K Purnapatre

Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited, Гургаон, Haryana, India

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Publications (25)97.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present a novel ketolide RBx14255, a semi-synthetic macrolide derivative obtained by derivatization of clarithromycin, for its in vitro and in vivo activity against sensitive and macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae. RBx 14255 showed excellent in vitro activity against macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae including in-house generated telithromycin-resistant strain (S. pneumoniae 3390 NDDR). RBx 14255 showed potent protein synthesis inhibition against telithromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae 3390 NDDR. The binding affinity of RBx 14255 towards ribosome was found to be more than other tested drugs. The in vivo efficacy of RBx 14255 was determined in murine pulmonary infection induced by intranasal inoculation of S. pneumoniae ATCC 6303 and systemic infection of S. pneumoniae 3390 NDDR strains. The ED50 of RBx 14255 was 3.12 mg/kg against S. pneumoniae ATCC 6303 in murine pulmonary infection model. In addition, RBx 14255 showed 100% survival of animals in murine systemic infection caused by macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae 3390 NDDR at 100 and 50 mg/kg, QID. RBx 14255 showed favorable pharmacokinetic properties and comparable to telithromycin.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 02/2014; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRPA) are emerging as a major threat in the hospitals as they have become resistant to current antibiotics. There is an immediate requirement of drugs with novel mechanisms as the pipeline of investigational drugs against these organisms is lean. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase (MurA) enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step of bacterial cell wall biosynthesis is an ideal target for the discovery of novel antibiotics against Gram negative pathogens as they have only one copy of murA gene in its genome. We have performed biochemical characterization and comparative kinetic analysis of MurA from E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Both enzymes were active at broad range of pH with temperature optima of 37°C. Metal ions did not enhance the activity of both enzymes. These enzymes had an apparent affinity constant (K m ) for its substrate UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 36±5.2 and 17.8±2.5μM and for phosphoenolpyruvate 0.84±0.13μM and 0.45±0.07μM for E. coli and P. aeruginosa enzymes respectively. Both the enzymes showed 5–7 fold shift in IC50 for the known inhibitor fosfomycin upon pre-incubation with the substrate UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. This observation was used to develop a novel rapid sensitive high throughput assay for the screening of MurA inhibitors. KeywordsMurA-UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-Enolpyruvyl-UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-Fosfomycin-High throughput screening
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2010; 26(9):1623-1629. · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxazolidinones are known to inhibit protein biosynthesis and act against a wide spectrum of gram-positive bacteria. A new investigational oxazolidinone, ranbezolid, inhibited bacterial protein synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In S. epidermidis, ranbezolid showed inhibition of cell wall and lipid synthesis and a dose-dependent effect on membrane integrity. A kill-kinetics study showed that ranbezolid was bactericidal against S. epidermidis. In vitro translation of the luciferase gene done using bacterial and mammalian ribosomes indicated that ranbezolid specifically inhibited the bacterial ribosome. Molecular modeling studies revealed that both linezolid and ranbezolid fit in similar manners the active site of ribosomes, with total scores, i.e., theoretical binding affinities after consensus, of 5.2 and 6.9, respectively. The nitrofuran ring in ranbezolid is extended toward C2507, G2583, and U2584, and the nitro group forms a hydrogen bond from the base of G2583. The interaction of ranbezolid with the bacterial ribosomes clearly helps to elucidate its potent activity against the target pathogen.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 01/2009; 53(4):1427-33. · 4.57 Impact Factor
  • International Symposium on Novel Strategies for Targeted Prevention and Treatment of Cancer, JNU, New Delhi.; 12/2008
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    ABSTRACT: Enzymes of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily are the major determinants of half-life and execute pharmacological effects of many therapeutic drugs. In new drug discovery research, recombinant (human) CYPs are also used for identifying active or inactive metabolites that could lead to increased potency or toxicity of a molecule. In addition, CYP inhibition by anticancer drugs might lead to adverse drug reactions, multiple-drug resistance, and drug-drug interactions. During the discovery and pre-clinical evaluation of a New Chemical Entity (NCE), large amounts of purified recombinant CYPs are required for studying metabolism and pharmacokinetic parameters. Therefore, present research efforts are focused to over-express these human CYPs in bacteria, yeast, insect and mammalian cells, followed by their purification on an industrial scale to facilitate identification of novel anticancer drugs. This review summarizes the merits and limitations of these expression systems for an optimized production of individual CYP isoforms, and their usefulness in the discovery and development of target-based, safe and efficacious NCEs for the treatment of cancer.
    Cancer Letters 02/2008; 259(1):1-15. · 5.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Decreased susceptibility of Neisseria meningitidis isolates to ciprofloxacin emerged from an outbreak in Delhi, India. Results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the meningococcal isolates to ciprofloxacin and further sequencing of DNA gyrase A quinolone-resistance-determining region confirmed the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in the outbreak.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 11/2007; 13(10):1614-6. · 6.79 Impact Factor
  • National Biotechnology Conference-2006; Current Trends and Future Perspectives, Department of Biotechnology & Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Roorkee, India.; 09/2006
  • National Biotechnology Conference-2006; Current Trends and Future Perspectives,, Department of Biotechnology & Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Roorkee,India; 09/2006
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    ABSTRACT: Vancomycin has been the drug of choice for 30 years for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Emergence of decreased vancomycin susceptibility in MRSA strains presents a significant clinical problem with few therapeutic options. This study was performed to generate and characterise S. aureus strains with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. Eighteen S. aureus strains were subjected to serial passaging on vancomycin to generate vancomycin intermediate resistant S. aureus (VISA) strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination was performed for the parent and the passaged cultures with 13 different antibiotics. The strains were tested by the following five methods: simplified population analysis; CDC method; modified vancomycin agar screen; population analysis profile (PAP); and modified population analysis (PAP-area under the curve (AUC) ratio). Phenotypic changes such as doubling time, synergy with beta-lactam antibiotics and effect on norA efflux pumps were also studied for these strains. The result indicated that 8 VISA mutants (vancomycin MICs, 8-16 microg/mL) were generated in vitro from the 18 S. aureus strains. The CDC and modified agar methods proved to be the most sensitive and specific methods for detection of VISA strains. The PAP for all the VISA strains ranged from 12 microg/mL to > 16 microg/mL, with a PAP-AUC ratio of > 1.3. All mutants showed increased doubling time compared with their parent isolate. Synergism of the vancomycin and beta-lactam combinations was observed for all methicillin-resistant mutants. Upon acquisition of vancomycin resistance, a few mutants showed decreased oxacillin resistance. Two VISA strains were chosen for molecular characterisation of the mecA gene and one mutant showed genotypic changes with deletion of mecA. Loss of norA efflux pumps leading to fluoroquinolone sensitivity was also observed in four mutants.
    International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 04/2006; 27(3):201-11. · 4.42 Impact Factor
  • K.S. Saini, K Purnapatre
    The journal of biolaw & business 01/2006; 9(4):21-25.
  • Oral paper presentation at XXVIII Annual conference of Indian Association of Medical Microbiologist (IAMM), Dept. of Microbiology, SGPGIMS, Lucknow, INDIA; 11/2004
  • Swiss/European Biotechnology Workshop, Kartause Ittingen, Switzerland; 09/2004
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    ABSTRACT: Uracil-DNA glycosylase (Ung), a DNA repair enzyme, pioneers uracil excision repair pathway. Structural determinations and mutational analyses of the Ung class of proteins have greatly facilitated our understanding of the mechanism of uracil excision from DNA. More recently, a hybrid quantum-mechanical/molecular mechanical analysis revealed that while the histidine (H67 in EcoUng) of the GQDPYH motif (omega loop) in the active site pocket is important in positioning the reactants, it makes an unfavorable energetic contribution (penalty) in achieving the transition state intermediate. Mutational analysis of this histidine is unavailable from any of the Ung class of proteins. A complication in demonstrating negative role of a residue, especially when located within the active site pocket, is that the mutants with enhanced activity are rarely obtained. Interestingly, unlike the most Ung proteins, the H67 equivalent in the omega loop in mycobacterial Ung is represented by P67. Exploiting this natural diversity to maintain structural integrity of the active site, we transplanted an H67P mutation in EcoUng. Uracil inhibition assays and binding of a proteinaceous inhibitor, Ugi (a transition state substrate mimic), with the mutant (H67P) revealed that its active site pocket was not perturbed. The catalytic efficiency (Vmax/Km) of the mutant was similar to that of the wild type Ung. However, the mutant showed increased Km and Vmax. Together with the data from a double mutation H67P/G68T, these observations provide the first biochemical evidence for the proposed diverse roles of H67 in catalysis by Ung.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2004; 320(3):893-9. · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Congress of the Federation of Asia and Oceanic Biochemists and Molecular Biologists, Bangalore, INDIA; 12/2003
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    ABSTRACT: The structures of a new crystal form of free Escherichia coli uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG), containing four molecules in the asymmetric unit, and two forms of its complex with the proteinaceous inhibitor Ugi, containing two and four crystallographically independent complexes, have been determined. A comparison of these structures and the already known crystal structures containing UDG shows that the enzyme can be considered to be made up of two independently moving structural entities or domains. A detailed study of free and DNA-bound human enzyme strengthens this conclusion. The domains close upon binding to uracil-containing DNA, whereas they do not appear to do so upon binding to Ugi. The comparative study also shows that the mobility of the molecule involves the rigid-body movement of the domains superposed on flexibility within domains.
    Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 09/2002; 58(Pt 8):1269-76. · 14.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins play an important role in DNA replication, repair and recombination. The protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtSSB) is a tetramer with 164 amino-acid residues in each subunit. The protein readily crystallizes in space group P3(1)21 (or P3(2)21) at pH 7.4 under appropriate conditions. Under different conditions, but at the same pH, orthorhombic crystals belonging to space group I222 or I2(1)2(1)2(1) were obtained after several months. Similar orthorhombic crystals were obtained when protein samples stored for several months were used for crystallization. The orthorhombic crystals obtained in different experiments, though similar to one another, exhibited variations in unit-cell parameters, presumably on account of different extents of proteolytic cleavage of the C-terminal region. Molecular-replacement calculations using different search models did not yield the structure. As part of attempts to solve the structure using isomorphous replacement, a good mercury derivative of the trigonal crystal has been prepared.
    Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 03/2002; 58(Pt 2):327-9. · 14.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSBs) play an essential role in various DNA functions. Characterization of SSB from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which infects nearly one-third of the world's population and kills about 2-3 million people every year, showed that its oligomeric state and various in vitro DNA binding properties were similar to those of the SSB from Escherichia coli. In this study, use of the yeast two-hybrid assay suggests that the ECO:SSB and the MTU:SSB are even capable of heterooligomerization. However, the MTU:SSB failed to complement a Deltassb strain of E. coli. The sequence comparison suggested that MTU:SSB contained a distinct C-terminal domain. The C-terminal domain of ECO:SSB interacts with various cellular proteins. The chimeric constructs between the N- and C-terminal domains of the MTU:SSB and ECO:SSB exist as homotetramers and demonstrate DNA binding properties similar to the wild-type counterparts. Despite similar biochemical properties, the chimeric SSBs also failed to complement the Deltassb strain of E.coli. These data allude to the occurrence of a 'cross talk' between the N- and the C-terminal domains of the SSBs for their in vivo function. Further, compared with those of the ECO:SSB, the secondary/tertiary interactions within MTU:SSB were found to be less susceptible to disruption by guanidinium hydrochloride. Such structural differences could be exploited for utilizing such essential proteins as crucial molecular targets for controlling the growth of the pathogen.
    Nucleic Acids Research 11/2000; 28(19):3823-9. · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    K Purnapatre, U Varshney
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    ABSTRACT: The single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) plays an important role in DNA replication, repair and recombination. To study the biochemical properties of SSB from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtuSSB), we have used the recently published genome sequence to clone the ssb open reading frame by PCR and have developed an overexpression system. Sequence comparison reveals that the MtuSSB lacks many of the highly conserved amino acids crucial for the Escherichia coli SSB (EcoSSB) structure-function relationship. A highly conserved His55, important for homotetramerization of EcoSSB is represented by a leucine in MtuSSB. Similarly, Trp40, Trp54 and Trp88 of EcoSSB required for stabilizing SSB-DNA complexes are represented by Ile40, Phe54 and Phe88 in MtuSSB. In addition, a group of positively charged amino acids oriented towards the DNA binding cleft in EcoSSB contains several nonconserved changes in MtuSSB. We show that in spite of these changes in the primary sequence MtuSSB is similar to EcoSSB in its biochemical properties. It exists as a tetramer, it has the same minimal size requirement for its efficient binding to DNA and its binding affinity towards DNA oligonucleotides is indistinguishable from that of EcoSSB. Furthermore, MtuSSB interacts with DNA in at least two distinct modes corresponding to the SSB35 and SSB56/65 modes of EcoSSB interaction with DNA. However, MtuSSB does not form heterotetramers with EcoSSB. MtuSSB therefore presents us with an interesting system with which to investigate further the role of the conserved amino acids in the biological properties of SSBs.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 10/1999; 264(2):591-8. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    K Purnapatre, P Handa, J Venkatesh, U Varshney
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    ABSTRACT: Deamination of cytosines results in accumulation of uracil residues in DNA, which unless repaired lead to GC-->AT transition mutations. Uracil DNA glyco-sylase excises uracil residues from DNA and initiates the base excision repair pathway to safeguard the genomic integrity. In this study, we have investigated the effect of single-stranded DNA binding proteins (SSBs) from Escherichia coli (Eco SSB) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtu SSB) on uracil excision from synthetic substrates by uracil DNA glycosylases (UDGs) from E. coli, Mycobacterium smegmatis and M.tuberculosis (referred to as Eco -, Msm - and Mtu UDGs respectively). Presence of SSBs with all the three UDGs resulted in decreased efficiency of uracil excision from a single-stranded 'unstructured' oligonucleo-tide, SS-U9. On the other hand, addition of Eco SSB to Eco UDG, or Mtu SSB to Mtu UDG reactions resulted in increased efficiency of uracil excision from a hairpin oligonucleotide containing dU at the second position in a tetraloop (Loop-U2). Interestingly, the efficiency of uracil excision by Msm UDG from the same substrate was decreased in the presence of either Eco- or Mtu SSBs. Furthermore, Mtu SSB also decreased uracil excision from Loop-U2 by Eco UDG. Our studies using surface plasmon resonance technique demonstrated interactions between the homologous combinations of SSBs and UDGs. Heterologous combinations either did not show detectable interaction (Eco SSB with Mtu UDG) or showed a relatively weaker interaction (Mtu SSB with Eco UDG). Taken together, our studies suggest differential interactions between the two groups (SSBs and UDGs) of the highly conserved proteins. Such studies may provide important clues to design selective inhibitors against this important class of DNA repair enzymes.
    Nucleic Acids Research 10/1999; 27(17):3487-92. · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    Journal of Biosciences, New Dehli; 09/1999