[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transposition of the great arteries with intra-atrial baffle repair is among the congenital heart defects at highest risk of sudden death. Little is known about mechanisms of sudden death and the role of implantable cardioverter defibrillators.
We conducted a multicenter cohort study in patients with transposition of the great arteries to determine actuarial rates of implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks, identify risk factors, assess underlying arrhythmias, and characterize complications. Overall, 37 patients (age, 28.0+/-7.6 years; 89.2% male) were enrolled from 7 sites. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators were implanted for primary prevention in 23 (62.1%) patients and secondary prevention in 14 patients (37.8%). Annual rates of appropriate shocks were 0.5% and 6.0% in primary and secondary prevention, respectively (P=0.0366). Independent predictors were a secondary prevention indication (hazard ratio, 18.0; P=0.0341) and lack of beta-blockers (hazard ratio, 16.7; P=0.0301). In patients with appropriate shocks, intracardiac electrograms documented supraventricular tachycardia preceding or coexisting with ventricular tachycardia in 50%. No patient with inducible ventricular tachycardia received an appropriate shock in comparison with 37.5% of noninducible patients (P=0.0429). Inappropriate shocks occurred in 6.6% per year, more so in patients of lesser weight (hazard ratio, 0.91 per kg; P=0.0168). Additionally, 14 patients (37.8%) experienced complications: 5 (13.5%) acute, 1 (2.7%) late generator related, and 12 (32.4%) late lead related.
In patients with transposition of the great arteries, high rates of appropriate shocks are noted in secondary but not primary prevention. Supraventricular arrhythmias may be implicated in the etiology of ventricular tachyarrhythmias; beta-blockers seem protective, and inducible ventricular tachycardia does not seem to predict future events. Inappropriate shocks and late lead-related complications are common.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tetralogy of Fallot is the most common form of congenital heart disease in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) recipients, yet little is known about the value of ICDs in this patient population.
We conducted a multicenter cohort study in high-risk patients with Tetralogy of Fallot to determine actuarial rates of ICD discharges, identify risk factors, and characterize ICD-related complications. A total of 121 patients (median age 33.3 years; 59.5% male) were enrolled from 11 sites and followed up for a median of 3.7 years. ICDs were implanted for primary prevention in 68 patients (56.2%) and for secondary prevention in 53 (43.8%), defined by clinical sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia or resuscitated sudden death. Overall, 37 patients (30.6%) received at least 1 appropriate and effective ICD discharge, with a median ventricular tachyarrhythmia rate of 213 bpm. Annual actuarial rates of appropriate ICD shocks were 7.7% and 9.8% in primary and secondary prevention, respectively (P=0.11). A higher left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (hazard ratio 1.3 per mm Hg, P=0.004) and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (hazard ratio 3.7, P=0.023) independently predicted appropriate ICD shocks in primary prevention. Inappropriate shocks occurred in 5.8% of patients yearly. Additionally, 36 patients (29.8%) experienced complications, of which 6 (5.0%) were acute, 25 (20.7%) were late lead-related, and 7 (5.8%) were late generator-related complications. Nine patients died during follow-up, which corresponds to an actuarial annual mortality rate of 2.2%, which did not differ between the primary and secondary prevention groups.
Patients with tetralogy of Fallot and ICDs for primary and secondary prevention experience high rates of appropriate and effective shocks; however, inappropriate shocks and late lead-related complications are common.