[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The deployment of eco-innovations in developing countries is a key driver of their contribution to efficiently addressing global environmental challenges. It is also a key driver of markets for eco-innovation and sustainable economic development. This report explores the barriers developing countries face in accessing markets for eco-innovation. It outlines the key considerations policy needs to address to overcome these barriers and discusses the extent to which selected existing policy mechanisms and organisation have achieved this. The key finding of the report is that the majority of existing policy mechanisms fails to recognise the critical importance of developing indigenous eco-innovation capabilities amongst developing country firms. Indigenous eco-innovation capabilities are essential to facilitating both the diffusion of existing ecoinnovations within developing countries and sustainable economic development based on the adoption, adaption and development of environmentally sound technologies that fit with the bespoke conditions faced by developing countries. Building up eco-innovation capabilities in developing countries requires a shift away from the current focus on large project based approaches which emphasise the transfer of the hardware aspects of clean technologies, towards approaches that emphasise flows of codified knowledge (know-how and know-why) and tacit knowledge. Policy also needs to be improved to better respond to the context-specific technological and cultural requirements which vary inter- and intra-nationally.
La diffusion des éco-innovations dans les pays en développement est un facteur clé de la contribution de ces pays à une lutte effective contre les grands enjeux environnementaux. C’est aussi un déterminant essentiel des marchés pour l’éco-innovation et le développement durable. Le présent rapport identifie les barrières auxquels les pays en développement sont confrontés pour accéder aux éco-innovations. Il so
OECD, Environment Directorate, OECD Environment Working Papers. 01/2010;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the course of 50 years, UK radioactive waste policy change has been coupled with institutional change, without much progress towards the ultimate goal of safe, long-term stewardship of wastes. We explain this history as a search for legitimacy against a shifting context of legitimation needs and deficits. Following Habermas, we argue that legitimation is derived from a process of justificatory discourse. In principle, there must be a reasonable exchange of arguments between diverse parties in society, based on common norms, for legitimacy to be achieved. We show that the work of legitimation in UK radioactive waste policy has moved from a focus on factual validity claims towards an increasing emphasis on deliberative processes. This reframing of legitimation needs explains institutional and policy changes in UK radioactive waste policy. The most recent phase of policy and institutional change, which placed public deliberation about long-term management and disposal options centre-stage, represents a new step towards bridging legitimation deficits. Plans to build new nuclear reactors in the UK based on a more closed 'streamlined' decision process risk reversing the legitimacy gains that have been achieved through growing openness on radioactive waste management.
Journal of Risk Research 10/2009; · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Based on Phase I of a UK-India collaborative study, this paper analyses two case studies of low carbon technologies--hybrid vehicles and coal-fired power generation via integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC). The analysis highlights the following six key considerations for the development of policy aimed at facilitating low carbon technology transfer to developing countries: (1) technology transfer needs to be seen as part of a broader process of sustained, low carbon technological capacity development in recipient countries; (2) the fact that low carbon technologies are at different stages of development means that low carbon technology transfer involves both vertical transfer (the transfer of technologies from the R&D stage through to commercialisation) and horizontal transfer (the transfer from one geographical location to another). Barriers to transfer and appropriate policy responses often vary according to the stage of technology development as well as the specific source and recipient country contexts; (3) less integrated technology transfer arrangements, involving, for example, acquisition of different items of plant from a range of host country equipment manufacturers, are more likely to involve knowledge exchange and diffusion through recipient country economies; (4) recipient firms that, as part of the transfer process, strategically aim to obtain technological know-how and knowledge necessary for innovation during the transfer process are more likely to be able to develop their capacity as a result; (5) whilst access to Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) may sometimes be a necessary part of facilitating technology transfer, it is not likely to be sufficient in itself. Other factors such as absorptive capacity and risks associated with new technologies must also be addressed; (6) there is a central role for both national and international policy interventions in achieving low carbon technology transfer. The lack of available empirical analysis on low carbon technology transfer, coupled with the prominence of the issue within international climate negotiations, suggests an urgent need for further research effort in this area.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: El presente informe es un documento ocasional de investigación como antecedente para el Informe de Desarrollo Humano 2007/2008 publicado por el Programa de las Naciones Unidas, el cual aborda como tema principal: la Lucha contra el cambio climático. Este informe se centra en el desarrollo y adopción de tecnologías más limpias del carbón que puedan reducir el impacto medioambiental del consumo de carbón. El documento se basa en la experiencia internacional, especialmente en tres países de industrialización que dependen en gran medida del carbón como China, India y Sudáfrica.