[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By guiding initial warfarin dose, pharmacogenetic (PGx) algorithms may improve the safety of warfarin initiation. However, once international normalised ratio (INR) response is known, the contribution of PGx to dose refinements is uncertain. This study sought to develop and validate clinical and PGx dosing algorithms for warfarin dose refinement on days 6-11 after therapy initiation. An international sample of 2,022 patients at 13 medical centres on three continents provided clinical, INR, and genetic data at treatment days 6-11 to predict therapeutic warfarin dose. Independent derivation and retrospective validation samples were composed by randomly dividing the population (80%/20%). Prior warfarin doses were weighted by their expected effect on S-warfarin concentrations using an exponential-decay pharmacokinetic model. The INR divided by that "effective" dose constituted a treatment response index . Treatment response index, age, amiodarone, body surface area, warfarin indication, and target INR were associated with dose in the derivation sample. A clinical algorithm based on these factors was remarkably accurate: in the retrospective validation cohort its R(2) was 61.2% and median absolute error (MAE) was 5.0 mg/week. Accuracy and safety was confirmed in a prospective cohort (N=43). CYP2C9 variants and VKORC1-1639 G→A were significant dose predictors in both the derivation and validation samples. In the retrospective validation cohort, the PGx algorithm had: R(2)= 69.1% (p<0.05 vs. clinical algorithm), MAE= 4.7 mg/week. In conclusion, a pharmacogenetic warfarin dose-refinement algorithm based on clinical, INR, and genetic factors can explain at least 69.1% of therapeutic warfarin dose variability after about one week of therapy.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 12/2011; 107(2):232-40. · 6.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Via generation of vitamin K-dependent proteins, gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) plays a critical role in the vitamin K cycle. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GGCX, therefore, may affect dosing of the vitamin K antagonist, warfarin. In a multi-centered, cross-sectional study of 985 patients prescribed warfarin therapy, we genotyped for two GGCX SNPs (rs11676382 and rs12714145) and quantified their relationship to therapeutic dose. GGCX rs11676382 was a significant (p=0.03) predictor of residual dosing error and was associated with a 6.1% reduction in warfarin dose (95% CI: 0.6%-11.4%) per G allele. The prevalence was 14.1% in our predominantly (78%) Caucasian cohort, but the overall contribution to dosing accuracy was modest (partial R2 = 0.2%). GGCX rs12714145 was not a significant predictor of therapeutic dose (p = 0.26). GGCX rs11676382 is a statistically significant predictor of warfarin dose, but the clinical relevance is modest. Given the potentially low marginal cost of adding this SNP to existing genotyping platforms, we have modified our non-profit website (www.WarfarinDosing.org) to accommodate knowledge of this variant.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 10/2010; 104(4):750-4. · 6.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Well-characterized genes that affect warfarin metabolism (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9) and sensitivity (vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1)) explain one-third of the variability in therapeutic dose before the international normalized ratio (INR) is measured. To determine genotypic relevance after INR becomes available, we derived clinical and pharmacogenetic refinement algorithms on the basis of INR values (on day 4 or 5 of therapy), clinical factors, and genotype. After adjusting for INR, CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes remained significant predictors (P < 0.001) of warfarin dose. The clinical algorithm had an R2 of 48% (median absolute error (MAE): 7.0 mg/week) and the pharmacogenetic algorithm had an R2 of 63% (MAE: 5.5 mg/week) in the derivation set (N = 969). In independent validation sets, the R2 was 26–43% with the clinical algorithm and 42–58% when genotype was added (P = 0.002). After several days of therapy, a pharmacogenetic algorithm estimates the therapeutic warfarin dose more accurately than one using clinical factors and INR response alone.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Warfarin demonstrates a wide interindividual variability in response that is mediated partly by variants in cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) and vitamin K 2,3-epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1). It is not known whether variants in calumenin (CALU) (vitamin K reductase regulator) have an influence on warfarin dose requirements. We resequenced CALU regions in a discovery cohort of dose outliers: patients with high (>90th percentile, n = 55) or low (<10th percentile, n = 53) warfarin dose requirements (after accounting for known genetic and nongenetic variables). One CALU variant, rs339097, was associated with high doses (P = 0.01). We validated this variant as a predictor of higher warfarin doses in two replication cohorts: (i) 496 patients of mixed ethnicity and (ii) 194 African-American patients. The G allele of rs339097 (the allele frequency was 0.14 in African Americans and 0.002 in Caucasians) was associated with the requirement for a 14.5% (SD +/- 7%) higher therapeutic dose (P = 0.03) in the first replication cohort and a higher-than-predicted dose in the second replication cohort (allele frequency 0.14, one-sided P = 0.03). CALU rs339097 A>G is associated with higher warfarin dose requirements, independent of known genetic and nongenetic predictors of warfarin dose in African Americans.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Warfarin is commonly prescribed for prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolism after orthopedic surgery. During warfarin initiation, out-of-range International Normalized Ratio (INR) values and adverse events are common.
In orthopedic patients beginning warfarin therapy, we developed and prospectively validated pharmacogenetic and clinical dose refinement algorithms to revise the estimated therapeutic dose after 4 days of therapy.
The pharmacogenetic algorithm used the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 genotype, smoking status, peri-operative blood loss, liver disease, INR values and dose history to predict the therapeutic dose. The R(2) was 82% in a derivation cohort (n = 86) and 70% when used prospectively (n = 146). The R(2) of the clinical algorithm that used INR values and dose history to predict the therapeutic dose was 57% in a derivation cohort (n = 178) and 48% in a prospective validation cohort (n = 146). In 1 month of prospective follow-up, the percent time spent in the therapeutic range was 7% higher (95% CI: 2.7-11.7) in the pharmacogenetic cohort. The risk of a laboratory or clinical adverse event was also significantly reduced in the pharmacogenetic cohort (Hazard Ratio 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.97).
Warfarin dose adjustments that incorporate genotype and clinical variables available after four warfarin doses are accurate. In this non-randomized, prospective study, pharmacogenetic dose refinements were associated with more time spent in the therapeutic range and fewer laboratory or clinical adverse events. To facilitate gene-guided warfarin dosing we created a non-profit website, http://www.WarfarinDosing.org.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 08/2008; 6(10):1655-62. · 6.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Initiation of warfarin therapy using trial-and-error dosing is problematic. Our goal was to develop and validate a pharmacogenetic algorithm. In the derivation cohort of 1,015 participants, the independent predictors of therapeutic dose were: VKORC1 polymorphism -1639/3673 G>A (-28% per allele), body surface area (BSA) (+11% per 0.25 m2), CYP2C9*3 (-33% per allele), CYP2C9*2 (-19% per allele), age (-7% per decade), target international normalized ratio (INR) (+11% per 0.5 unit increase), amiodarone use (-22%), smoker status (+10%), race (-9%), and current thrombosis (+7%). This pharmacogenetic equation explained 53–54% of the variability in the warfarin dose in the derivation and validation (N= 292) cohorts. For comparison, a clinical equation explained only 17–22% of the dose variability (P < 0.001). In the validation cohort, we prospectively used the pharmacogenetic-dosing algorithm in patients initiating warfarin therapy, two of whom had a major hemorrhage. To facilitate use of these pharmacogenetic and clinical algorithms, we developed a nonprofit website, http://www.WarfarinDosing.org.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Warfarin sodium is commonly prescribed for the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism. Dosing algorithms have not been widely adopted because they require a fixed initial warfarin dose (eg, 5 mg) and are not tailored to other factors that may affect the international normalized ratio (INR).
To develop an algorithm that could predict a therapeutic warfarin dose based on drug interactions, INR response after the initial warfarin doses, and other clinical factors.
We used stepwise regression to quantify the relationship between these factors in patients beginning prophylactic warfarin therapy immediately prior to joint replacement. In the derivation cohort (n = 271), we separately modeled the therapeutic dose after 2 and 3 initial doses. We prospectively validated these 2 models in an independent cohort (n = 105).
About half of the therapeutic dose variability was predictable after 3 days of therapy: R2 was 53% in the derivation cohort and 42% in the validation cohort. INR response after 3 warfarin doses (INR3) inversely correlated with therapeutic dose (p < 0.001). Intraoperative blood loss transiently, but significantly, elevated the postoperative INR values. Other significant (p < 0.03) predictors were the first and second warfarin doses (+7% and +6%, respectively, per 1 mg), and statin use (-15.0%). The model derived after 2 warfarin doses explained 32% of the variability in therapeutic dose.
We developed and validated algorithms that estimate therapeutic warfarin doses based on clinical factors and INR response available after 2-3 days of warfarin therapy. The algorithms are implemented online at www.WarfarinDosing.org.
Annals of Pharmacotherapy 12/2007; 41(11):1798-804. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High variability in drug response and a narrow therapeutic index complicate warfarin therapy initiation. No existing algorithm provides recommendations on refining the initial warfarin dose based on genetic variables, clinical data, and international normalized ratio (INR) values. Our goal was to develop such an algorithm. We studied 92 patients undergoing primary or revision total hip or knee replacement. From each patient we collected a blood sample, clinical variables, current medications, and preoperative and postoperative laboratory values. We genotyped for polymorphisms in the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 and vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1) genes. Using stepwise regression, we developed a model for refining the warfarin dose after the third warfarin dose. The algorithm explained four fifths of the variability in therapeutic dose (R(2)(adj) of 79%). Significant (P > .05) predictors were INR value after 3 doses (47% reduction per 0.25-unit rise), first warfarin dose (+7% per 1 mg), CYP2C9*3 and CYP2C9*2 genotype (-38% and -17% per allele), estimated blood loss (interacting with INR(3)), smoking status (+20% in current smokers), and VKORC1 (-11% per copy of haplotype A). If validated, this model should provide a safer, more effective process for initiating warfarin therapy.