Rachel J Bishop

National Eye Institute, Maryland, United States

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Publications (15)40.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited disorder characterized by defects in phagocyte-derived nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase. It is typically diagnosed in childhood and leads to severe, recurrent bacterial or fungal infections. Chorioretinal lesions are the most common ocular manifestation. We sought to determine whether there are infectious agents in CGD-associated chorioretinopathy. METHODS: Medical records and ocular histopathology from CGD cases from January 1983 to January 2012 at the National Institutes of Health were retrospectively reviewed. Chorioretinal cells from normal and lesional tissues of the same eye were microdissected. Primers for Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia sp., and a panbacterial 16S ribosomal DNA were used for polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Seventeen CGD patients had ocular tissues (16 autopsied cases and 1 chorioretinal biopsy) examined. Of these 17, 8 demonstrated CGD-associated chorioretinal lesions in at least one eye on histopathology. Of these 8, 7 showed amplification of 16S ribosomal DNA within the lesion; of these 7, two also amplified S. epidermidis and one P. aeruginosa. One had no bacterial DNA amplified. Importantly, no microbial DNA was amplified from the normal, non-lesional ocular tissues of these 8 cases. Furthermore, only 1 of the 9 eyes without chorioretinopathy had amplified Burkholderia DNA, that patient had a history of Burkholderia infection. CONCLUSIONS: We detected bacterial DNA in 7 of 8 (88 %) cases with CGD-associated chorioretinopathy and only in 1 normal ocular tissue of 17 CGD cases. Bacterial infection may play a role in the pathogenesis of CGD-associated chorioretinal lesions.
    Journal of Clinical Immunology 05/2013; · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in DNA repair genes. Clinical manifestations of XP include mild to extreme sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation resulting in inflammation and neoplasia in sun-exposed areas of the skin, mucous membranes, and ocular surfaces. This report describes the ocular manifestations of XP in patients systematically evaluated in the Clinical Center at the National Institutes of Health. DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-seven participants, aged 1.3 to 63.4 years, referred to the National Eye Institute (NEI) for examination from 1964 to 2011. Eighty-three patients had XP, 3 patients had XP/Cockayne syndrome complex, and 1 patient had XP/trichothiodystrophy complex. METHODS: Complete age- and developmental stage-appropriate ophthalmic examination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual acuity; eyelid, ocular surface, and lens pathology; tear film and tear production measures; and cytologic analysis of conjunctival surface swabs. RESULTS: Of the 87 patients, 91% had at least 1 ocular abnormality. The most common abnormalities were conjunctivitis (51%), corneal neovascularization (44%), dry eye (38%), corneal scarring (26%), ectropion (25%), blepharitis (23%), conjunctival melanosis (20%), and cataracts (14%). Thirteen percent of patients had some degree of visual axis impingement, and 5% of patients had no light perception in 1 or both eyes. Ocular surface cancer or a history of ocular surface cancer was present in 10% of patients. Patients with an acute sunburning skin phenotype were less likely to develop conjunctival melanosis and ectropion but more likely to develop neoplastic ocular surface lesions than nonburning patients. Some patients also showed signs of limbal stem cell deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Our longitudinal study reports the ocular status of the largest group of patients with XP systematically examined at 1 facility over an extended period of time. Structural eyelid abnormalities, neoplasms of the ocular surface and eyelids, tear film and tear production abnormalities, ocular surface disease and inflammation, and corneal abnormalities were present in this population. Burning and nonburning patients with XP exhibit different rates of important ophthalmologic findings, including neoplasia. In addition, ophthalmic characteristics can help refine diagnoses in the case of XP complex phenotypes. DNA repair plays a major role in protection of the eye from sunlight-induced damage. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
    Ophthalmology 04/2013; · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Between 2004 and 2010, 189 adult patients were enrolled on the National Cancer Institute (NCI) cross-sectional chronic Graft-versus-Host disease (cGVHD) natural history study. Patients were evaluated by multiple disease scales and outcome measures including the 2005 NIH Consensus Project cGVHD severity score. The purpose of this study is to assess the validity of the NIH scoring variables as determinants of disease severity in severely affected patients in order to standardize clinician evaluation and staging of cGVHD. 125 of 189 patients met criteria for severe cGVHD on the NIH global score and 62 had moderate disease, with a median of 4 (range 1-8) involved organs. Clinician average NIH organ score and the corresponding organ scores performed by subspecialists were highly correlated (r=0.64). NIH global severity scores showed significant associations with nearly all functional and quality of life outcome measures including Lee Scale, SF-36 Physical Component Scale (PCS), 2 minutes walk, grip strength, range of motion and Human Activity Profile (HAP). Joints/fascia, skin, and lung involvement impacted function and quality of life most significantly and showed highest number of correlations with outcome measures. The final Cox model showing factors jointly predictive for survival contained the time from cGVHD diagnosis (>49 vs. ≤49 months, HR=0.23; p=0.0011), absolute eosinophil count of (0-0.5 vs. >0.5 cells/μL, HR=3.95; p=0.0006) at the time of NIH evaluation, and NIH lung score (3 vs. 0-2, HR= 11.02; p <0.0001). These results demonstrate that NIH organs and global severity scores are reliable measures of cGVHD disease burden. Strong association with subspecialist evaluation suggests that NIH organs and global severity scores are appropriate for clinical and research assessments, and may serve as a surrogate for more complex sub-specialist exams. In this population of severely affected patients, NIH lung score is the strongest predictor of poor overall survival, both alone and after adjustment for other important factors.
    Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 01/2013; · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study reports a case of bilateral rifabutin-associated uveitis in a child with a history of acute myeloid leukemia. We utilized a clinical case description and brief discussion. A 17-year-old girl presented with acute bilateral anterior uveitis, a hypopyon in the left eye, and moderate bilateral vitritis. She had a history of acute myeloid leukemia status post-allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant 5 years earlier. She was receiving rifabutin for a biopsy-proven Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary infection. Work up for infectious and neoplastic etiologies was negative. The uveitis initially responded to topical corticosteroids, but recurred when the drops were tapered. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated diffuse vasculitis of small retinal vessels and cystoid macular edema. After rifabutin was discontinued, the uveitis and vasculitis slowly resolved. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated widespread retinal vasculitis which is a rare manifestation of rifabutin-associated uveitis.
    Journal of ophthalmic inflammation and infection. 02/2012; 2(3):149-52.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to report the clinical and pathologic findings of three cases of rapid vision loss associated with fludarabine toxicity. A retrospective, single-center case series was conducted. Autopsies of the eyes from three cases were performed. A 23-year-old man (Case 1) with systemic lupus erythematosus developed rapid and severe vision loss, generalized neurologic decline, and eventual death after administration of fludarabine before stem cell transplantation. A 48-year-old woman (Case 2) and a 60-year-old man (Case 3), both with metastatic melanoma, had similar courses after receiving fludarabine as part of a preparatory regimen before adoptive cell therapy. Fundus examination showed punctuate yellow flecks in the macula after visual decline in two cases. In all three cases, serum antiretinal antibodies were negative before and after treatment; electrophysiological testing showed markedly decreased B-waves; and pathologic analysis showed loss of retinal bipolar and ganglion cells, gliosis within the retina and optic nerve, and optic nerve atrophy. Fludarabine toxicity can result in severe vision loss attributable to damage to retinal bipolar and ganglion cells. Although effective treatments are not known, care should be taken to consider fludarabine toxicity in patients who present with vision loss approximately 1 month after treatment.
    Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) 03/2010; 30(8):1272-7. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although xerostomia is a commonly reported complaint in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), criteria for evaluating the prevalence and characteristics of salivary gland involvement have not been well defined in this patient population. Previous studies also have made no distinction between salivary and mucosal oral cGVHD. We systematically evaluated signs and symptoms of sicca in a large cohort of patients with cGVHD (n = 101) using instruments widely used to study Sjogren's syndrome. Xerostomia was reported by 77% of the patients and was associated with xerophthalmia in all but 1 case. The salivary flow rate was < or =0.2 mL/min in 27%, and < or =0.1 mL/min in 16%. Histopathological changes, consisting of mononuclear infiltration and/or fibrosis/atrophy, were present in all patients with salivary dysfunction. Importantly, there was no correlation of salivary and oral mucosal involvement in cGVHD. Patients with cGVHD-associated salivary gland involvement had diminished oral cavity-specific quality of life and lower body mass index. Salivary gland involvement is a common and clinically distinct manifestation of cGVHD. Formal evaluation of salivary function using standardized criteria is needed, and this could be incorporated as an outcome measure in clinical trials of cGVHD.
    Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 03/2010; 16(10):1362-9. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biomarkers could be useful in evaluating immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). A cohort of 45 HIV-1-infected, antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive patients with baseline CD4 T cell counts <or=100 cells/microL who were started on ART, suppressed HIV-RNA to <50 copies/mL, and seen every 1-3 months for 1 year were retrospectively evaluated for suspected or confirmed IRIS. d-Dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), and selected autoantibodies were analyzed at baseline, 1 and 3 months post-ART in cryopreserved plasma. Median differences between cases and controls were compared with Mann-Whitney and Fisher's exact tests. Sixteen patients (35.6%) developed IRIS (median of 35 days post-ART initiation): unmasking=8, paradoxical=7, autoimmune=1. Pre-ART d-dimer and CRP were higher in IRIS cases versus controls (d-dimer: 0.89 mg/L versus 0.66 mg /L, p=0.037; CRP: 0.74 mg/L versus 0.39 mg/L, p=0.022), while d-dimer was higher in unmasking cases at IRIS onset (2.04 mg/L versus 0.36 mg /L, p=0.05). These biomarkers may be useful in identifying patients at risk for IRIS.
    Clinical Immunology 03/2010; 136(1):42-50. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three patients with aplastic anemia were evaluated by the ophthalmology service within 2 months of the aplastic anemia diagnosis for bilateral visual loss. The mean age of diagnosis of aplastic anemia was 14.3 years (range: 5 to 19 years) and the mean follow-up was 25 months (range: 15 to 44 months). All 6 eyes demonstrated choroidal ischemia and vitreous hemorrhage. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed in four eyes of two patients for non-clearing vitreous hemorrhage; one patient was observed. Successful anatomic outcomes were achieved in 3 of 4 eyes that underwent vitrectomy. Initial visual acuity ranged from 20/80 to bare light perception and final visual acuity ranged from 20/20 to no light perception. All patients received immunosuppressive therapy including cyclosporine and anti-thymocyte globulin, and two underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. All patients received perioperative platelet and blood transfusions. Pars plana vitrectomy resulted in functional and anatomic success in the majority of eyes in this series. Coordination of medical and surgical care with the hematology service is advisable to stabilize hematologic parameters prior to undertaking a vitreoretinal procedure.
    Ophthalmic Surgery Lasers and Imaging 01/2010; 41 Online. · 1.46 Impact Factor
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    Clinical Immunology - CLIN IMMUNOL. 01/2010; 136(3):462-462.
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the ophthalmic and systemic autoimmune findings after successful adoptive cell transfer of ex vivo expanded, autologous tumor-reactive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) for metastatic melanoma. Retrospective, interventional case report. A 35-year-old man who underwent immunotherapy for metastatic melanoma with adoptive cell transfer of tumor-reactive TIL. A 35-year-old man with metastatic melanoma was treated with TIL plus interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy after a lymphodepleting regimen of cyclophosphamide and fludarabine for metastatic melanoma, which led to a complete and durable remission. Bilateral panuveitis, hearing loss, vitiligo, poliosis, and alopecia developed in the patient, requiring local ophthalmic immunosuppressive therapy. The clinical course, diagnostic testing, and therapeutic interventions over a 2-year period are reviewed. Visual acuity, anterior chamber and vitreous inflammation, optical coherence tomography findings, serial electro-oculograms (EOGs), microperimetry (MP-1) testing, flow cytometric analysis of cells derived from the aqueous humor, and aqueous humor cytokine profiles were evaluated. After melanoma immunotherapy, complete tumor regression was achieved at 5 months after treatment with a durable, ongoing, complete remission at 24 months. Early in the treatment course, a high fever, a diffuse rash, hearing loss, and bilateral anterior uveitis developed acutely in the patient. Late autoimmune sequelae included the development of alopecia, vitiligo, poliosis, and bilateral panuveitis with diffuse retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) hypopigmentation, reminiscent of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) syndrome. Bilateral cystoid macular edema also developed that was responsive to acetazolamide. Serial EOGs showed alterations in RPE standing potentials in dark conditions, and MP-1 testing revealed diminished foveal and perifoveal sensitivity. An aqueous humor aspirate revealed a high concentration of melanoma tumor antigen-reactive T cells compared with that of peripheral blood samples, as well as a proinflammatory aqueous cytokine profile. At the time of cataract surgery 22 months after immunotherapy, a repeat aqueous humor sample showed the disappearance of the previously seen melanoma differentiation antigen-reactive lymphocytes, but the proinflammatory cytokine profile persisted. Ocular and systemic autoimmune sequelae resembling VKH may develop after successful melanoma immunotherapy. This report provides insight into the pathogenesis of VKH disease. The patient's clinical course illustrates the fine balance between tumor-specific immunity and loss of self-tolerance. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
    Ophthalmology 06/2009; 116(5):981-989.e1. · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gene therapy of human cancer using genetically engineered lymphocytes is dependent on the identification of highly reactive T-cell receptors (TCRs) with antitumor activity. We immunized transgenic mice and also conducted high-throughput screening of human lymphocytes to generate TCRs highly reactive to melanoma/melanocyte antigens. Genes encoding these TCRs were engineered into retroviral vectors and used to transduce autologous peripheral lymphocytes administered to 36 patients with metastatic melanoma. Transduced patient lymphocytes were CD45RA(-) and CD45RO(+) after ex vivo expansion. After infusion, the persisting cells displayed a CD45RA(+) and CD45RO(-) phenotype. Gene-engineered cells persisted at high levels in the blood of all patients 1 month after treatment, responding patients with higher ex vivo antitumor reactivity than nonresponders. Objective cancer regressions were seen in 30% and 19% of patients who received the human or mouse TCR, respectively. However, patients exhibited destruction of normal melanocytes in the skin, eye, and ear, and sometimes required local steroid administration to treat uveitis and hearing loss. Thus, T cells expressing highly reactive TCRs mediate cancer regression in humans and target rare cognate-antigen-containing cells throughout the body, a finding with important implications for the gene therapy of cancer. This trial was registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov as NCI-07-C-0174 and NCI-07-C-0175.
    Blood 06/2009; 114(3):535-46. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to report a case of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) after systemic chemotherapy with hydroxycarbamide. Clinical manifestations and pathology are detailed. We describe the case of a woman with sickle cell disease, who developed bilateral LSCD after treatment with hydroxycarbamide. Histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of LSCD, revealing goblet cells, inflammatory cells, deposits of new collagen components, and neovascularization in the peripheral cornea. Matrix metalloproteinase-3, fibronectin, and collagen III were also detected in the lesions. The systemic use of the antineoplastic drug, hydroxycarbamide, may cause severe LSCD. We recommend that a medication history, including that of cytotoxic drugs, be considered in evaluating LSCD.
    Cornea 03/2009; 28(2):221-3. · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ocular pathology of autoimmune retinopathy is demonstrated in a 62-year-old female patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who presented with typical clinical autoimmune retinopathy. Macroscopically, there were multiple depigmented lesions in the peripheral retina and choroid and scattered pigmentary bone-spickling at the equator and periphery. Microscopically, there were generalized loss of photoreceptors and thinning of the outer plexiform layer. Many peripheral retinal vessels were sclerotic and occluded, some surrounded by pigment granules and RPE cells. Cobblestone degeneration was prominent in the periphery. Macrophages were seen in the retina, particularly in areas of photoreceptor degeneration. Rare, scattered T- lymphocytes were present in the retina and choroid, while B-cells were notably absent. The optic nerve showed loss of axons and thickened septae. Serum autoantibodies against normal retinal nuclei were detected. These pathological changes represent both known SLE-associated ocular complications as well as possible features of autoimmune retinopathy secondary to SLE.
    The Open Ophthalmology Journal 02/2009; 3:20-5.
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    ABSTRACT: The purine analogs, fludarabine and cladribine represent an important class of chemotherapy agents used to treat a broad spectrum of lymphoid malignancies. Their toxicity profiles include dose-limiting myelosuppression, immunosuppression, opportunistic infection and severe neurotoxicity. This review summarizes the neurotoxicity of high- and standard-dose fludarabine, focusing on the clinical and pathological manifestations in the eye. The mechanisms of ocular toxicity are probably multifactorial. With increasing clinical use, an awareness of the neurological and ocular vulnerability, particularly to fludarabine, is important owing to the potential for life- and sight-threatening consequences.
    Expert Review of Ophthalmology 03/2008; 3(1):97-109.
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    ABSTRACT: In general, ocular complications of hematologic malignancies such as leukemia are well documented. However, reports of ocular involvement in such diseases as lymphomatoid granulomatosis and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia are uncommon. Here we present cases of these two relatively rare hematologic malignancies demonstrating clinical and subclinical ocular involvement. In the first case, a 54-year-old man with a previous diagnosis of lymphomatoid granulomatosis presented with a new-onset conjunctival lesion while his systemic disease was thought to be in remission. A biopsy was taken that revealed heavy infiltrates of B and T cells at the site of the lesion. Molecular analysis confirmed that these cells were positive for both Epstein-Barr viral DNA and immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement, consistent with a manifestation of his systemic disease. In the second case, a 51-year-old man with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia died after a waxing and waning clinical course. Post-mortem studies revealed the presence of atypical monocytes in the choroidal and subretinal spaces, consistent with his previous diagnosis. While ocular involvement in hematologic malignancies is not uncommon, these two cases describe involvement of the eye by two relatively rare neoplasms. We herein emphasize novel findings in each case, including conjunctival involvement as the first sign of recurrent lymphomatoid granulomatosis and the combination of subretinal and choroidal myelomonocytic leukemic infiltration. With the evolution of new antineoplastic therapies that may prolong life, these cases exemplify the importance of eye care in patients diagnosed with hematologic malignancies.
    Journal of Medical Case Reports 02/2007; 1:158.