozoites to the intestinal epithelium and, thereby, prevent clinical giardiasis.
Journal of Parasitology 01/2009; · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) were prepared against the 40-kDa capsid protein of Cryptosporidium parvum virus (CPV) by immunizing mice with purified recombinant CPV40 protein. In immunoblotting analysis, MAbCPV40-1 bound to a 40-kDa protein in extracts of C. parvum oocysts. This 40-kDa protein was localized in the sporozoite cytoplasm by immunofluorescence (IFA) staining with MAbCPV40-1. In a dot-blot assay, MAbCPV40-1 was capable of detecting 10(2) non-bleach-treated and 10(2)-10(3) bleach-treated C. parvum oocysts. MAbCPV40-1 was capable of detecting CPV40 antigen in both soluble and total C. parvum oocyst protein extracts, indicating a potential use for detecting this parasite in environmental samples.
Journal of Parasitology 03/2008; 94(1):94-8. · 1.32 Impact Factor