Wensi Sun

University of Mississippi, Mississippi, United States

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Publications (5)11.49 Total impact

  • Wensi Sun · Paul J. May
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    ABSTRACT: The central pathways subserving the feline pupillary light reflex were examined by defining retinal input to the olivary pretectal nucleus (OPt), the midbrain projections of this nucleus, and the premotor neurons within it. Unilateral intravitreal wheat germ agglutinin conjugated horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) injections revealed differences in the pattern of retinal OPt termination on the two sides. Injections of WGA-HRP into OPt labeled terminals bilaterally in the anteromedian nucleus, and to a lesser extent in the supraoculomotor area, centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus and nucleus of the posterior commissure. Labeled terminals, as well as retrogradely labeled multipolar cells, were present in the contralateral OPt, indicating a commissural pathway. Injections of WGA-HRP into the anteromedian nucleus labeled fusiform premotor neurons within the OPt, as well as multipolar cells in the nucleus of the posterior commissure. Connections between retinal terminals and the pretectal premotor neurons were characterized by combining vitreous chamber and anteromedian nucleus injections of WGA-HRP in the same animal. Fusiform shaped, retrogradely labeled cells fell within the anterogradely labeled retinal terminal field in OPt. Ultrastructural analysis revealed labeled retinal terminals containing clear spherical vesicles. They contacted labeled pretectal premotor neurons via asymmetric synaptic densities. These results provide an anatomical substrate for the pupillary light reflex in the cat. Pretectal premotor neurons receive direct retinal input via synapses suggestive of an excitatory drive, and project directly to nuclei containing preganglionic motoneurons. These projections are concentrated in the anteromedian nucleus, indicating its involvement in the pupillary light reflex. J. Comp. Neurol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology 12/2014; 522(18). DOI:10.1002/cne.23602 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Wensi Sun · Paul J. May
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    ABSTRACT: Preganglionic motoneurons supplying the ciliary ganglion control lens accommodation and pupil diameter. In cats, these motoneurons make up the preganglionic Edinger-Westphal population, which lies rostral, dorsal, and ventral to the oculomotor nucleus. A recent cat study suggested that caudal motoneurons control the lens and rostral motoneurons control the pupil. This led us to examine the morphology, ultrastructure, and pretectal inputs of these populations. Preganglionic motoneurons retrogradely labeled by introducing tracer into the cat ciliary ganglion generally fell into two morphologic categories. Fusiform neurons were located rostrally, in the anteromedian nucleus and between the oculomotor nuclei. Multipolar neurons were found caudally, dorsal and ventral to the oculomotor nucleus. The dendrites of preganglionic motoneurons within the anteromedian nucleus crossed the midline, providing a possible basis for consensual responses. Ultrastructurally, several different classes of synaptic profiles contact preganglionic motoneurons, suggesting that their activity may be modified by a variety of inputs. Furthermore, there were differences in the synaptic populations contacting the rostral vs. caudal populations, supporting the contention that these populations display functional differences. Anterogradely labeled pretectal terminals were observed in close association with labeled preganglionic motoneurons, particularly in the rostral population. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that these terminals, packed with clear, spherical vesicles, made asymmetric synaptic contacts onto motoneurons in the rostral population, indicating that these cells serve the pupillary light reflex. Thus, the preganglionic motoneurons found in the cat display morphologic, ultrastructural, and connectional differences suggesting that this rostral preganglionic population is specialized for pupil control, whereas more caudal elements control the lens. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:3978–4002, 2014.
    The Journal of Comparative Neurology 12/2014; 522(18). DOI:10.1002/cne.23601 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The primate Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EW) contains perioculomotor preganglionic (pIII(PG)) motoneurons that control the lens and pupil. Separate subdivisions have been described in EW and termed visceral columns, with the lateral visceral column (lvc) reportedly receiving pretectal inputs for the pupillary light reflex. However, choline acetyl transferase staining reveals a single paired column of cells dorsal to the oculomotor nucleus, suggesting the EW is not subdivided. We investigated this issue by transneuronal retrograde labelling of pIII(PG) neurons in three monkey species. In all three, pIII(PG) neurons were contained in a single column. We have also examined which part of the macaque pIII(PG) population receives pretectal input. Injections of biocytin into the pretectum anterogradely labelled terminals that lay in close association with pIII(PG) motoneurons retrogradely labelled by ciliary ganglion injections of WGA-HRP. These close associations were concentrated in the ventromedial portion of the middle third of EW, suggesting this pIII(PG) region mediates pupillary control. In other cases, pretectal WGA-HRP injections, in addition to labelling terminals in the EW, produced a circular field of labelled neurons, and terminals in the periaqueductal grey, dorsolateral to EW. This region may represent the previously designated lvc, but it does not contain pIII(PG) motoneurons.
    Progress in brain research 02/2008; 171:97-106. DOI:10.1016/S0079-6123(08)00613-4 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ciliary ganglia from the pigeon, cat, and monkey were investigated for the presence of NADPH-diaphorase reactivity by use of a standard histochemical method. In the pigeon, where the ganglion is known to control lens and pupil function, and the choroidal vasculature, about one-third of the ganglion cells were densely stained and most other somata were lightly stained. In some cases, preganglionic terminals with a cap-like morphology were also darkly stained. The pattern of NADPH-diaphorase staining in mammals was very different from that seen in pigeons. In both mammalian species, where the ganglion is known to control lens and pupil function, a small number (less than 2%) of the ganglion cells were shown to be densely NADPH-diaphorase positive, revealing their neuronal processes. The presence of NADPH-diaphorase positive cells in pigeon, cat, and monkey ciliary ganglia suggests that nitric oxide may be used for intercellular communication in this ganglion, or in light of the known importance of nitric oxide in vascular control, some of these positive neurons may participate in the control of choroidal vasodilation.
    Visual Neuroscience 09/1994; 11(5):1027-31. DOI:10.1017/S0952523800003965 · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Wensi Sun · Paul J. May
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    ABSTRACT: The retrograde tracer wheat germ agglutinin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase was used to establish the organization of the extraocular muscle motoneuron pools in a prosimian, Galago senegalensis, for comparison with the organization in monkeys and non-primates. Medical rectus motoneurons were distributed in three subgroups in the ipsilateral oculomotor nucleus, a pattern similar to that of the monkey. Furthermore, the other component of the near response system, the preganglionic parasympathetic motoneurons, were confined within the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, as in the monkey. In contrast, the distribution of the levator palpebrae and superior rectus motoneurons was similar to that of the cat. Specifically, the majority of levator palpebrae motoneurons were located contralaterally, in the caudal central subdivision of the oculomotor nucleus, and the superior rectus motoneurons had a dorsocaudal location in the contralateral oculomotor nucleus. The distributions of motoneurons supplying the superior oblique and lateral rectus muscles were similar to those of other mammals. Unlike previously studied species, the galago was found to have two accessory muscles, that lie beneath the medial and lateral rectus muscles. Motoneurons supplying the accessory rectus muscles were found ventrolateral to the main abducens nucleus, in a position similar to that occupied by the cat accessory abducens nucleus; although others may be present in the main nuclei. Taken together, these results suggest that the organization of extraocular and preganglionic motoneurons in the galago exhibits both monkey and non-primate features. These observations are consistent with the notion that the galago is a primate species whose oculomotor organization is more similar to the general mammalian scheme.
    The Anatomical Record 09/1993; 237(1):89-103. DOI:10.1002/ar.1092370109

Publication Stats

65 Citations
11.49 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • University of Mississippi
      • Department of Neurobiology and Anatomical Sciences
      Mississippi, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Washington Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1993–1994
    • University of Mississippi Medical Center
      Jackson, Mississippi, United States