[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are benefits and risks of giving patients more granular control of their personal health information in electronic health record (EHR) systems. When designing EHR systems and policies, informaticists and system developers must balance these benefits and risks. Ethical considerations should be an explicit part of this balancing. Our objective was to develop a structured ethics framework to accomplish this.
We reviewed existing literature on the ethical and policy issues, developed an ethics framework called a "Points to Consider" (P2C) document, and convened a national expert panel to review and critique the P2C.
We developed the P2C to aid informaticists designing an advanced query tool for an electronic health record (EHR) system in Indianapolis. The P2C consists of six questions ("Points") that frame important ethical issues, apply accepted principles of bioethics and Fair Information Practices, comment on how questions might be answered, and address implications for patient care.
The P2C is intended to clarify what is at stake when designers try to accommodate potentially competing ethical commitments and logistical realities. The P2C was developed to guide informaticists who were designing a query tool in an existing EHR that would permit patient granular control. While consideration of ethical issues is coming to the forefront of medical informatics design and development practices, more reflection is needed to facilitate optimal collaboration between designers and ethicists. This report contributes to that discussion.
International Journal of Medical Informatics 09/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Indiana Global Health Research Working Conference of October 2012 was convened by a planning committee representing Indiana's research-intensive universities (Indiana University, Purdue University, and the University of Notre Dame). The event was organized as an open-space meeting with six thematic emphases and pre-conference keynote papers. Within their domains of common interest, attendees developed forme fruste research project abstracts that represent a future-oriented agenda for global health research. The organizational principles and purposes of this meeting are explicated with a concluding commentary on the agenda for research.
Journal of General Internal Medicine 06/2013; · 3.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the context of a long-term institutional 'twinning' partnership initiated by Indiana and Moi Universities more than 22 years ago, a vibrant program of research has arisen and grown in size and stature. The history of the AMPATH (Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare) Research Program is described, with its distinctive attention to Kenyan-North American equity, mutual benefit, policies that support research best practices, peer review within research working groups/cores, contributions to clinical care, use of healthcare informatics, development of research infrastructure and commitment to research workforce capacity. In the development and management of research within our partnership, we describe a number of significant challenges we have encountered that require ongoing attention, many of which are "good problems" occasioned by the program's success and growth. Finally, we assess the special value a partnership program like ours has created and end by affirming the importance of organizational diversity, solidarity of purpose, and resilience in the 'research enterprise.'
Journal of General Internal Medicine 06/2013; · 3.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the impact of clinician-targeted computer-generated reminders on compliance with HIV care guidelines in a resource-limited setting.
We conducted this randomized, controlled trial in an HIV referral clinic in Kenya caring for HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children (<14 years of age). For children randomly assigned to the intervention group, printed patient summaries containing computer-generated patient-specific reminders for overdue care recommendations were provided to the clinician at the time of the child's clinic visit. For children in the control group, clinicians received the summaries, but no computer-generated reminders. We compared differences between the intervention and control groups in completion of overdue tasks, including HIV testing, laboratory monitoring, initiating antiretroviral therapy, and making referrals.
During the 5-month study period, 1611 patients (49% female, 70% HIV-infected) were eligible to receive at least 1 computer-generated reminder (ie, had an overdue clinical task). We observed a fourfold increase in the completion of overdue clinical tasks when reminders were availed to providers over the course of the study (68% intervention vs 18% control, P < .001). Orders also occurred earlier for the intervention group (77 days, SD 2.4 days) compared with the control group (104 days, SD 1.2 days) (P < .001). Response rates to reminders varied significantly by type of reminder and between clinicians.
Clinician-targeted, computer-generated clinical reminders are associated with a significant increase in completion of overdue clinical tasks for HIV-infected and exposed children in a resource-limited setting.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and study aims: It is uncertain if needle gauge impacts the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of pancreatic mass lesions. Our aim was to use meta-analysis to more robustly define the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA for pancreatic masses using 22 G and 25 G needles. Patients and methods: Studies were identified by searching nine medical databases for reports published between 1994 and 2011, using a reproducible search strategy comprised of relevant terms. Only studies comparing the overall diagnostic accuracy of 22 G vs. 25 G EUS needles that used surgical histology or at least 6 months clinical follow up for a gold standard were included. Two reviewers independently scored the identified studies for methodology and abstracted pertinent data. When required, the original investigators were contacted to provide additional data. Pooling was conducted by both fixed-effects and random-effects models. Diagnostic characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated.Results: Eight studies involving 1292 subjects met the defined inclusion criteria. Of the 1292 patients, 799 were in the 22 G group and 565 were in the 25 G group (both needles were used in 72 patients). The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the 22 G needle were 0.85 (95 %CI 0.82 - 0.88) and 1 (95 %CI 0.98 - 1) respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the 25 G needle were 0.93 (95 %CI 0.91 - 0.96) and 0.97 (95 %CI 0.93 - 0.99) respectively. The bivariate generalized linear random-effect model indicated that the 25 G needle is associated with a higher sensitivity (P = 0.0003) but comparable specificity (P = 0.97) to the 22 G needle.Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests 25 G needle systems are more sensitive than 22 G needles for diagnosing pancreatic malignancy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest cancers, mostly diagnosed at late stages. Patients with pancreatic cysts are at higher risk of developing cancer and their surveillance can help to diagnose the disease in earlier stages. In this retrospective study we collected a corpus of 1064 records from 44 patients at Indiana University Hospital from 1990 to 2012. A Natural Language Processing (NLP) system was developed and used to identify patients with pancreatic cysts. NegEx algorithm was used initially to identify the negation status of concepts that resulted in precision and recall of 98.9% and 89% respectively. Stanford Dependency parser (SDP) was then used to improve the NegEx performance resulting in precision of 98.9% and recall of 95.7%. Features related to pancreatic cysts were also extracted from patient medical records using regex and NegEx algorithm with 98.5% precision and 97.43% recall. SDP improved the NegEx algorithm by increasing the recall to 98.12%.
Studies in health technology and informatics 01/2013; 192:822-6.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electronic Medical Records (EMR) are thought to improve healthcare through a variety of means. However, the study of EMR implementation in resource-poor settings has been minimal. Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH) is the second largest tertiary care centre in Kenya, hosting a busy antenatal clinic serving Eldoret and surrounding regions. The recent transition from written to electronic antenatal records at MTRH permits the opportunity to study whether this change improves quality of care, in terms of: Time: Does the patient or healthcare worker spend the same amount of time at the encounter? Satisfaction: Is the patient or healthcare worker more or less satisfied with the encounter? Completeness: Does the antenatal record do a better job of recording key information in the antenatal history? Our Objective wasto determine the effects of EMR implementation on an antenatal clinic in a resource-limited setting.
Studies in health technology and informatics 01/2013; 192:1222.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: Electronic health records (EHRs) are receiving a lot of attention for their potential to improve care. Objective: To develop and implement EHRs in the antenatal clinic (ANC) of a teaching and referral hospital in Western Kenya. Results: A multidisciplinary team developed a phased implementation of EHRs in the ANC as part of a CDC-funded effort to develop and implement primary care EHRs in lower level and referral facilities in Kenya comprising a clinic registration system and initial- and return-visit encounter forms that captured and reported data required for reporting. This was successfully done, the EHR fully implemented in the ANC including a reminder system to enhance adherence to care guidelines. Conclusions: It is possible to implement EHRs in a referral hospital ANC.
Studies in health technology and informatics 01/2013; 192:1126.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This cohort study utilized data from a large HIV treatment program in western Kenya to describe the impact of active tuberculosis (TB) on clinical outcomes among African patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART).
We included all patients initiating ART between March 2004 and November 2007. Clinical (signs and symptoms), radiological (chest radiographs) and laboratory (mycobacterial smears, culture and tissue histology) criteria were used to record the diagnosis of TB disease in the program's electronic medical record system.
We assessed the impact of TB disease on mortality, loss to follow-up (LTFU) and incident AIDS-defining events (ADEs) through Cox models and CD4 cell and weight response to ART by non-linear mixed models.
We studied 21,242 patients initiating ART-5,186 (24%) with TB; 62% female; median age 37 years. There were proportionately more men in the active TB (46%) than in the non-TB (35%) group. Adjusting for baseline HIV-disease severity, TB patients were more likely to die (hazard ratio - HR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.18-1.47) or have incident ADEs (HR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.19-1.45). They had lower median CD4 cell counts (77 versus 109), weight (52.5 versus 55.0 kg) and higher ADE risk at baseline (CD4-adjusted odds ratio = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.31-1.85). ART adherence was similarly good in both groups. Adjusting for gender and baseline CD4 cell count, TB patients experienced virtually identical rise in CD4 counts after ART initiation as those without. However, the overall CD4 count at one year was lower among patients with TB (251 versus 269 cells/µl).
Clinically detected TB disease is associated with greater mortality and morbidity despite salutary response to ART. Data suggest that identifying HIV patients co-infected with TB earlier in the HIV-disease trajectory may not fully address TB-related morbidity and mortality.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53022. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small numbers of tests with pending results are documented in hospital discharge summaries leading to breakdown in communication and medical errors due to inadequate followup.
Evaluate effect of using a computerized provider order entry (CPOE) system to enforce documentation of tests with pending results into hospital discharge summaries.
We assessed the percent of all tests with pending results and those with actionable results that were documented before (n = 182 discharges) and after (n = 203 discharges) implementing the CPOE-enforcement tool. We also surveyed providers (n = 52) about the enforcement functionality.
Documentation of all tests with pending results improved from 12% (87/701 tests) before to 22% (178/812 tests) (p = 0.02) after implementation. Documentation of tests with eventual actionable results increased from 0% (0/24) to 50% (14/28)(p<0.001). Survey respondents felt the intervention improved quality of summaries, provider communication, and was not time-consuming.
A CPOE tool enforcing documentation of tests with pending results into discharge summaries significantly increased documentation rates, especially of actionable tests. However, gaps in documentation still exist.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The adenoma detection rate (ADR) is a quality benchmark for colonoscopy, influenced by several factors including bowel preparation, withdrawal time, and withdrawal technique.
To assess the impact of video recording of all colonoscopies on the ADR.
Comparison of two cohorts of patients undergoing colonoscopy before and after implementation of video recording.
Academic outpatient endoscopy facility.
This study involved asymptomatic, average-risk adults undergoing screening colonoscopy.
Video recording of all colonoscopy procedures. Polyp findings and withdrawal times were recorded for 208 consecutive screening colonoscopies. A policy of video recording all colonoscopies was implemented and announced to the staff. Data on another 213 screening colonoscopies were subsequently collected.
Adenoma detection rate, withdrawal time, advanced polyp detection rate, hyperplastic polyp detection rate.
At least one adenoma was found in 38.5% of patients after video recording versus 33.7% before video recording (P = .31). There was a significant increase in the hyperplastic polyp detection rate (44.1% vs 34.6%; P = .046). Most endoscopists had a numerical increase in their ADRs, but only one was significant (57.7% vs 22.6%; P < .01). There were trends toward higher detection of adenomas of <5 mm (59.1% vs 52%; P = .23) and right-sided adenomas (40.2% vs 30.4%; P = .11) in the video recorded group.
No randomization, confounding of intervention effects, and sample size limitations.
Video recording of colonoscopies is associated with a nonsignificant increase in the ADR and a significant increase in the hyperplastic polyp detection rate. There may be a benefit of video recording for endoscopists with low ADRs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Literature suggests early post-percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) feeding is as safe as delayed feeding. No consensus exists regarding feeding initiation after PEG placement. We performed a national survey to assess current practice regarding feeding initiation after PEG placement as well as clinical and practitioner based factors associated with early or delayed feeding.
A survey assessing feeding initiation in general ward and intensive care unit patients, current literature knowledge, motility agent use, number of PEG placed per year, along with physician demographics was emailed to 5256 gastroenterologists. Statistical analysis was done using SAS software (V.9).
28% of gastroenterologists responded. Amongst respondents, 59% were private consultants, 25% academic physicians and 16% trainees. Private gastroenterologists initiated feeding earlier (≤12 h) compared to academic gastroenterologists in general ward and intensive care unit patients (p<0.0001). Amongst respondents, 41% of physicians were aware of current literature on post-PEG feeding times. Physicians aware of current literature started feeding earlier (<12h) compared to those not aware in general ward and intensive care unit patients (p=0.0002). Male physicians instituted feeding earlier than females (p<0.0001).
Feeding initiation after PEG placement varies amongst gastroenterologists. Further studies are required to explore obstacles in standardizing post-PEG feeding practices.
Digestive and Liver Disease 05/2011; 43(10):768-71. · 3.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Noncommunicable diseases are rapidly overtaking infectious, perinatal, nutritional, and maternal diseases as the major causes of worldwide death and disability. It is estimated that, within the next 10 to 15 years, the increasing burden of chronic diseases and the aging of the population will expose the world to an unprecedented burden of chronic diseases. Preventing the potential ramifications of a worldwide epidemic of chronic noncommunicable diseases in a sustainable manner requires coordinated, collaborative efforts. Herein, we present our collaboration's strategic plan to understand, treat, and prevent chronic cardiovascular and pulmonary disease (CVPD) in western Kenya, which builds on a 2-decade partnership between academic universities in North America and Kenya, the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare. We emphasize the importance of training Kenyan clinician-investigators who will ultimately lead efforts in CVPD care, education, and research. This penultimate aim will be achieved by our 5 main goals. Our goals include creating an administrative core capable of managing operations, develop clinical and clinical research training curricula, enhancing existing technology infrastructure, and implementing relevant research programs. Leveraging a strong international academic partnership with respective expertise in cardiovascular medicine, pulmonary medicine, and medical informatics, we have undertaken to understand and counter CVPD in Kenya by addressing patient care, teaching, and clinical research.
American heart journal 05/2011; 161(5):842-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor