[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The TB Structural Genomics Consortium is a worldwide organization of collaborators whose mission is the comprehensive structural determination and analyses of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins to ultimately aid in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. Congruent to the overall vision, Consortium members have additionally established an integrated facilities core to streamline M. tuberculosis structural biology and developed bioinformatics resources for data mining. This review aims to share the latest Consortium developments with the TB community, including recent structures of proteins that play significant roles within M. tuberculosis. Atomic resolution details may unravel mechanistic insights and reveal unique and novel protein features, as well as important protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, which ultimately lead to a better understanding of M. tuberculosis biology and may be exploited for rational, structure-based therapeutics design.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis ornithine acetyltransferase (Mtb OAT; E.C. 18.104.22.168) is a key enzyme of the acetyl recycling pathway during arginine biosynthesis. It reversibly catalyzes the transfer of the acetyl group from N-acetylornithine (NAORN) to L-glutamate. Mtb OAT is a member of the N-terminal nucleophile fold family of enzymes. The crystal structures of Mtb OAT in native form and in its complex with ornithine (ORN) have been determined at 1.7 and 2.4 A resolutions, respectively. ORN is a competitive inhibitor of this enzyme against L-glutamate as substrate. Although the acyl-enzyme complex of Streptomyces clavuligerus ornithine acetyltransferase has been determined, ours is the first crystal structure to be reported of an ornithine acetyltransferase in complex with an inhibitor. ORN binding does not alter the structure of Mtb OAT globally. However, its presence stabilizes the three C-terminal residues that are disordered and not observed in the native structure. Also, stabilization of the C-terminal residues by ORN reduces the size of the active-site pocket volume in the structure of the ORN complex. The interactions of ORN and the protein residues of Mtb OAT unambiguously delineate the active-site residues of this enzyme in Mtb. Moreover, modeling studies carried out with NAORN based on the structure of the ORN-Mtb OAT complex reveal important interactions of the carbonyl oxygen of the acetyl group of NAORN with the main-chain nitrogen atom of Gly128 and with the side-chain oxygen of Thr127. These interactions likely help in the stabilization of oxyanion formation during enzymatic reaction and also will polarize the carbonyl carbon-oxygen bond, thereby enabling the side-chain atom O(gamma 1) of Thr200 to launch a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl-carbon atom of the acetyl group of NAORN.
Journal of Molecular Biology 02/2010; 397(4):979-90. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gene product of open reading frame Rv1653 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is annotated as encoding a probable ornithine acetyltransferase (OATase; EC 22.214.171.124), an enzyme that catalyzes two steps in the arginine-biosynthesis pathway. It transfers an acetyl group from N-acetylornithine to L-glutamate to produce N-acetylglutamate and L-ornithine. Rv1653 was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The native crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.7 A and belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 60.1, b = 99.7, c = 155.3 A. The preliminary X-ray study showed the presence of a dimer in the asymmetric unit of the crystals, which had a Matthews coefficient V(M) of 2.8 A(3) Da(-1).
Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 03/2009; 65(Pt 2):173-6. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gene product of open reading frame Rv3117 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain H37Rv is annotated as encoding a probable rhodanese-like thiosulfate sulfurtransferase (MtbCysA3). MtbCysA3 was expressed and purified and then crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. X-ray diffraction data were collected and processed to a maximum resolution of 2.5 A. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 38.86, b = 91.43, c = 83.57 A, beta = 96.6 degrees . Preliminary diffraction data shows that two molecules are present in the asymmetric unit; this corresponds to a V(M) of 2.4 A(3) Da(-1).
Acta Crystallographica Section F Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications 07/2008; 64(Pt 6):541-4. · 0.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium tuberculosis ornithine carbamoyltransferase (Mtb OTC) catalyzes the sixth step in arginine biosynthesis; it produces citrulline from carbamoyl phosphate (CP) and ornithine (ORN). Here, we report the crystal structures of Mtb OTC in orthorhombic (form I) and hexagonal (form II) space groups. The molecules in form II are complexed with CP and l-norvaline (NVA); the latter is a competitive inhibitor of OTC. The asymmetric unit in form I contains a pseudo hexamer with 32 point group symmetry. The CP and NVA in form II induce a remarkable conformational change in the 80s and the 240s loops with the displacement of these loops towards the active site. The displacement of these loops is strikingly different from that seen in other OTC structures. In addition, the ligands induce a domain closure of 4.4 degrees in form II. Sequence comparison of active-site residues of Mtb OTC with several other OTCs of known structure reveals that they are virtually identical. The interactions involving the active-site residues of Mtb OTC with CP and NVA and a modeling study of ORN in the form II structure strongly rule out an earlier proposed mechanistic role of Cys264 in catalysis and suggest a possible mechanism for OTC. Our results strongly support the view that ORN with an already deprotonated N(epsilon) atom is the species that binds to the enzyme and that one of the phosphate oxygen atoms of CP is likely to be involved in accepting a proton from the doubly protonated N(epsilon) atom of ORN. We have interpreted this deprotonation as part of the collapse of the transition state of the reaction.
Journal of Molecular Biology 02/2008; 375(4):1052-63. · 3.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) infects one-third of the world population. Despite 50 years of available drug treatments, TB continues to increase at a significant rate. The failure to control TB stems in part from the expense of delivering treatment to infected individuals and from complex treatment regimens. Incomplete treatment has fueled the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Reducing non-compliance by reducing the duration of chemotherapy will have a great impact on TB control. The development of new drugs that either kill persisting organisms, inhibit bacilli from entering the persistent phase, or convert the persistent bacilli into actively growing cells susceptible to our current drugs will have a positive effect. We are taking a multidisciplinary approach that will identify and characterize new drug targets that are essential for persistent Mtb. Targets are exposed to a battery of analyses including microarray experiments, bioinformatics, and genetic techniques to prioritize potential drug targets from Mtb for structural analysis. Our core structural genomics pipeline works with the individual laboratories to produce diffraction quality crystals of targeted proteins, and structural analysis will be completed by the individual laboratories. We also have capabilities for functional analysis and the virtual ligand screening to identify novel inhibitors for target validation. Our overarching goals are to increase the knowledge of Mtb pathogenesis using the TB research community to drive structural genomics, particularly related to persistence, develop a central repository for TB research reagents, and discover chemical inhibitors of drug targets for future development of lead compounds.
Infectious Disorders - Drug Targets(Formerly Current Drug Targets - Infectious Disorders) 07/2007; 7(2):127-39.