[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The TB Structural Genomics Consortium is a worldwide organization of collaborators whose mission is the comprehensive structural determination and analyses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins to ultimately aid in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. Congruent to the overall vision, Consortium members have additionally established an integrated facilities core to streamline M. tuberculosis structural biology and developed bioinformatics resources for data mining. This review aims to share the latest Consortium developments with the TB community, including recent structures of proteins that play significant roles within M. tuberculosis. Atomic resolution details may unravel mechanistic insights and reveal unique and novel protein features, as well as important protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, which ultimately lead to a better understanding of M. tuberculosis biology and may be exploited for rational, structure-based therapeutics design.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis ornithine acetyltransferase (Mtb OAT; E.C. 126.96.36.199) is a key enzyme of the acetyl recycling pathway during arginine biosynthesis. It reversibly catalyzes the transfer of the acetyl group from N-acetylornithine (NAORN) to L-glutamate. Mtb OAT is a member of the N-terminal nucleophile fold family of enzymes. The crystal structures of Mtb OAT in native form and in its complex with ornithine (ORN) have been determined at 1.7 and 2.4 A resolutions, respectively. ORN is a competitive inhibitor of this enzyme against L-glutamate as substrate. Although the acyl-enzyme complex of Streptomyces clavuligerus ornithine acetyltransferase has been determined, ours is the first crystal structure to be reported of an ornithine acetyltransferase in complex with an inhibitor. ORN binding does not alter the structure of Mtb OAT globally. However, its presence stabilizes the three C-terminal residues that are disordered and not observed in the native structure. Also, stabilization of the C-terminal residues by ORN reduces the size of the active-site pocket volume in the structure of the ORN complex. The interactions of ORN and the protein residues of Mtb OAT unambiguously delineate the active-site residues of this enzyme in Mtb. Moreover, modeling studies carried out with NAORN based on the structure of the ORN-Mtb OAT complex reveal important interactions of the carbonyl oxygen of the acetyl group of NAORN with the main-chain nitrogen atom of Gly128 and with the side-chain oxygen of Thr127. These interactions likely help in the stabilization of oxyanion formation during enzymatic reaction and also will polarize the carbonyl carbon-oxygen bond, thereby enabling the side-chain atom O(gamma 1) of Thr200 to launch a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl-carbon atom of the acetyl group of NAORN.
Journal of Molecular Biology 02/2010; 397(4):979-90. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gene product of open reading frame Rv1653 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is annotated as encoding a probable ornithine acetyltransferase (OATase; EC 188.8.131.52), an enzyme that catalyzes two steps in the arginine-biosynthesis pathway. It transfers an acetyl group from N-acetylornithine to L-glutamate to produce N-acetylglutamate and L-ornithine. Rv1653 was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The native crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.7 A and belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 60.1, b = 99.7, c = 155.3 A. The preliminary X-ray study showed the presence of a dimer in the asymmetric unit of the crystals, which had a Matthews coefficient V(M) of 2.8 A(3) Da(-1).
Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 03/2009; 65(Pt 2):173-6. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gene product of open reading frame Rv3117 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain H37Rv is annotated as encoding a probable rhodanese-like thiosulfate sulfurtransferase (MtbCysA3). MtbCysA3 was expressed and purified and then crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected and processed to a maximum resolution of 2.5 A. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 38.86, b = 91.43, c = 83.57 A, beta = 96.6 degrees . Preliminary diffraction data shows that two molecules are present in the asymmetric unit; this corresponds to a V(M) of 2.4 A(3) Da(-1).
Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 07/2008; 64(Pt 6):541-4. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The crystal structure of high-salt horse methaemoglobin has been determined at environmental relative humidities (r.h.) of 88, 79, 75 and 66%. The molecule is in the R state in the native and the r.h. 88% crystals. At r.h. 79%, the water content of the crystal is reduced and the molecule appears to move towards the R2 state. The crystals undergo a water-mediated transformation involving a doubling of one of the unit-cell parameters and an increase in water content when the environmental humidity is further reduced to r.h. 75%. The water content is now similar to that in the native crystals and the molecules are in the R state. The crystal structure at r.h. 66% is similar, but not identical, to that at r.h. 75%, but the solvent content is substantially reduced and the molecules have a quaternary structure that is in between those corresponding to the R and R2 states. Thus, variation in hydration leads to variation in the quaternary structure. Furthermore, partial dehydration appears to shift the structure from the R state to the R2 state. This observation is in agreement with the earlier conclusion that the changes in protein structure that accompany partial dehydration are similar to those that occur during protein action.
Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 07/2008; 64(Pt 6):463-9. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dimeric lactoglobulin molecules exist in the open conformation at basic pH, whereas they exist in the closed conformation at acidic pH, after undergoing the Tanford transition around neutral pH. Orthorhombic crystals consisting of molecules in the open conformation, grown close to neutral pH, undergo a water-mediated transformation when the relative humidity around the crystals is reduced. The two subunits in the dimer are related by a crystallographic twofold axis in the native crystals while the dimer is asymmetric in the low humidity form. Interestingly, one of the subunits in the dimer in the low humidity form is in an open conformation while the other is in a closed conformation. This is the first observation of such an asymmetric dimer. A hydrogen bond between the side chains of Gln35 and Tyr42 exists and the side chain of Glu89 is substantially buried in the closed subunit of the asymmetric unit, as in other structures with molecules in the closed conformation. However, the closure of the EF loop is not complete; its conformation can be described as half-closed. A comparison of different crystal structures of beta-lactoglobulin indicates that the conformation of the loops in the molecule is substantially influenced by other factors such as crystal packing, the pH, and the composition of the medium, while the change in the conformation of the EF loop follows the Tanford transition. The mutual disposition of the two subunits in the low humidity form is halfway between those in the open and closed structures. The present work further demonstrates that structural changes that occur during partial dehydration could mimic those that occur during the action of proteins.
Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 05/2008; 71(1):241-9. · 3.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis ornithine carbamoyltransferase (Mtb OTC) catalyzes the sixth step in arginine biosynthesis; it produces citrulline from carbamoyl phosphate (CP) and ornithine (ORN). Here, we report the crystal structures of Mtb OTC in orthorhombic (form I) and hexagonal (form II) space groups. The molecules in form II are complexed with CP and l-norvaline (NVA); the latter is a competitive inhibitor of OTC. The asymmetric unit in form I contains a pseudo hexamer with 32 point group symmetry. The CP and NVA in form II induce a remarkable conformational change in the 80s and the 240s loops with the displacement of these loops towards the active site. The displacement of these loops is strikingly different from that seen in other OTC structures. In addition, the ligands induce a domain closure of 4.4 degrees in form II. Sequence comparison of active-site residues of Mtb OTC with several other OTCs of known structure reveals that they are virtually identical. The interactions involving the active-site residues of Mtb OTC with CP and NVA and a modeling study of ORN in the form II structure strongly rule out an earlier proposed mechanistic role of Cys264 in catalysis and suggest a possible mechanism for OTC. Our results strongly support the view that ORN with an already deprotonated N(epsilon) atom is the species that binds to the enzyme and that one of the phosphate oxygen atoms of CP is likely to be involved in accepting a proton from the doubly protonated N(epsilon) atom of ORN. We have interpreted this deprotonation as part of the collapse of the transition state of the reaction.
Journal of Molecular Biology 02/2008; 375(4):1052-63. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) infects one-third of the world population. Despite 50 years of available drug treatments, TB continues to increase at a significant rate. The failure to control TB stems in part from the expense of delivering treatment to infected individuals and from complex treatment regimens. Incomplete treatment has fueled the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Reducing non-compliance by reducing the duration of chemotherapy will have a great impact on TB control. The development of new drugs that either kill persisting organisms, inhibit bacilli from entering the persistent phase, or convert the persistent bacilli into actively growing cells susceptible to our current drugs will have a positive effect. We are taking a multidisciplinary approach that will identify and characterize new drug targets that are essential for persistent Mtb. Targets are exposed to a battery of analyses including microarray experiments, bioinformatics, and genetic techniques to prioritize potential drug targets from Mtb for structural analysis. Our core structural genomics pipeline works with the individual laboratories to produce diffraction quality crystals of targeted proteins, and structural analysis will be completed by the individual laboratories. We also have capabilities for functional analysis and the virtual ligand screening to identify novel inhibitors for target validation. Our overarching goals are to increase the knowledge of Mtb pathogenesis using the TB research community to drive structural genomics, particularly related to persistence, develop a central repository for TB research reagents, and discover chemical inhibitors of drug targets for future development of lead compounds.
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets(Formerly Current Drug Targets - Infectious Disorders) 07/2007; 7(2):127-39.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A variety of G-proteins and GTPases are known to be involved in nucleolar function. We describe here a new evolutionarily conserved putative human GTPase, guanine nucleotide binding protein-like 3-like (GNL3L). Genes encoding proteins related to GNL3L are present in bacteria and yeast to metazoa and suggests its critical role in development. Conserved domain search analysis revealed that the GNL3L contains a circularly permuted G-motif described by a G5-G4-G1-G2-G3 pattern similar to the HSR1/MMR1 GTP-binding protein subfamily. Highly conserved and critical residues were identified from a three-dimensional structural model obtained for GNL3L using the crystal structure of an Ylqf GTPase from Bacillus subtilis. We demonstrate here that GNL3L is transported into the nucleolus by a novel lysine-rich nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) residing within 1-50 amino acid residues. NoLS identified here is necessary and sufficient to target the heterologous proteins to the nucleolus. We show for the first time that the lysine-rich targeting signal interacts with the nuclear transport receptor, importin-beta and transports GNL3L into the nucleolus. Interestingly, depletion of intracellular GTP blocks GNL3L accumulation into the nucleolar compartment. Furthermore, mutations within the G-domains alter the GTP binding ability of GNL3L and abrogate wild-type nucleolar retention even in the presence of functional NoLS, suggesting that the efficient nucleolar retention of GNL3L involves activities of both basic NoLS and GTP-binding domains. Collectively, these data suggest that GNL3L is composed of distinct modules, each of which plays a specific role in molecular interactions for its nucleolar retention and subsequent function(s) within the nucleolus.
Journal of Molecular Biology 01/2007; 364(4):637-54. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new relaxed state has been characterized in the crystals of horse methemoglobin grown at neutral pH at low ionic concentration and their low humidity variants. The crystals provide an example for improvement in X-ray diffraction quality with reduced solvent content. Only the classical R state has been so far observed in liganded horse hemoglobin. The state characterized in the present study lies in between the R state and the R2 state characterized earlier in liganded human hemoglobin. The results presented here, along with those of earlier studies, suggest that relaxed and tense hemoglobin can access ensembles of states.
Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 09/2005; 60(3):547-51. · 3.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica), whose only natural habitat in the world is the Gir forest sanctuary of Gujarat State in India, are highly endangered and are considered to be highly inbred with narrow genetic diversity. An objective assessment of genetic diversity in their immune loci will help in assessing their survivability and may provide vital clues in designing strategies for their scientific management and conservation. We analyzed the comparative sequence polymorphism at exon 2 and exon 3 of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I in three groups of lions, i.e. wild Asiatic (from Gir forest), captive-bred Asiatic (from zoological parks in India), and Afro-Asiatic hybrid groups (from zoological parks in India) through polymorphism chain reaction-assisted sequence-based typing. The two exons were amplified, cloned, sequenced, and analyzed for polymorphism at nucleotide and putative translated product level. The analysis revealed extensive sequence polymorphism not only between clones derived from different lions but also the clones derived from a single lion. Furthermore, the wild Asiatic lions of Gir forest exhibited abundant sequence polymorphism at MHC class I comparable with that of Afro-Asiatic hybrid lions and significantly higher than that of captive-bred Asiatic lions. We hypothesize that Asiatic lions of Gir forest are not highly inbred as thought earlier and they possess abundant sequence polymorphism at MHC class I loci. During this study, 52 new sequences of the multigene MHC class I family were also identified among Asiatic lions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In pursuance of a long-range programme on the hydration, mobility and action of proteins, the structural basis of the stabilizing effect of sugars and polyols is being investigated. With two crystallographically independent molecules with slightly different packing environments in the crystal, monoclinic lysozyme constitutes an ideal system for exploring the problem. The differences in the structure and hydration of the two molecules provide a framework for examining the changes caused by stabilizing additives. Monoclinic crystals were grown under native conditions and also in the presence of 10% sucrose, 15% trehalose, 10% trehalose, 10% sorbitol and 5% glycerol. The crystal structures were refined at resolutions ranging from 1.8 to 2.1 A. The average B values, and hence the mobility of the structure, are lower in the presence of additives than in the native crystals. However, a comparison of the structures indicates that the effect of the additives on the structure and the hydration shell around the protein molecule is considerably less than that caused by differences in packing. It is also less than that caused by the replacement of NaNO(3) by NaCl as the precipitant in the crystallization experiments. This result is not in conformity with the commonly held belief that additives exert their stabilizing effect through the reorganization of the hydration shell, at least as far as the ordered water molecules are concerned.