[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The kidney chiefly maintains homeostasis of water, electrolytes, and other solutions. When kidney function is reduced, mineral metabolism is disrupted. Mineral and bone disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease associates with increased cardiovascular risk and mortality; however, management of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder in predialysis patients remains controversial. This study investigates the association between parathyroid enlargement at dialysis initiation and hyperparathyroidism management in dialysis patients. We enrolled 72 patients at dialysis initiation in this study. Using parathyroid sonography, we categorized patients based on presence (detected group; N = 18) or absence (undetected group; N = 54) of enlarged parathyroid glands and assessed the clinical characteristics and laboratory findings. A literature review of ultrasound evaluations of secondary hyperparathyroidism was conducted. Ultrasonography revealed enlarged parathyroid glands in 18 patients (25%). Serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were high in patients with enlarged parathyroid glands; however, of the 29 patients with intact parathyroid hormone levels <240 pg/mL, four had enlarged parathyroid glands. Eight of the 29 patients with serum phosphorus and calcium levels within the optimal range had enlarged parathyroid glands. Twenty of these 29 patients were followed up at 38 ± 17 months (at least 3 months): enlarged parathyroid glands were detected in 6. During follow-up, serum intact parathyroid hormone levels were significantly higher in the detected group compared with the undetected. In conclusion, enlarged parathyroid glands are frequently detected at dialysis initiation, potentially predicting the persistence of secondary hyperparathyroidism and the need for strict management.
Therapeutic apheresis and dialysis: official peer-reviewed journal of the International Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Apheresis, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy 02/2013; 17(1):24-9. · 1.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 79-year-old man with chronic renal failure developed general fatigue and loss of appetite. He was diagnosed with endstage renal disease and was started on hemodialysis (HD). The symptoms improved immediately, but the mental status deteriorated gradually, reaching Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 5. Computed tomography showed no significant intracranial lesion, but magnetic resonance images showed symmetric high-intensity changes in the periaqueductal area, suggestive of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE). He was immediately treated with intravenous infusion of thiamine. Five days later, the mental status level improved up to GCS 14, and the above MRI findings disappeared. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the clinical outcome of a non-alcoholic patient who developed WE during initiation of HD. WE should be suspected in patients who are on chronic HD as well as those on initiation of HD with unexplained neurological abnormalities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 58-year-old Japanese male with chronic hepatitis C underwent kidney transplantation from an unrelated donor in October 1998. In December 2004, the patient was admitted for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Abdominal paracentesis and albumin transfusion were performed, but control of ascites was poor. A randomized, controlled study of patients with SBP showed that patients receiving cefotaxime with a high-volume albumin transfusion (50-75 g/50 kg) were significantly less likely to have irreversible renal failure and had lower mortality. Japan, however, relies on imports for 70% of its albumin formulations, which complicates high-volume albumin transfusion. Consequently, albumin transfusion is often limited to single treatments in the range of only 25 g (25%, 100 ml). A single cell-free and concentrated ascites reinfusion therapy (CART) treatment can reinfuse approximately 60 g of albumin, corresponding to a high-volume albumin transfusion capable of reducing the associated risk of infection or allergic reaction. Though this case was an SBP patient, after the ascites were found to be negative for endotoxins, CART was performed, and control of ascites was achieved without observation of fever, hypotension, or other adverse effects. CART provides greater supplementation of albumin than albumin transfusion and can be an effective modality of treatment for hypoalbuminemia in SBP patients if ascites are negative for endotoxins.
Case reports in nephrology and urology. 07/2012; 2(2):138-44.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 55-year-old Japanese female was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and developed nephrotic syndrome. She was diagnosed with lupus nephritis by a percutaneous renal biopsy. She was treated with intravenous steroid pulse therapy twice, but it proved to be ineffective. She achieved a complete remission after intravenous cyclophosphamide pulse (CPAIV) therapy. Thereafter, her lupus nephritis was well controlled and demonstrated only a low activity. However, she suffered Epstein- Barr virus (EBV)-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) twice, and in each case she was treated with anticancer drugs and achieved a complete remission. This was a rare case of lupus nephritis who showed repeated EBV-associated HPS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myeloperoxidase-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA)-positive microscopic polyangiitis patients with renal involvement have been shown to have a progressive clinical course. In this study, we compared the clinical utility of the Japanese Vasculitis Activity Score (JVAS) with the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) for predicting death in patients with MPO-ANCA-associated renal involvement.
Sixty-nine patients with MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis with renal involvement (22 males and 47 females, age 69.8 ± 8.7 years) were enrolled in this study. We retrospectively investigated which score was better for predicting the poor prognosis of patients.
The mortality rate of the patients within 2 years after disease onset was 33% (23/69). JVAS was not correlated with BVAS. Univariate logistic regression analysis for death showed that the odds ratio (OR) of JVAS was statistically significant (OR 1.76, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.29-2.41, p < 0.001), while that of BVAS was not (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.98-1.16, p = 0.14). Moreover, a multivariate model showed that JVAS was an independent determinant of death (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.12-2.25, p = 0.009). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for JVAS was 0.778, which was significantly larger (p = 0.02) than that for BVAS (0.586). The estimated optimal cut-off point of JVAS for the prediction of death was 5. At this point, the sensitivity was 82.6% and the specificity was 60.9%.
We demonstrated that compared with BVAS, JVAS was a simpler and more reliable measure for predicting death in patients with MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis with renal involvement.
American Journal of Nephrology 11/2011; 35(1):1-6. · 2.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal AA amyloidosis presents as a life-threatening disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although several newly developed immunosuppressive drugs have been tried, patients often progress to end-stage renal failure with unsatisfactory survival rate.
A total of nine consecutive cases of severe nephrotic renal AA amyloidosis presented to us. Complete remission of proteinuria was observed in four cases (responders), and the remaining five reached the end point of haemodialysis or death (non-responders); these groups were retrospectively compared. The patients were treated with immunosuppressants, biological drugs and anti-hypertensive drugs. Levels of serum creatinine (S-Cr), urinary protein-creatinine ratio (UP/UCr), blood pressure (BP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Histological characteristics of renal amyloid deposition and extent of kidney injury were also scored.
Prior to treatment, clinical data (S-Cr, UP/UCr, BP and CRP) and histological severity (glomerular sclerosis, tubulointerstitial injury and extent of amyloid deposition) observed in the renal biopsy specimen were not significantly different between the groups. Following therapeutic intervention, proteinuria disappeared (UP/UCr <0.3) in responders within 12 ± 5.4 months but persisted in non-responders. Consequently, renal function stabilized in responders, but it deteriorated in all non-responders. Strict inflammatory control along with optimal control of hypertension was achieved in responders during the treatment.
Regardless of histological severity, intensive therapeutic intervention that includes strict inflammatory control and optimal control of hypertension may change the histology-predicted prognosis of RA-associated renal AA amyloidosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diastolic heart failure is the most common clinical form of heart failure. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is often used to quantitate left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. The purpose of this study was to identify the determinant(s) of diastolic dysfunction in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis (HD), using the TDI method.
The study subjects were 53 patients with end-stage renal disease and preserved LV systolic function on maintenance HD. LV function was assessed by conventional echocardiography. The ratio of early trans-mitral flow velocity to early mitral annular velocity (E/e') was measured by TDI. Patients were stratified into two groups based on E/e' value (≤15 and >15 groups). Arterial stiffness was evaluated by pulse wave velocity and cardio-ankle vascular index.
Patients of the E/e' >15 group were older (p = 0.025). There were no significant differences in blood pressure, ejection fraction, E/A, deceleration time, and pulse wave velocity between the E/e' >15 and E/e' ≤15 groups. However, there were significant differences in LV mass index (LVMI; p < 0.001) and cardio-ankle vascular index (p = 0.048) between the two groups. Multiple regression analysis identified that LVMI was an independent determinant of E/e' (p = 0.003).
Our findings suggest that LVMI is an independent determinant of LV diastolic dysfunction in patients on HD.
Nephron Clinical Practice 01/2011; 117(1):c67-73. · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We treated a woman with membranous nephropathy in whom serious nephrotic syndrome (NS) continued even after the introduction of hemodialysis (HD). No response was seen with conservative treatment, including administration of steroids and albumin transfusion and body fluid management with HD. Hypoalbuminemia continued, and management of her general condition was problematic because of the hypotension, edema, pleural and peritoneal effusions. We performed percutaneous renal artery embolization (RAE), voluntary urine output disappeared for a short time, and good clinical course was subsequently seen with sustainable serum albumin levels of around 3 g/dL.
Internal Medicine 01/2011; 50(23):2899-904. · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 69-year-old woman with seizures and acute renal failure with hyperkalemia. She presented with bladder turgescence and hydronephrosis on admission and was diagnosed as obstructive acute renal failure. Urethral catheterization was performed after a single-session hemodialysis. It resulted in immediate improvement of renal function and consciousness, and subsequent disappearance of seizures. Improvement of serum creatinine level to 0.7 from 10.6 mg/dL was associated with a fall in blood level of amantadine hydrochloride from 4.40 to 0.47 microg/mL. Physicians should be aware of urinary retention in patients treated with amantadine as a first sign of intoxication that could lead if untreated to obstructive acute renal failure. And we recommend to check the overdose symptoms, even those with normal renal function, treated with amantadine.
The American journal of emergency medicine 04/2009; 27(3):371.e5-371.e7. · 1.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is now recognized as the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide and is the major cause of end-stage renal disease. As reported, the renal survival rate is 61% at 20 years and the renal prognosis of this disease is relatively poor on long-term observation, hence various protocols have been attempted to control this disease. At Iizuka Hospital, a prospective study of tonsillectomy with methylprednisolone pulse therapy was performed for the treatment of patients with IgA nephropathy from August 2002. We reviewed the clinical efficacy of our protocol. From August 2002 to July 2006, 31 patients whose IgA nephropathy was demonstrated by percutaneous renal biopsy were administered our regimen. In our study, 12 patients had an observation period of more than 24 months. Our protocol consisted of tonsillectomy with one course of methylprednisolone pulse therapy. Methylprednisolone at the daily dose of 1,000 mg for 3 consecutive days followed by oral steroid at the daily dose of 20 mg, was gradually tapered, and discontinued one year later. All of the patients were administered angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers with favorable control of hypertension. The mean observation period for the 12 patients with IgA nephropathy was 37.4 months. The mean age at renal biopsy was 34.8 +/- 12.2 years. The male-female ratio was 3:9. At the renal biopsy in our hospital, mean creatinine value was 0.95 +/- 0.38 mg/dL, mean creatinine clearance was 92.1 +/- 34.9 mL/min, and the mean urinary protein and urinary creatinine ratio was 3.52 +/- 4.36. After 24 months, mean creatinine value was 1.03 +/- 0.59 mg/dL, mean creatinine clearance was 91.2 +/- 42.3 mL/min, and the mean urinary protein and urinary creatinine ratio was 0.83 +/- 0.98. Urinary protein and urine occult blood became negative in 66.7% of patients, and the urinary remission rate was 58.3%. On our protocol, mean length of the hospital stay was 11.4 +/- 4.7 days. Our prospective study showed that tonsillectomy with one course of methylprednisolone pulse therapy in IgA nephropathy appears to be beneficial for urinary remission and contributes to a short hospital stay.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of IgA nephropathy with tuberculous pleurisy that was treated with steroid pulse therapy combined with tonsillectomy. A 27-year-old female was referred to our hospital because of hematuria and proteinuria. Her urinalysis showed mild proteinuria (0.7 to 0.9 g/day) with dysmorphic red blood cells and cellular casts. Her serum creatinine level was within the normal range. Renal biopsy specimens revealed mild mesangial proliferation with cellular crescent and adhesion of glomeruli to the Bowman's capsule. Tubulointerstitial changes including mononuclear cell infiltration and tubular atrophy were also observed. Immunohistochemical staining of IgA and C3 was detected in the mesangial area, leading to the diagnosis of IgA nephropathy. She had a past history of tuberculous pleurisy at 13 years of age and had taken antituberculosis drug for one and a half year. Although treatment with angiotensin receptor antagonist was started, the amount of proteinuria was not changed. Steroid pulse therapy with tonsillectomy followed by oral prednisolone 20 mg/day was conducted. Proteinuria and hematuria gradually decreased. Her respiratory status and chest X-ray had been closely followed up by her respiratory physician. After one and a half years of treatment with low-dose prednisolone, her urinalysis became almost normal. Recurrence of tuberculosis was not observed during the follow-up period. The successful outcome of this case encouraged us to treat IgA nephropathy with a past history of tuberculosis using interventions including steroid pulse therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obstructive uropathy accounts for less than 5% of all instances of acute renal failure  and the causes are genitourinary tract malignancies, benign prostatic hypertrophy, urolithiasis, or retroperitoneal mass, and it is more common in the elderly [2–4]. The clinical courses progressing to an established renal failure are known to be either rapid or insidious, depending on the duration to the completion of the bilateral urinary tract obstruction. Urinary diversions such as nephrostomy or retrograde ureteral catheterizations are effective and the renal function usually recovers with a marked diuresis [5, 6]. The mortality rate is reported to be 50% at 3 months or 90% at 1 year in cases of malignancy-induced obstructive uropathy [7, 8].
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 69-year-old man was admitted to our kidney center with endstage renal failure. We started intermittent peritoneal dialysis
immediately because of severe azotemia, hyperkalemia, and metabolic acidosis. Two weeks after admission, he developed uremic
pericarditis with frequent ventricular premature contractions and supraventricular premature contractions. The intermittent
peritoneal dialysis was then replaced by intensive hemodialysis, and oral administration of 300 mg/d of cibenzoline was started.
Four days later, he developed thirst, weakness, and dyspnea due to respiratory muscular paralysis. We initiated respiratory
support with a respirator because analysis of his blood gases revealed marked hypercapnia and hypoxia. He also developed hypoglycemia
and prolonged PQ and QRS intervals on the electrocardiogram, which we believed were due to cibenzoline intoxication; we discontinued
the cibenzoline immediately. All symptoms improved, and he was extubated 5 days later. After 2 months, his pericardial effusion
disappeared. He now continues maintenance hemodialysis as an outpatient. We suspect that the cibenzoline induced the respiratory
muscular paralysis for 2 reasons: 1) the patient experienced the respiratory muscular paralysis, at the same time he also
experienced thirst, weakness, hypoglycemia, and prolonged PQ and QRS intervals on electrocardiogram, and all of these symptoms
improved after the discontinuation of cibenzoline, and 2) his plasma concentration of cibenzoline became remarkably elevated,
to 20 times above the standard therapeutic level. This patient's clinical course indicates that hemodialysis might be superior
to intermittent peritoneal dialysis for treatment of cibenzoline intoxication.
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 1(2):131-135. · 1.25 Impact Factor