Matthias C Grieshaber

Universitätsspital Basel, Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland

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Publications (48)98.96 Total impact

  • M C Grieshaber
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    ABSTRACT: Canaloplasty lowers the intraocular pressure (IOP) by restoring the natural outflow system. The success of canaloplasty depends on the function of this system. To evaluate the natural outflow system regarding canaloplasty by two clinical tests, provocative gonioscopy and channelography and to describe the mechanism of action of canaloplasty. Provocative gonioscopy evaluates the pattern of blood reflux which is induced by ocular hypotension as the result of a reversed pressure gradient between the episcleral venous pressure and IOP following paracentesis. In channelography the transtrabecular diffusion and the filling properties of the episcleral venous system are assessed by a microcatheter and a fluorescein tracer. Blood reflux varied greatly in glaucomatous eyes and showed an inverse correlation with the preoperative IOP. The higher the IOP, the poorer the blood reflux. The filling qualities of the episcleral venous system and diffusion through the trabecular meshwork were different. Poor trabecular passage and good episcleral fluorescein outflow indicates patent distal outflow pathways, poor trabecular passage and poor episcleral fluorescein outflow indicates obstructed trabecular meshwork and closed collector channels and good trabecular passage together with poor episcleral fluorescein outflow suggests that the site of impairment is mainly in the distal outflow system. The quality of blood reflux and the characteristics of the episcleral filling and the transtrabecular diffusion by fluorescein represent the clinical state of the outflow pathway and help in the prediction of the surgical outcome in canaloplasty. The mechanism for canaloplasty is not yet completely clarified; currently under discussion are circumferential viscodilation, permanent distension of the inner wall of Schlemm's canal using a suture and a Stegmann canal expander.
    Der Ophthalmologe 04/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00347-014-3163-4 · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this stud was to assess clinical outcomes after implantation of a hydrophobic toric intraocular lens (IOL) in patients undergoing cataract surgery. 22 eyes (16 patients) with at least 0.8 diopter (D) of corneal astigmatism having routine cataract surgery were included. After marking the final axis of the IOL, phacoemulsification, implantation and alignment of a toric IOL was performed. Uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), best corrected distance visual acuity (BDVA), manifest refraction, and keratometry were measured 5 to 19 months postoperatively. Individual patient satisfaction was also recorded. The cylinder axis of the toric IOL was determined at a slitlamp examination. The mean UDVA postoperatively was 0.3 logMAR ± 0.23 (SD) and was 0.3 logMAR or better in 63.6 % of eyes. The mean refractive cylinder decreased significantly postoperatively, ranging from - 3.3 ± 1.5 D to - 1.3 ± 0.7 D. The mean absolute IOL misalignment was 7.5 degrees (range 0 to 21°). The good UDVA resulted in high levels of patient satisfaction. Implantation of a toric IOL during cataract surgery was an effective and safe method to manage corneal astigmatism in this series of patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde 04/2015; 232(4):372-4. DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1545815 · 0.67 Impact Factor
  • C Nützi, S Orgül, A Schötzau, M C Grieshaber
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Laser peripheral iridotomy is a useful method in primary angle-closure eyes to prevent angle-closure attack and development of glaucomatous optic nerve damage. The aim of this study was to quantify morphological changes after LPI and their impact on intraocular pressure, and to evaluate predictive parameters for enlarging the anterior chamber angle after laser peripheral iridotomy. Patients and Methods: Ultrasound biomicroscopy images and intraocular pressure before and after laser peripheral iridotomy from 62 eyes of 34 patients with primary angle-closure were retrospectively analysed. Anterior chamber angle, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, iris curvature and a newly defined parameter, the end-iris-lens vault were measured. Results: In each quadrant anterior chamber angle was on average significantly larger (at 12 o'clock: from 10.1° to 15.0°; at 3 o'clock: from 13.4° to 19.8°; at 6 o'clock: from 12.2° to 18.5°; at 9 o'clock: from 12.9 to 17.9°; p < 0.001) and iris curvature significantly smaller (at 12 o'clock: from 0.26 mm to 0.10 mm; at 3 o'clock: from 0.21 mm to 0.08 mm; at 6 o'clock: from 0.25 mm to 0.08 mm; at 9 o'clock: from 0.21 mm to 0.08 mm; p < 0.001) after laser peripheral iridotomy. Anterior chamber depth, lens thickness and end-iris-lens-vault did not significantly change. Anterior chamber angle in each quadrant (p < 0.05), and iris curvature at 3 and 6 o'clock positions (p < 0.05) were highly predictive for the enlargement of the anterior chamber angle after laser peripheral iridotomy. Intraocular pressure was slightly lower after laser peripheral iridotomy (from 16.6 mmHg to 16.1 mmHg). Conclusion: In primary angle-closure eyes, laser peripheral iridotomy enlarges the angle and flattens the iris significantly. This study demonstrated that a small anterior chamber angle and a large iris curvature are predictive parameters for a greater enlargement of the anterior chamber angle after laser peripheral iridotomy. These new findings underline the importance of the ultrasound biomicroscopy and may help in counselling patients about laser peripheral iridotomy. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde 04/2015; 232(4):419-426. DOI:10.1055/s-0035-1545793 · 0.67 Impact Factor
  • Matthias C Grieshaber, Robert Stegmann, Hans R Grieshaber, Peter Meyer
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    ABSTRACT: This study was performed to assess any changes in Schlemm's canal (SC) in human autopsy eyes possibly resulting from the injection of a viscoelastic substance and implantation of a new device (the Stegmann Canal Expander, SCE) into SC. After the surgical procedure, eyes were fixed, dissected into quartered segments and examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Tissue sections displayed a marked dilation of SC and of the collector channels compared with untreated control sections. The SC walls were disrupted in some areas due to viscodilation, but not due to SCE implantation. In all eyes, the entire 9-mm length of the SCE was positioned inside the canal, keeping the canal wide open. The SCE diameter of 240 μm remained unchanged after implantation. Injection of a viscoelastic substance into SC leads to marked dilation of SC and collector channels. Implanting the SCE into SC allowed persistent expansion of SC and stretching of the trabecular meshwork. This may increase the permeability of the trabecular meshwork, reduce its resistance to aqueous humour and maintain circumferential flow within SC. Experimental and clinical studies should determine the impact of this new canal expander in terms of lowering intraocular pressure in glaucoma surgery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    British Journal of Ophthalmology 01/2015; DOI:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2014-305540 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    Livia M. Brandao, Andreas Schötzau, Matthias C. Grieshaber
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose. The object of this study was to investigate the role of the suture stent regarding its impact on reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) in canaloplasty based on the distension of the inner wall of Schlemm’s canal. Methods. Nineteen glaucoma patients who underwent canaloplasty with successful positioning of the tensioning suture were included. The measurements were analyzed using linear mixed models, with the means adjusted to IOP, age, cup-to-disc ratio, and time of follow-up. Results. Mean follow-up time was 27.6 months (SD 10.5). Mean intraocular pressure (IOP) was 24.6 mmHg (SD 5.29), 13.8 (SD 2.65), and 14.5 (SD 0.71) before surgery, at 12 months, and at 36 months after surgery, respectively. 57.9% of patients had no medication at last evaluation. Differences and variations of measurements between the devices over a time of 12 months were not significant (p = 0.15 to 0.98). Some angles of distension associated with the suture stent inside SC were predictive for IOP reduction (p < 0.03 to < 0.001), but not for final IOP (p = 0.64 to 0.96). Conclusion. The angles of the inner wall of Schlemm’s canal generated by the suture stent were comparable between OCT and UBM and did not change significantly over time. There was a tendency towards a greater distension of Schlemm’s canal, when the difference was larger between pre- and postoperative IOP, suggesting the tensioning suture may contribute to IOP reduction.
    Journal of Ophthalmology 01/2015; 2015:1-7. DOI:10.1155/2015/457605 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PurposeTo study the safety and long-term efficacy of classic viscocanalostomy in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in different populations.MethodsA total of 726 eyes of 726 patients from Europe or South Africa with primary OAG (POAG) and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXFG) were included in this retrospective multicentre study. Complete (qualified) success was defined as an intraocular pressure (IOP) equal to or lower than 21, 18 and 16 mmHg without (with or without) medications, respectively. A failed procedure was defined if IOP was above 21 mmHg, not controllable by laser goniopuncture or medications.ResultsThe mean IOP before surgery was 42.6 ± 14.2 mmHg for all patients, 29.6 ± 6.6 mmHg for European patients and 48.1 ± 12.9 mmHg for African patients. The follow-up time was 86.2 ± 43.1 months. Mean IOP was 15.4 ± 3.6 mmHg at 5 years, 15.5 ± 4.4 mmHg at 10 years and 16.8 ± 4.2 mmHg at 15 years. The qualified success rate for an IOP of 21, 18 or 16 mmHg or less after 5 years was 92% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88–0.96], 70% (95% CI 0.63–0.77) and 43% (95% CI 0.36–0.51) in European patients, and 90% (95% CI 0.87–0.93), 77% (95% CI 0.74–0.81) and 67% (95% CI 0.63–0.72) in African patients, respectively. There was no difference between the success rate for POAG and PXFG for an IOP of 21, 18 or 16 mmHg or less at 5 years (p = 0.64, p = 0.20, p = 0.22, respectively). Laser goniopuncture was performed postoperatively on a total of 127 eyes (17.7%), lowering the pressure from 23.1 ± 1.9 mmHg to 15.0 ± 2.2 mmHg. There were no significant complications, in particular, no blebitis or endophthalmitis.Conclusion Viscocanalostomy produced a sustained long-term reduction of IOP with a low-risk profile in European and African patients with OAG over 12 years.
    Acta ophthalmologica 09/2014; 93(4). DOI:10.1111/aos.12513 · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Williams-Beuren syndrome is characterized by mild mental retardation, specific neurocognitive profile, hypercalcemia during infancy, distinctive facial features and cardiovascular diseases. We report on complete ophthalmologic, sonographic and genetic evaluation of a girl with a clinical phenotype of Williams-Beuren syndrome, associated with unilateral anterior segment dysgenesis and bilateral cleft of the soft and hard palate. These phenotypic features have not been linked to the haploinsufficiency of genes involved in the microdeletion. Case presentation: A term born girl presented at the initial examination with clouding of the right cornea. On ultrasound biomicroscopy the anterior chamber structures were difficult to differentiate, showing severe adhesions from the opacified cornea to the iris with a kerato-irido-lenticular contact to the remnant lens, a finding consistent with Peters' anomaly. Genetic analyses including FISH confirmed a loss of the critical region 7q11.23, usually associated with the typical Williams-Beuren syndrome. Microsatellite analysis showed a loss of about 2.36 Mb. Conclusions: A diagnosis of Williams-Beuren syndrome was made based on the microdeletion of 7q11.23. The unique features, including unilateral microphthalmia and anterior segment dysgenesis, were unlikely to be caused by the microdeletion. Arguments in favor of the latter are unilateral manifestation, as well as the fact that numerous patients with deletions of comparable or microscopically visible size have not shown similar manifestations.
    BMC Ophthalmology 05/2014; · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Williams-Beuren syndrome is characterized by mild mental retardation, specific neurocognitive profile, hypercalcemia during infancy, distinctive facial features and cardiovascular diseases. We report on complete ophthalmologic, sonographic and genetic evaluation of a girl with a clinical phenotype of Williams-Beuren syndrome, associated with unilateral anterior segment dysgenesis and bilateral cleft of the soft and hard palate. These phenotypic features have not been linked to the haploinsufficiency of genes involved in the microdeletion.
    BMC Ophthalmology 05/2014; 14:70. DOI:10.1186/1471-2415-14-70 · 1.08 Impact Factor
  • L M Brandao, S Orgul, M C Grieshaber
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Canaloplasty is a safe and effective alternative in glaucoma surgery, avoiding the risk for hypotony and bleb-related complications. Two cases of hemorrhagic Descemet membrane detachment (DMD) after canaloplasty are reported in patients who did not have previous surgery. Results: Two patients with primary open-angle glaucoma underwent canaloplasty because of medically uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP). Canaloplasty was performed using a flexible microcatheter, viscoelastic material and a tensioning suture. The day after surgery, hemorrhagic DMD was observed in the inferior quadrants in both patients on slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Therapy: For the size and location (occlusion of the visual axis), aspiration of blood and descemetopexy with air tamponade were performed promptly. In both cases, a small translucent scar remained. Conclusions: Circumferential cannulation and viscodilation of the Schlemm canal increases the risk for DMD, which may be aggravated by blood reflux resulting from the tensioning suture and low postoperative IOP. Surgeons should be aware of this specific and potentially sight-threatening complication in classic canaloplasty. Immediate intervention is recommended for good visual prognosis.
    Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde 04/2014; 231(4):348-350. DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1368273 · 0.67 Impact Factor
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    Lívia M Brandão, Matthias C Grieshaber
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    ABSTRACT: Traditional glaucoma surgery has been challenged by the advent of innovative techniques and new implants in the past few years. There is an increasing demand for safer glaucoma surgery offering patients a timely surgical solution in reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) and improving their quality of life. The new procedures and devices aim to lower IOP with a higher safety profile than fistulating surgery (trabeculectomy/drainage tubes) and are collectively termed "minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS)." The main advantage of MIGS is that they are nonpenetrating and/or bleb-independent procedures, thus avoiding the major complications of fistulating surgery related to blebs and hypotony. In this review, the clinical results of the latest techniques and devices are presented by their approach, ab interno (trabeculotomy, excimer laser trabeculotomy, trabecular microbypass, suprachoroidal shunt, and intracanalicular scaffold) and ab externo (canaloplasty, Stegmann Canal Expander, suprachoroidal Gold microshunt). The drawback of MIGS is that some of these procedures produce a limited IOP reduction compared to trabeculectomy. Currently, MIGS is performed in glaucoma patients with early to moderate disease and preferably in combination with cataract surgery.
    Journal of Ophthalmology 11/2013; 2013:705915. DOI:10.1155/2013/705915 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Substantial evidence suggests that ocular perfusion is regulated by nitric oxide (NO), and polymorphisms in genes encoding for enzymes involved in NO formation and degradation (endothelial nitric oxide synthase [NOS3] and cytochrome b-235 alpha polypeptide gene [CYBA]) might contribute to vascular dysregulation observed in glaucoma. We therefore assessed the association of glaucoma with polymorphisms of NOS3 and CYBA previously associated with cardiovascular disease. We also compared the distribution of these polymorphisms in patients with high tension glaucoma (HTG) and normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and evaluated its association with vascular dysregulation in a subset of glaucoma patients. Three hundred Caucasian patients with HTG and 127 with NTG were enrolled in the study and genotyped for G894T (rs1799983) and T-786C (rs2070744) in NOS3 and C242T (rs4673) in CYBA. None of these polymorphisms had a different allele or genotype distribution between HTG and NTG patients nor had the presence of vasospasms any impact. We studied the frequencies of a set of relevant polymorphisms of the NO system in a large cohort of glaucoma patients and found no association. These results therefore suggest the absence of a relevant relationship with different glaucoma forms in Caucasians.
    Molecular vision 08/2012; 18:2174-81. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Activated retinal astrocytes and Müller cells (ARAM) have been found in glaucoma patients. This study investigated whether presumed ARAM can be detected by optical coherence tomography (OCT), and assessed their relationship to the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness. Single-center observational study involving 35 age-matched healthy controls and 19 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) between 45 - 82 years of age. Presumed ARAM was defined as patchy, discrete glittering but transparent changes of the macula. The retina was documented by red-free photography to assess distribution of ARAM, and compared to the RNFL thickness measured around the fovea by OCT. A linear mixed effects model was used to detect a difference between eyes with ARAM versus eyes without ARAM. ARAM was not found in healthy subjects. The mean RNFL around the fovea was not significantly thicker in healthy controls (34.01 SD ± 22.24) than in POAG patients with ARAM (30.86 microns SD ± 15.09; p = 0.36) or without ARAM (33.19 microns SD ± 19.87; p = 0.46). Furthermore, the median RNFL thickness was similar to the control group (29 microns) but slightly thinner in POAG patients (each 27 microns with ARAM and without ARAM). In a subgroup analysis of POAG patients with ARAM, the within subject standard deviation of RNFL was significantly lower in areas with ARAM (SD 10.12) than in areas without ARAM (SD 17.30) (p < 0.001). Although the mean and median RNFL thickness was comparable between the groups, the variability of the RNFL thickness was significantly lower in areas with ARAM than in areas without ARAM suggesting that ARAM may mask RNFL loss in POAG patients.
    Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde 04/2012; 229(4):314-8. DOI:10.1055/s-0031-1281857 · 0.67 Impact Factor
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    Margarita G Todorova, Cameron F Parsa, Matthias C Grieshaber
    Archives of ophthalmology 04/2012; 130(4):534. DOI:10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.2498 · 4.49 Impact Factor
  • Matthias C Grieshaber
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    ABSTRACT: Ab externo Schlemm's canal (SC) surgery (e.g. viscocanalostomy and canaloplasty) is a valuable alternative to glaucoma filtration surgery. It targets the abnormally high resistance to outflow in the trabecular meshwork and reestablishes the physiologic outflow system. In viscocanalostomy, viscoelastic substance is injected to dilate SC which in turn leads to microdisruptions of the inner wall. In canaloplasty, the additional intracanalicular suture stent keeps the canal patent and enhances the circumferential flow. A prerequisite for these procedures to work is the integrity of the distal outflow system, which can be evaluated by two clinical tests before surgery: provocative gonioscopy with blood reflux and fluorescein channelography. Ab externo SC surgery is suitable for open-angle glaucoma, but also for angle closure glaucoma in combination with cataract extraction. IOP reduction to the mid-teens for viscocanalostomy, and to the lower teens for canaloplasty can be expected. The majority of complications seen in filtering surgery are largely eliminated by the nonpenetrating and bleb-independent approach. Postoperative care is minimal as no bleb management like needling is required, and hypotony-related complications are largely avoided by the intrinsic resistance of the physiologic outflow system. For its efficacy and high safety profile, ab externo SC surgery will continue to play an increasing role and will change the current concept of glaucoma surgery towards earlier intervention. Surgeons will be well advised to implement these antimetabolite-free procedures into their armamentarium to meet the expectations of the demanding glaucoma patient.
    Developments in ophthalmology 01/2012; 50:109-24. DOI:10.1159/000334793
  • Matthias C Grieshaber, Andreas Schoetzau, Josef Flammer, Selim Orgül
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose:  To assess risk factors for failure in canaloplasty. Methods:  Nonrandomized prospective study involving 51 eyes of 51 patients with medically uncontrolled primary open-angle glaucoma undergoing canaloplasty. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP) and slit-lamp examinations were performed before and after surgery at 1 and 7 days, and at 1 month and every 3 months thereafter. Factors like age, gender, preoperative IOP and microhyphema on day 1 were evaluated. Results:  The mean follow-up was 20.6 (SD 8.3) months. The mean preoperative IOP was 26.8 (SD 5.2) mmHg; the mean postoperative IOP was 8.4 (4.2) mmHg at day 1 and 12.7 (1.7) mmHg at month 24. Microhyphema was found in 40 patients (85.1%) on day 1 after surgery. The height of microhyphema was 1.8 mm ± 0.4 (SD) (range 1-2.5), and the time of resorption was 6.6 days ± 2.8 (SD) (range 3-14) on average. No recurrence of hyphema has been observed. IOP < 16 mmHg without medications depended significantly on the presence of microhyphema (hazard ratios, HR 0.03, 95% CI 0.01-0.25, p < 0.001), but not on age (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.91-1.09, p = 0.32), preoperative IOP (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.85-1.12, p = 0.80), cup-to-disc ratio (HR 0.15, 95% CI 0.00-20.01, p = 0.45) and gender (HR 0.24, 95% CI 0.05-1.12, p = 0.07). Factors like preoperative IOP, age, gender, cup-to-disc ratio were not associated with microhyphema. There were no significant differences between patients with versus without microhyphema in regard to age, preoperative IOP, morphological and functional glaucomatous damage, number of medications and postoperative day 1 IOP. However, patients with microhyphema had significantly fewer Nd:YAG goniopunctures after surgery than patients without microhyphema (p < 0.001). Conclusion:  Microhyphema the first postoperative day seems to be a significant positive prognostic indicator in uneventful canaloplasty in regard to IOP reduction, possibly representing a restored and patent physiologic aqueous outflow system.
    Acta ophthalmologica 12/2011; 91(2). DOI:10.1111/j.1755-3768.2011.02293.x · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The distinction of real progression from test variability in visual field (VF) series may be based on clinical judgment, on trend analysis based on follow-up of test parameters over time, or on identification of a significant change related to the mean of baseline exams (event analysis). The aim of this study was to compare a new population-based method (Octopus field analysis, OFA) with classic regression analyses and clinical judgment for detecting glaucomatous VF changes. 240 VF series of 240 patients with at least 9 consecutive examinations available were included into this study. They were independently classified by two experienced investigators. The results of such a classification served as a reference for comparison for the following statistical tests: (a) t-test global, (b) r-test global, (c) regression analysis of 10 VF clusters and (d) point-wise linear regression analysis. 32.5 % of the VF series were classified as progressive by the investigators. The sensitivity and specificity were 89.7 % and 92.0 % for r-test, and 73.1 % and 93.8 % for the t-test, respectively. In the point-wise linear regression analysis, the specificity was comparable (89.5 % versus 92 %), but the sensitivity was clearly lower than in the r-test (22.4 % versus 89.7 %) at a significance level of p = 0.01. A regression analysis for the 10 VF clusters showed a markedly higher sensitivity for the r-test (37.7 %) than the t-test (14.1 %) at a similar specificity (88.3 % versus 93.8 %) for a significant trend (p = 0.005). In regard to the cluster distribution, the paracentral clusters and the superior nasal hemifield progressed most frequently. The population-based regression analysis seems to be superior to the trend analysis in detecting VF progression in glaucoma, and may eliminate the drawbacks of the event analysis. Further, it may assist the clinician in the evaluation of VF series and may allow better visualization of the correlation between function and structure owing to VF clusters.
    Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde 04/2011; 228(4):311-7. DOI:10.1055/s-0031-1273216 · 0.67 Impact Factor
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    Matthias C Grieshaber, Ané Pienaar, Jan Olivier, Robert Stegmann
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    ABSTRACT: To study the safety and effectiveness of 360° viscodilation and tensioning of Schlemm canal (canaloplasty) in black African patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Sixty randomly selected eyes of 60 consecutive patients with POAG were included in this prospective study. Canaloplasty comprised 360° catheterisation of Schlemm's canal by means of a flexible microcatheter with distension of the canal by a tensioning 10-0 polypropylene suture. The mean preoperative intraocular pressure pressure (IOP) was 45.0 ± 12.1 mm Hg. The mean follow-up time was 30.6 ± 8.4 months. The mean IOP at 12 months was 15.4 ± 5.2 mm Hg (n=54), at 24 months 16.3 ± 4.2 mm Hg (n = 51) and at 36 months 13.3 ± 1.7 mm Hg (n=49). For IOP ≤ 21 mm Hg, complete success rate was 77.5% and qualified success rate was 81.6% at 36 months. Cox regression analysis showed that preoperative IOP (HR = 1.003, 95% CI = 0.927 to 1.085; p = 0.94), age (HR = 1.000, CI = 0.938 to 1.067; p = 0.98) and sex (HR = 3.005, CI=0.329 to 27.448; p=0.33) were all not significant predictors of IOP reduction to ≤ 21 mm Hg. Complication rate was low (Descemet's detachment n=2, elevated IOP n = 1, false passage of the catheter n = 2). Canaloplasty produced a sustained long-term reduction of IOP in black Africans with POAG independent of preoperative IOP. As a bleb-independent procedure, canaloplasty may be a true alternative to classic filtering surgery, in particular in patients with enhanced wound healing and scar formation.
    The British journal of ophthalmology 11/2010; 94(11):1478-82. DOI:10.1136/bjo.2009.163170 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    M C Grieshaber, A Pienaar, J Olivier, R Stegmann
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the safety and efficacy of two polypropylene (Prolene) sutures for tensioning of the inner wall of Schlemm's canal (SC) in black African patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) undergoing canaloplasty. In a prospective randomised trial of 90 patients, canaloplasty was performed with a flexible microcatheter (iTrack-250A) and sodium hyaluronidate 1.4% (Healon GV). After complete circumferential dilatation of the SC, a Prolene suture, either 6-0 Prolene (group 1) or 10-0 Prolene (group 2), was retracted through the SC and tightened leaving tension on the canal and trabecular meshwork. Nd:YAG laser goniopuncture was not performed postoperatively. The mean preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) was 42.7 mm Hg+/-12.5 (SD) in group 1 and 45.0 mm Hg+/-12.1 (SD) in group 2 (P=0.70). The mean postoperative IOP without medications was 18.4 mm Hg+/-7.1 (SD) in group 1 and 16.4 mm Hg+/-6.6 (SD) in group 2 at 1 month (P=0.10), 19.2 mm Hg+/-6.4 (SD) in group 1 and 16.4 mm Hg+/-4.9 (SD) at 15 months (P=0.04). Pressures equal or less than 21, 18, and 16 mm Hg without medications (complete success) at 12 months were 51.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.73), 34.1% (95% CI 0.21-0.56), and 21.2% (95% CI 0.11-0.42) in group 1, and 76.9% (95% CI 0.62-0.96), 68.8% (95% CI 0.54-0.89), and 53.6% (95% CI 0.38-0.76) in group 2, respectively. In the Cox regression analysis, IOP<18 mm Hg without medications depended significantly on the type of Prolene (hazard ratio (HR) 2.60, 95% CI 1.24-5.46, P=0.01) and age (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.03-1.86, P=0.03), but not on preoperative IOP (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.99-1.04, P=0.16) and gender (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.34-1.33, P=0.26). No filtering bleb was observed. Intra- and postoperative complications were similarly rare in the two groups and included partial 'cheese-wiring' (2), Descemet's rupture (2), and hyphaema (3). In this clinical trial, IOP reduction was substantial in canaloplasty and slightly greater in combination with 10-0 Prolene than 6-0 Prolene sutures at an equally low complication rate. Younger age, but not the level of IOP at surgery, had a positive effect on the amount of IOP reduction, thus suggesting that an early surgical intervention to re-establish physiological outflow offers the best prognosis.
    Eye (London, England) 07/2010; 24(7):1220-6. DOI:10.1038/eye.2009.317 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the safety and efficacy of canaloplasty (360-degree viscodilation and tensioning of the Schlemm canal) in Whites with open-angle glaucoma (OAG). In a prospective study, 32 consecutive patients with medically uncontrolled OAG underwent primary canaloplasty with a follow-up time of more than 1 year. Laser goniopuncture was performed if postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) was above 16 mmHg. IOP, number of antiglaucomatous medications, best-corrected visual acuity, and intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Complete success was defined as an IOP ≤21, 18, and 16 mm Hg without medications, and qualified success with or without medications, respectively. The mean IOP dropped from 27.3±5.6 mm Hg preoperatively to 12.8±1.5 mm Hg at 12 months and 13.1±1.2 mm Hg at 18 months (P<0.001). The complete success rate of an IOP ≤21, 18, and 16 mm Hg was 93.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-1.0], 84.4% (95% CI 0.73-0.98), and 74.9% (95% CI 0.61-0.92), respectively, at 12 months. Laser goniopuncture was performed on 6 eyes (18.1%) 3.3±2.1 months postoperatively. The mean IOP was 20.6±4.2 mm Hg before and 14.2±2.2 mm Hg after goniopuncture. The number of medications dropped from 2.7±0.5 before surgery to 0.1±0.3 after surgery (P<0.001). The postoperative best-corrected visual acuity at last visit (0.38±0.45; range: 0 to 1.8) was comparable with that of preoperative values (0.36±SD 0.37; range: 0 to 1.6) (P=0.42). In all but 1 eye, canaloplasty was completed. Minor intraoperative or postoperative complications like Descemet membrane detachment in 2 eyes, elevated IOP in 1 eye, and suprachoroidal passage of the catheter in 4 eyes were encountered. In 1 eye, circumferential cannulation of the Schlemm canal was impossible. Canaloplasty seems to be a promising and effective surgical procedure in Whites with OAG. Postoperative IOP levels are in the low-to-mid-teens. The procedure can be regarded as safe, but has its own profile of complications.
    Journal of glaucoma 01/2010; 20(5):298-302. DOI:10.1097/IJG.0b013e3181e3d46e · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • Matthias C Grieshaber, Ané Pienaar, Jan Olivier, Robert Stegmann
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the aqueous outflow pathway in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) through provocative gonioscopy and channelography with a flexible microcatheter and fluorescein tracer during canaloplasty. One eye each was randomly selected from 28 consecutive black African POAG patients undergoing canaloplasty. Provocative gonioscopy was performed at the beginning of surgery, and blood reflux from collector channels into Schlemm's canal (SC) was semiquantitatively evaluated. During canaloplasty, a flexible microcatheter injected fluorescein tracer stepwise into SC. The outflow pathway parameters of interest were blood reflux, transtrabecular passage of fluorescein, and episcleral vein filling. Mean age, intraocular pressure (IOP), and cup-to-disc ratio were 45.9 years (SD +/- 13.3), 41.0 mm Hg (SD +/- 11.9), and 0.78 (SD +/- 0.22), respectively. Mean IOP (P < 0.001) and episcleral venous egress (P = 0.01) correlated significantly with blood reflux, but cup-to-disc ratio (P = 0.71), age (P = 0.70), and fluorescein diffusion (P = 0.90) did not. A multinomial regression model showed that higher IOP (P < 0.001, OR, 1.687; 95% CI, 1.151-2.472) was strongly associated with poor blood reflux, independent of the patient's age (P = 0.383, OR, 0.942; 95% CI, 0.823-1.078). No correlation was found between preoperative IOP, transtrabecular passage, episcleral venous egress, and cup-to-disc ratio. The mean IOP was 17.5 mm Hg (SD +/- 3.7) 6 months after surgery. The level of IOP after surgery correlated with the grade of blood reflux and episcleral venous egress (P < 0.001). High mean IOP may be associated with poor blood reflux and filling of SC. A collapsed canal, probably secondary to high IOP, may be an underestimated sign in black African patients with POAG. The quality of blood reflux and episcleral venous egress may both be predictive of the level of IOP after surgery. Provocative gonioscopy and channelography may reflect the function of the outflow pathway and may be helpful in assessing the surgical outcome of canaloplasty.
    Investigative ophthalmology & visual science 11/2009; 51(3):1498-504. DOI:10.1167/iovs.09-4327 · 3.66 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

683 Citations
98.96 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2015
    • Universitätsspital Basel
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 2005–2015
    • Universität Basel
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 2010
    • University of Pretoria
      Πρετόρια/Πόλη του Ακρωτηρίου, Gauteng, South Africa
  • 2007
    • Wolfe Eye Clinic
      SPW, Iowa, United States