[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the anti-biofilm property of tenorite nanoparticles and to study their suitability as a possible coating material for medical implants. Tenorite (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by the optimized thermal decomposition method and characterized using TEM, XRD, FTIR and Uv-Vis analysis. Their influence on biofilm forming of microbes was studied by growing multi drug resistant bacterial strains in presence or absence of these nanoparticles at various concentrations. The cytotoxicity of nanoparticles on mammalian cells was studied at corresponding concentrations. The nanoparticles were found to be uniformly dispersed, spherical shaped and <50 nm size. They showed various degrees of anti-biofilm property against clinically isolated, biofilm forming multi drug resistant microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Burkholderia mallei, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, Hep-2 cells showed excellent viability at tenorite nanoparticles concentration toxic to microbial growth. These results indicates that tenorite nanoparticles may be an ideal candidate for being utilized as coating on medical implants in general and dental implants in particular.
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal 11/2014; · 1.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using bacteria, fungus and plants has emerged as a simple and viable alternative to more complex physical and chemical synthetic procedures. The present investigation explains rapid and extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using fungus F. oxysporum NGD and characterization of the synthesized silver nanoparticles using UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The size range of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was around 16.3 to 70nm. The FTIR studies showed major peaks of proteins which involved in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Further antibacterial effect of the silver nanoparticles against multidrug resistant pathogens Enterobacter sp. ANT 02 [HM803168], Pseudomonas aeruginosa ANT 04 [HM803170], Klebsiella pneumoniae ANT 03 [HM803169] and Escherichia coli ANT 01 [HM803167] was tested using turbidometric assay at 10, 20, 30, 40μg AgNPs/ml alone and in combination with ampicillin using agar well diffusion assay. All the resistant bacteria were found to be susceptible to the antibiotic in the presence of the silver nanoparticles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study investigated the effect of pesticide chlorpyrifos on a freshwater cyanobacterium Chroococcus turgidus NTMS12. The changes in chlorophyll-a, proline, superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and fatty acids composition of the test organism were analyzed. Organism was grown at 6, 9 and 12 mg l−1 of chlorpyrifos and based on the chlorophyll-a content 6 mg l−1 of chlorpyrifos was found to be the tolerable concentration. Hence, 6 mg l−1 of chlorpyrifos was taken to evaluate the concentration of proline, activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase at 48 h exposure. The changes in the fatty acid profile were analyzed after 7 d of exposure. Upon pesticide exposure, increased concentration of proline, activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase was found. Significant changes in fatty acid profile have also been observed. However, polyunsaturated fatty acid content was decreased in treated cultures when compared with the untreated control. Changes in biochemical activities indicate that cyanobacteria C. turgidus NTMS12 undergo adaptive changes against chlorpyrifos induced oxidative stress.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Letters in Applied Microbiology 07/2014; · 1.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A variety of foods and environmental sources harbor bacteria that are resistant to one or more antimicrobial drugs used in medicine and agriculture. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli is of particular concern because it is the most common Gram-negative pathogen in humans. Hence this study was conducted to determine the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of E. coli isolated from different types of food items collected randomly from twelve localities of Hyderabad, India. A total of 150 samples comprising; vegetable salad, raw egg-surface, raw chicken, unpasteurized milk, and raw meat were processed microbiologically to isolate E. coli and to study their antibiotic susceptibility pattern by the Kirby-Bauer method. The highest percentages of drug resistance in isolates of E. coli were detected from raw chicken (23.3%) followed by vegetable salad (20%), raw meat (13.3%), raw egg-surface (10%) and unpasteurized milk (6.7%). The overall incidence of drug resistant E. coli was 14.7%. A total of six (4%) Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) producers were detected, two each from vegetable salads and raw chicken, and one each from raw egg-surface and raw meat. Multidrug resistant strains of E. coli are a matter of concern as resistance genes are easily transferable to other strains. Pathogen cycling through food is very common and might pose a potential health risk to the consumer. Therefore, in order to avoid this, good hygienic practices are necessary in the abattoirs to prevent contamination of cattle and poultry products with intestinal content as well as forbidding the use of untreated sewage in irrigating vegetables.
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo 07/2014; 56(4):341-6. · 0.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current prospect of nanobiotechnology involves in the greener synthesis of nanostructured materials particularly noble metal nanoparticles for various biomedical applications. In this study, biologically (Podophyllum hexandrum L.) synthesized crystalline gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with the size range between 5 and 35 nm were screened for its anticancereous potential against human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa). Stoichiometric proportion of the reaction mixture and conditions were optimized to attain stable nanoparticles with narrow size range. Different high throughput techniques like transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV–vis spectroscopy were adopted for the physio-chemical characterization of AuNPs. Additionally, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study revealed that the water soluble fractions present in the plant extract solely influences the reduction of AuNPs. Sublimely, synthesized AuNPs exhibits an effective in vitro anticancer activity against HeLa cells via induction of cell cycle arrest and DNA damage. Furthermore, it was evidenced that AuNPs treated cells are undergone apoptosis through the activation of caspase cascade which subsequently leads to mitochondrial dysfunction. Thereby, this study proves that biogenic colloidal AuNPs can be developed as a promising drug candidature for human cervical cancer therapy.
Materials Research Bulletin 04/2014; 52:15–24. · 1.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out to analyze chemical constituents and antibacterial activity of ethanolic leaf extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum (ECH). The FT-IR spectrum confirmed the presence of alcohols, phenols, alkanes, alkynes, aliphatic ester and flavonoids in ECH. The GC–MS analysis revealed that ECH contained about twenty four compounds. The major chemical compounds identified were cyclohexane-1, 4, 5-triol-3-one-1-carboxylic acid, benzene acetic acid, caryophyllene, phytol and neophytadiene. The ECH was screened for its antibacterial activity against different bacterial strains and anti fungal activity against Candida albicans by agar well diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. ECH exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activity. All the tested bacterial strains showed MIC values ranging from 80 to 125 μg of extract/ml and C. albicans showed 190 μg of extract/ml as a MIC. The maximum activity ECH was observed against human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus followed by Escherichia coli and the fish pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila. ECH exhibited moderate activity against some of the tested multidrug resistant strains.
Indian Journal of Microbiology 06/2013; 53(2). · 0.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyanobacterial biodiversity from different freshwater ponds of Thanjavur, Tamilnadu (India). Studies on the cyanobacterial biodiversity of 5 different freshwater ponds in and around Thanjavur, Tamilnadu during summer month (June, 2004) has been made and compared their variations among five different ponds. In addition, certain physico-chemical parameters of pond waters such as dissolved oxygen, net productivity, pH, carbonate, bicarbonate, nitrate, nitrite, total phosphorus, inorganic phosphorus etc. were also analyzed and statistically compared with the cyanobacterial diversity. Totally 39 species of 20 genera of cyanobacteria were recorded in all 5 different ponds. Only 6 species of cyanobacteria were identified in Pond 1 (Dabeerkulam), where a massive bloom of Microcystis aeruginosa was recorded, which had a significant effect in reducing the other cyanobacterial population. As many as five species namely Aphanothece microscopica, Synechocystis aquatilis, Merismopedia glauca, Oscillatoria limnetica and O. subbrevis were common in all the ponds surveyed except in Pond 1. Biodiversidad de cianobacterias en diferentes charcas de agua dulce de Thanjavur, Tamilnadu (India). Se ha inventariado, y comparado entre sí, la biodiversidad de cianobacterias de 5 charcas de agua dulce de Thanjavur, Tamilnadu (India); el estudio se llevó a cabo en junio de 2004. En paralelo, también se determinaron los valores de ciertos parámetros físico-químicos que podrían explicar las variaciones en los valores de biodiversidad: oxígeno disuelto, productividad neta, pH, carbonato, bicarbonato, nitrato, nitrito, fósforo total, fósforo inorgánico, etc. Un total de 39 especies de 20 géneros de cianobacterias se identificaron entre las 5 charcas. En la charca 1 (Dabeerkulam) se detectaron 6 especies, pero cuando tuvo lugar una flor de agua de Microcystis aeruginosa las restantes especies apenas se pudieron detectar. Cinco especies (Aphanothece microscopica, Synechocystis aquatilis, Merismopedia glauca, Oscillatoria limnetica y O. subbrevis fueron comunes en todas las charcas con excepción de la número 1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The challenging task of bringing high efficiency transformed plants attracts lot of attention in recent times. Insearch for this,there have been many attempts made using, different techniques like tissue culture and plant breeding methods. Here we report a suitable alternative facile route, where cyanobacterial extracellular products are utilized as growth regulator sand it sperformance validated on Gossypium hirsutum L. MS medium is tested with cyanobacterial extra cellular products of Nostoc ellipsosporum, Dolichospermum flos-aquae and Oscillatoria acuminata. Our best results show that the addition of O.acuminata extracellular product with plant growth hormones gives the excellent induction and elongation in cotton. In addition to this, the multiple shoot was obtained on MS medium fortified with 1.0mgL-1 BA with 8% O.acuminata and 1.5 mgL-1 TDZ with 12% O.acuminata. High frequency of shoot elongation supplemented with MS medium, iP 2.5mgL-1 and 16% O.acuminata and root production MS medium fortified with 12% O.acuminata best responsible for regeneration in cotton plants. The rooted plants were hardened and transferred to soil with 90% survival rate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This investigation examined the efficiency of Dolichospermum flos-aquae NTMS07 in the removal of Cr(VI) from exposure water at various concentrations (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 mg/L) over different time intervals of contact (1-5 days). Chromium removal was maximum at 2.5 mg/L, and decreased with increased concentration. The responses of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured, and the composition of fatty acids was evaluated at a concentration of 5 mg Cr/L. Significant increases in the activity levels of SOD and CAT were obtained. The level of total unsaturated fatty acids decreased with exposure to Cr. It is proposed that the observed decrease in total unsaturated fatty acid level is a defense mechanism against Cr-induced oxidative stress and cell membrane damage.
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 03/2013; 90(6). · 1.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Now-a-days synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through biological entity is quite interesting to employ AgNPs for various biomedical applications in general and treatment of cancer in particular. This paper presents the green synthesis of AgNPs using leaf extract of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle and optimized with various parameters such as pH, temperature, reaction time, volume of extract and metal ion concentration for synthesis of AgNPs. TEM, XRD and FTIR were adopted for characterization. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical shaped with average size of 14nm. Effects of AgNPs were analyzed against human cervical carcinoma cells by MTT Assay, quantification of ROS, RT-PCR and western blotting techniques. The overall result indicates that AgNPs can selectively inhibit the cellular mechanism of HeLa by DNA damage and caspase mediated cell death. This biological procedure for synthesis of AgNPs and selective inhibition of cancerous cells gives an alternative avenue to treat human cancer effectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A generation of nanoparticles research has discussed recently. It is mandatory to elaborate the applications of biogenic nanoparticles in general and anticancereous property in particular. The present study was aimed to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity effect of biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells towards the development of anticancer agent. Biogenic AgNPs were achieved by employing Sesbania grandiflora leaf extract as a novel reducing agent. It was well characterized by FESEM, EDAX and spectral studies showed spherical shaped nanoparticles in the size of 22nm in slightly agglomerated form. It was surprising that biogenic AgNPs showed cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 cell lines were confirmed by MTT, AO-EB, Hochest and COMET assays. There was an immediate induction of cellular damage in terms of loss of cell membrane integrity, oxidative stress and apoptosis were found in the cell which treated with AgNPs. This may be a first report on anti-MCF-7 property of biogenic AgNPs in the fourth generation of nanoparticles research. It is necessary to study the formulation and clinical trials to establish the nano drug to treat cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study a potential freshwater microalgae Coelastrella sp. was selected for degradation of synthetic dye, Rhodamine B in batch culture system. Effect of several physico-chemical parameters that influence the decolorization followed by degradation ability was investigated (inoculum concentration, initial dye concentration, temperature and pH) and optimal experimental condition was ascertained. The optimum operating conditions were found to be [Dye]=100mgl(-1); [temperature]=30°C; with 10% of inoculum at a pH of 8. Under these conditions, a maximum of 80% decolorization of the dye was achieved in 20 days. Peroxidase activity of the isolate was also determined and it was found to be 2.1μmolminmg(-1) of protein. The actual break down of the dye was confirmed by using various analytical techniques such as GC-MS, TLC, FTIR and UV-vis spectral analysis. Small aliphatic chains, small chain alcohols and ketones were obtained after degradation of Rhodamine B. These are the evidences that showed that microalgae play a vital role on dye degradation to non-toxic products effectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present investigation, a total number of 57 different actinobacteria strains were isolated from the muthupet mangrove sediment soil samples. Out of 57 isolates, 6 showed inhibitory activity against the fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum. Among the antagonists, the isolate designated as GACMPT – 57 exhibited maximum inhibitory activity against the test pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (22 mm). The isolate GACMPT-57 was identified as Streptomyces flavomacrosporus by morphological and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The color of the aerial and substrate mycelia produced by the Streptomyces flavomacrosporus GACMPT -57 varied with different media.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of dental plaque biofilms for oral and dental disease was proposed recently. This study determined the presence of Candida spp. in dental plaques of both males and females. Pooled samples of dental plaque were collected from 25 males and 55 females aged between 25 and 50 years. Colony growth was verified and 30 Candida isolates were chosen for the screening. The identification of biofilm forming Candida was confirmed by performing several screening techniques (Microtiter plate method, Test tube method). Screened positive Candida isolates DV1, DV17 and DV21 were characterized by several biochemical tests including growth on Hi-Crome agar. Molecular characterization has also been performed for isolates DV1, DV17 and DV21 by sequencing 18S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic trees were constructed for three Candida isolates and identified as Candida albicans DV1, C. albicans DV17 and C. albicans DV21. The biofilm formation of Candida spp. on catheter was evaluated using scanning electron microscopic analysis. The extra cellular polysaccharide (EPS) quantity was measured with the effect of different carbon sources, adherence time and biofilm forming time. The above isolates were screened for antifungal resistance against six clinically important antifungal agents such as Amphotericin B, Ketaconazole, Fluconazole, Itraconazole, Nystatin and Clotrimazole (10 μg/ml). The biofilm forming isolates were significantly resistant to the antifungal drugs in comparison with non-biofilm forming Candida isolates. The present study reveals the presence of Candida biofilm on human dental surface and indicates the magnitude of antibiotic resistance.
King Saud University Journal of Dental Sciences. 01/2013;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study evaluates the efficiency of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) obtained from microalgal (Scenedesmus bijugatus var bicellularis) biomass as an antimicrobial agent against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The FAME profiles were determined through Gas Chromatography (GC) with a Flame Ionization detector (FID). The FAMEs showed inhibitory activity against all three microorganisms and thereby exhibited both anti-bacterial and anti-candidal activity. GC-FID analysis reveals about 30 different FAMEs. Out of these, various pharmacologically active FAMEs like stearic acid methyl ester (C18:0) (0.6% w/w), oleic acid methyl ester (C18:1) (1% w/w), linoleic acid methyl ester (C18:2) (1.40% w/w), linolenic acid methyl ester (C18:3) (6.26%), eicosapentanoic acid methyl ester (C20:5) (1.13% w/w), erucic acid methyl ester (C22:1) (1.03% w/w) and docosahexenoic acid methyl ester (C22:6) (2.27% w/w) were detected, which accounted for the bioactivity. These results clearly indicate that the FAMEs of S. bijugatus var. bicellularis have strong antimicrobial properties and could thus be used as an effective source against microbial diseases.