Steven H Lin

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (27)95.36 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The optimal radiation dose for treating esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has long been debated. We evaluated if doses greater than 50.4 Gy delivered with modern techniques are beneficial in terms of tumor control, survival, and toxicity.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 09/2014; 9(9):1398-1405. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Traditional clonogenic survival and high throughput colorimetric assays are inadequate as drug screens to identify novel radiation sensitizers. We developed a method that we call the high content clonogenic survival assay (HCSA) that will allow screening of drug libraries to identify candidate radiation sensitizers.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 06/2014; · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We reviewed survival outcomes and factors associated with improved outcomes for patients with stage IVB esophageal cancer who received multimodality therapy with initial chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation (CRT)±surgery. We retrospectively identified 96 patients with stage IVB esophageal carcinoma (with positive nonregional lymph nodes and/or distant organ metastasis) treated at a single institution with chemotherapy followed by concurrent CRT, with or without surgery. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to test associations between overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional relapse, distant metastasis-free survival, and potential predictive factors. Median patient age at diagnosis was 59 years. The median OS time among all patients was 21.0 months, and 1-, 2-, and 5-year OS rates were 84.4%, 46.8%, and 17.9%, respectively; corresponding DFS time and rates were 8.1 months and 37%, 24.6%, and 24.6%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, factors that predicted improved OS with aggressive multimodal therapy included young age; lack of anorexia, fatigue at diagnosis; distant nodal metastasis without organ metastasis at diagnosis; and radiographic response to initial chemotherapy. A subset of 14 patients who had surgery after chemotherapy and concurrent CRT also had better median OS (not reached vs. 20 mo for 82 patients who did not receive surgery, P=0.001), DFS (14.6 vs. 5.9 mo, P=0.021), and distant metastasis-free survival (26.7 vs. 9.2 mo, P=0.042). Aggressive local therapy with radiation and potentially surgery after initial palliative chemotherapy can improve prognosis for a select group of patients with stage IVB esophageal cancer.
    American journal of clinical oncology 04/2014; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Postoperative morbidities, such as anastomotic leaks, are common after trimodality therapy (chemoradiation followed by surgery) for esophageal cancer. We investigated for factors associated with an increased incidence of anastomotic leaks. Data from 285 esophageal cancer patients treated from 2000 to 2011 with trimodality therapy were analyzed. Anastomotic location relative to preoperative radiation field was assessed using postoperative computed tomographic imaging. Logistic regression was used to evaluate for factors associated with any or clinically relevant (CR) (≥ grade 2) leaks. Overall anastomotic leak rate was 11% (31 of 285), and CR leak rate was 6% (17 of 285). Multivariable analysis identified body mass index (odds ratio [OR], 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.17; OR, 1.11, 95% CI, 1.01-1.22), three-field surgery (OR, 10.01; 95% CI, 3.83-26.21; OR, 4.83; 95% CI, 1.39-16.71), and within radiation field ("in-field") anastomosis (OR, 5.37; 95% CI, 2.21-13.04; OR, 8.63; 95% CI, 2.90-25.65) as independent predictors of both all grade and CR leaks, respectively. While patients with distal esophageal tumors and Ivor-Lewis surgery had the lowest incidence of all grade (6.5%) and CR leaks (4.2%), most of the leaks were associated with the anastomosis constructed within the field of radiation (in-field: 39% and 30% versus out-of-field: 2.6% and 1.0%, respectively, for total and CR leaks, p less than 0.0001, Fisher's exact test). Esophagogastric anastomosis placed within the preoperative radiation field was a very strong predictor for anastomotic leaks in esophageal cancer patients treated with trimodality therapy, among other factors. Surgical planning should include a critical evaluation of the preoperative radiation fields to ensure proper anastomotic placement after chemoradiation therapy.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 04/2014; 9(4):534-40. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The purpose of this study was to examine the significance of signet ring cell histology to predict response to preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma. Methods Two groups of patients with locoregional esophageal adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation and surgery were studied: those with signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (n = 85) and a reference group (n = 638) with usual and other types of adenocarcinoma. Surgical specimens were reviewed for degree of pathologic response and pathologic stage. Cox regression models were used to assess the effects of clinicopathologic variables on survival. Results Tumors from patients in the signet ring cell group had a lower rate of complete pathologic response (9% versus 26%, p < 0.001) and more frequent positive margins (24% versus 10%, p < 0.001) compared with tumors from the reference group. Median overall survival (22 versus 48 months, p = 0.003) and disease-free survival (16 versus 35 months, p = 0.007) were shorter in the signet ring cell group than in the reference group. Signet ring cell histology and high pathologic stage were significant predictors of decreased overall survival and disease-free survival. Survival durations for patients whose resected specimens showed downstaging after neoadjuvant chemoradiation did not significantly differ from survival durations of patients whose specimens did not show downstaging in the signet ring cell group, unlike the reference group. Conclusions Signet ring cell histology on pretreatment biopsy predicts a decreased likelihood of complete pathologic response and survival for patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma treated with preoperative chemoradiation and surgery.
    The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an important role in non-small-cell lung cancer recurrence and metastasis. We sought to determine whether CSC-like cells respond differentially to proton and photon beam therapies. CSC-enriched cells from paclitaxel-resistant human H460 and A549 cell lines were irradiated with the same relative biological effectiveness dose and analyzed for cell viability, clonogenic survival, apoptosis, cell migration, cell invasiveness, tumor sphere formation, and CSC markers. The intracellular concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured before and after irradiation. Compared with photons, protons caused significantly lower cell viability in chemoresistant cells and, in CSC-like cells, significantly lower clonogenic survival, invasiveness, and number of tumor spheres; less migration and CSC markers (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor, β-catenin, and side population cells); more apoptosis; and higher ROS level. CSC-like cells contained less than half the ROS levels of parental cancer cells or normal human bronchial epithelial cells. CSC-like cells may be more sensitive to irradiation with protons than photons. The increased sensitivity could be caused by the greater ROS generated by protons. Because chemoresistant CSCs play an important role in tumor recurrence, protons may be more effective than photons in eliminating recurrent or persistent non-small-cell lung cancer.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 12/2013; 8(12):1484-91. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While trimodality therapy for esophageal cancer has improved patient outcomes, surgical complication rates remain high. The goal of this study was to identify modifiable factors associated with postoperative complications after neoadjuvant chemoradiation. From 1998 to 2011, 444 patients were treated at our institution with surgical resection after chemoradiation. Postoperative (pulmonary, gastrointestinal [GI], cardiac, wound healing) complications were recorded up to 30 days postoperatively. Kruskal-Wallis tests and χ(2) or Fisher exact tests were used to assess associations between continuous and categorical variables. Multivariate logistic regression tested the association between perioperative complications and patient or treatment factors that were significant on univariate analysis. The most frequent postoperative complications after trimodality therapy were pulmonary (25%) and GI (23%). Lung capacity and the type of radiation modality used were independent predictors of pulmonary and GI complications. After adjusting for confounding factors, pulmonary and GI complications were increased in patients treated with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT; odds ratio [OR], 2.018; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.104-3.688; OR, 1.704; 95% CI, 1.03-2.82, respectively) and for patients treated with 3D-CRT versus proton beam therapy (PBT; OR, 3.154; 95% CI, 1.365-7.289; OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 0.78-3.08, respectively). Mean lung radiation dose (MLD) was strongly associated with pulmonary complications, and the differences in toxicities seen for the radiation modalities could be fully accounted for by the MLD delivered by each of the modalities. The radiation modality used can be a strong mitigating factor of postoperative complications after neoadjuvant chemoradiation.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 08/2013; 86(5):885-891. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Many patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cannot undergo concurrent chemotherapy because of comorbidities or poor performance status. Hypofractionated radiation regimens, if tolerable, may provide an option to these patients for effective local control. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty-five patients were enrolled in a phase 1 dose-escalation trial of proton beam therapy (PBT) from September 2010 through July 2012. Eligible patients had histologically documented lung cancer, thymic tumors, carcinoid tumors, or metastatic thyroid tumors. Concurrent chemotherapy was not allowed, but concurrent treatment with biologic agents was. The dose-escalation schema comprised 15 fractions of 3 Gy(relative biological effectiveness [RBE])/fraction, 3.5 Gy(RBE)/fraction, or 4 Gy(RBE)/fraction. Dose constraints were derived from biologically equivalent doses of standard fractionated treatment. RESULTS: The median follow-up time for patients alive at the time of analysis was 13 months (range, 8-28 months). Fifteen patients received treatment to hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes. Two patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity possibly related to treatment; 1 received 3.5-Gy(RBE) fractions and experienced an in-field tracheoesophageal fistula 9 months after PBT and 1 month after bevacizumab. The other patient received 4-Gy(RBE) fractions and was hospitalized for bacterial pneumonia/radiation pneumonitis 4 months after PBT. CONCLUSION: Hypofractionated PBT to the thorax delivered over 3 weeks was well tolerated even with significant doses to the lungs and mediastinal structures. Phase 2/3 trials are needed to compare the efficacy of this technique with standard treatment for locally advanced NSCLC.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 05/2013; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The first annual workshop for preclinical and clinical development of radiosensitizers took place at the National Cancer Institute on August 8-9, 2012. Radiotherapy is one of the most commonly applied and effective oncologic treatments for solid tumors. It is well recognized that improved clinical efficacy of radiotherapy would make a substantive impact in clinical practice and patient outcomes. Advances in genomic technologies and high-throughput drug discovery platforms have brought a revolution in cancer treatment by providing molecularly targeted agents for various cancers. Development of predictive biomarkers directed toward specific subsets of cancers has ushered in a new era of personalized therapeutics. The field of radiation oncology stands to gain substantial benefit from these advances given the concerted effort to integrate this progress into radiation therapy. This workshop brought together expert clinicians and scientists working in various disease sites to identify the exciting opportunities and expected challenges in the development of molecularly targeted agents in combination with radiation therapy.
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 03/2013; · 14.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Pathologic downstaging following chemotherapy for stage III-N2 NSCLC is a well-known positive prognostic indicator. However, the predictive factors for locoregional recurrence (LRR) in these patients are largely unknown. METHODS: Between 1998 and 2008, 153 patients with clinically or pathologically staged III-N2 NSCLC from two cancer centers in the United States were treated with induction chemotherapy and surgery. All had pathologic N0-1 disease, and none received postoperative radiotherapy. LRR were defined as recurrence at the surgical site, lymph nodes (levels 1-14 including supraclavicular), or both. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 39.3 months. Pretreatment N2 status was confirmed pathologically (18.2 %) or by PET/CT (81.8 %). Overall, the 5-year LRR rate was 30.8 % (n = 38), with LRR being the first site of failure in 51 % (22/+99877943). Five-year overall survival for patients with LRR compared with those without was 21 versus 60.1 % (p < 0.001). Using multivariate analysis, significant predictors for LRR were pN1 disease at time of surgery (p < 0.001, HR 3.43, 95 % CI 1.80-6.56) and a trend for squamous histology (p = 0.072, HR 1.93, 95 % CI 0.94-3.98). Five-year LRR rate for pN1 versus pN0 disease was 62 versus 20 %. Neither single versus multistation N2 disease (p = 0.291) nor initial staging technique (p = 0.306) were predictors for LRR. N1 status also was predictive for higher distant recurrence (p = 0.021, HR 1.91, 95 % CI 1.1-3.3) but only trended for poorer survival (p = 0.123, HR 1.48, 95 % CI 0.9-2.44). CONCLUSIONS: LRR remains high in resected stage III-N2 NSCLC patients after induction chemotherapy and nodal downstaging, particularly in patients with persistent N1 disease.
    Annals of Surgical Oncology 12/2012; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. We investigated the radiographic and pathologic response rate of esophageal adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation in patients taking metformin. Material and methods. Two hundred eighty-five patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) followed by esophagectomy from 1997 to 2012 were included in the study, including 29 diabetics taking metformin, 21 diabetics not taking metformin and 235 non-diabetics. Pre- and post-treatment positron emission tomography (PET) scans were available for 204 patients. Pathologic response was graded at the time of surgery. Response rates were compared using both the χ(2) statistic as well as ANOVA with post-hoc LSD analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to control for predictors of pathologic complete response (CR) after CRT. Results. The overall rate of pathologic CR for the study population was 20%. The pathologic CR rate was higher in patients taking metformin (34.5%), compared to diabetic patients not taking metformin (4.8%, p = 0.01) and non-diabetic patients (19.6%, p = 0.05). Pathologic CR was related to metformin dose, with ≥1500 mg/d associated with a higher CR rate. No significant difference seen in pre-CRT maximum tumor SUV (p = 0.93), however post-CRT maximum SUV was significantly decreased in patients taking metformin (p = 0.05). On multivariate logistic regression, metformin use was independently associated with pathologic CR (p = 0.04). Metformin use was also associated with decreased in field loco-regional failure following radiation (p = 0.05). Conclusion. Metformin use is associated with a dose-dependent increased response to CRT in esophageal cancer and may be a sensitizer to this therapy.
    Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden) 09/2012; · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: For patients with localized esophageal cancer (EC) who can withstand surgery, the preferred therapy is chemoradiation followed by surgery (trimodality). However, after achieving a clinical complete response [clinCR; defined as both post-chemoradiation endoscopic biopsy showing no cancer and physiologic uptake by positron emission tomography (PET)], some patients decline surgery. The literature on the outcome of such patients is sparse. Method: Between 2002 and 2011, we identified 622 trimodality-eligible EC patients in our prospectively maintained databases. All patients had to be trimodality eligible and must have completed preoperative staging after chemoradiation that included repeat endoscopic biopsy and PET among other routine tests. Results: Out of 622 trimodality-eligible patients identified, 61 patients (9.8%) declined surgery. All 61 patients had a clinCR. The median age was 69 years (range 47-85). Males (85.2%) and Caucasians (88.5%) were dominant. Baseline stage was II (44.2%) or III (52.5%), and histology was adenocarcinoma (65.6%) or squamous cell carcinoma (29.5%). Forty-two patients are alive at a median follow-up of 50.9 months (95% CI 39.5-62.3). The 5-year overall and relapse-free survival rates were 58.1 ± 8.4 and 35.3 ± 7.6%, respectively. Of 13 patients with local recurrence during surveillance, 12 had successful salvage resection. Conclusion: Although the outcome of 61 EC patients with clinCR who declined surgery appears reasonable, in the absence of a validated prediction/prognosis model, surgery must be encouraged for all trimodality-eligible patients.
    Oncology 09/2012; 83(5):300-304. · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Although 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) is the worldwide standard for the treatment of esophageal cancer, intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) improves dose conformality and reduces the radiation exposure to normal tissues. We hypothesized that the dosimetric advantages of IMRT should translate to substantive benefits in clinical outcomes compared with 3D-CRT. METHODS AND MATERIALS: An analysis was performed of 676 nonrandomized patients (3D-CRT, n=413; IMRT, n=263) with stage Ib-IVa (American Joint Committee on Cancer 2002) esophageal cancers treated with chemoradiotherapy at a single institution from 1998-2008. An inverse probability of treatment weighting and inclusion of propensity score (treatment probability) as a covariate were used to compare overall survival time, interval to local failure, and interval to distant metastasis, while accounting for the effects of other clinically relevant covariates. The propensity scores were estimated using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: A fitted multivariate inverse probability weighted-adjusted Cox model showed that the overall survival time was significantly associated with several well-known prognostic factors, along with the treatment modality (IMRT vs 3D-CRT, hazard ratio 0.72, P<.001). Compared with IMRT, 3D-CRT patients had a significantly greater risk of dying (72.6% vs 52.9%, inverse probability of treatment weighting, log-rank test, P<.0001) and of locoregional recurrence (P=.0038). No difference was seen in cancer-specific mortality (Gray's test, P=.86) or distant metastasis (P=.99) between the 2 groups. An increased cumulative incidence of cardiac death was seen in the 3D-CRT group (P=.049), but most deaths were undocumented (5-year estimate, 11.7% in 3D-CRT vs 5.4% in IMRT group, Gray's test, P=.0029). CONCLUSIONS: Overall survival, locoregional control, and noncancer-related death were significantly better after IMRT than after 3D-CRT. Although these results need confirmation, IMRT should be considered for the treatment of esophageal cancer.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 08/2012; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The presence of malignant lymph nodes (+ypNodes) in the surgical specimen after preoperative chemoradiation (trimodality) in patients with oesophageal cancer (EC) portends a poor prognosis for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Currently, none of the clinical variables highly correlates with +ypNodes. We hypothesised that a combination of clinical variables could generate a model that associates with high likelihood of +ypNodes after trimodality in EC patients. METHODS: We report on 293 consecutive EC patients who received trimodality therapy. A multivariate logistic regression analysis that included pretreatment and post-chemoradiation variables identified independent variables that were used to construct a nomogram for +ypNodes after trimodality in EC patients. RESULTS: Of 293 patients, 91 (31.1%) had +ypNodes. OS (p=0.0002) and DFS (p<0.0001) were shorter in patients with +ypNodes compared to those with -ypNodes. In multivariable analysis, the significant variables for +ypNodes were: baseline T-stage (odds ratio [OR], 7.145; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.381-36.969; p=0.019), baseline N-stage (OR, 2.246; 95% CI, 1.024-4.926; p=0.044), tumour length (OR, 1.178; 95% CI, 1.024-1.357; p=0.022), induction chemotherapy (OR, 0.471; 95% CI, 0.242-0.915; p=0.026), nodal uptake on post-chemoradiation positron emission tomography (OR, 2.923; 95% CI, 1.007-8.485; p=0.049) and enlarged node(s) on post-chemoradiation computerised tomography (OR, 3.465; 95% CI, 1.549-7.753; p=0.002). The nomogram after internal validation using the bootstrap method (200 runs) yielded a high concordance index of 0.756. CONCLUSION: Our nomogram highly correlates with the presence of +ypNodes after chemoradiation, however, considerably more refinement is needed before it can be implemented in the clinic.
    European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 07/2012; · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Persistent pathologic mediastinal nodal involvement after induction chemotherapy and surgical resection is a negative prognostic factor for stage III-N2 non-small cell lung cancer patients. This population has high rates of local-regional failure and distant failure, yet the effectiveness of additional therapies is not clear. We assessed the role of consolidative therapies (postoperative radiation therapy and chemotherapy) for such patients. In all, 179 patients with stage III-N2 non-small cell lung cancer at MD Anderson Cancer Center were treated with induction chemotherapy followed by surgery from 1998 through 2008; 61 patients in this cohort had persistent, pathologically confirmed, mediastinal nodal disease, and were treated with postoperative radiation therapy. Local-regional failure was defined as recurrence at the surgical site or lymph nodes (levels 1 to 14, including supraclavicular), or both. Overall survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and survival outcomes were assessed by log rank tests. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify factors influencing local-regional failure, distant failure, and overall survival. All patients received postoperative radiation therapy after surgery, but approximately 25% of the patients also received additional chemotherapy: 9 (15%) with concurrent chemotherapy, 4 (7%) received adjuvant sequential chemotherapy, and 2 (3%) received both. Multivariate analysis indicated that additional postoperative chemotherapy significantly reduced distant failure (hazard ratio 0.183, 95% confidence interval: 0.052 to 0.649, p=0.009) and improved overall survival (hazard ratio 0.233, 95% confidence interval: 0.089 to 0.612, p=0.003). However, additional postoperative chemotherapy had no affect on local-regional failure. Aggressive consolidative therapies may improve outcomes for patients with persistent N2 disease after induction chemotherapy and surgery.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 07/2012; 94(3):914-20. · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the increasing use of conformal radiation therapy methods for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), it is necessary to accurately determine respiratory-induced tumor motion. The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the motion characteristics of early and locally advanced stage NSCLC tumors in a large population and correlate tumor motion with position, volume, and diaphragm motion. A total of 191 (94 early stage, 97 locally advanced) non-small cell lung tumors were analyzed for this study. Each patient received a four-dimensional CT scan prior to receiving radiation treatment. A soft-tissue-based rigid registration algorithm was used to track the tumor motion. Tumor volumes were determined based on the gross tumor volume delineated by physicians in the end of expiration phase. Tumor motion characteristics were correlated with their standardized tumor locations, lobe location, and clinical staging. Diaphragm motion was calculated by subtracting the diaphragm location between the expiration and the inspiration phases. Median, max, and 95th percentile of tumor motion for early stage tumors were 5.9 mm, 31.0 mm, and 20.0 mm, which were 1.2 mm, 12 mm, and 7 mm more than those in locally advanced NSCLC, respectively. The range of motion at 95th percentile is more than 50% larger in early stage lung cancer group than in the locally advanced lung cancer group. Early stage tumors in the lower lobe showed the largest motion with a median motion of 9.2mm, while upper/mid-lobe tumors exhibited a median motion of 3.3mm. Tumor volumes were not correlated with motion. The range of tumor motion differs depending on tumor location and staging of NSCLC. Early stage tumors are more mobile than locally advanced stage NSCLC. These factors should be considered for general motion management strategies when 4D simulation is not performed on individual basis.
    Radiotherapy and Oncology 06/2012; 104(1):33-8. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated prognostic factors associated with survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and oligometastatic disease at diagnosis, particularly the influence of local treatment to the primary site on prognosis. From January 2000 through June 2011, 78 consecutive patients with oligometastatic NSCLC (<5 metastases) at diagnosis underwent definitive chemoradiation therapy (≥45 Gy) to the primary site. Forty-four of these patients also received definitive local treatment for the oligometastases. Survival outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and risk factors were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Univariate Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed better overall survival (OS) for those patients who received at least 63 Gy of radiation to the primary site (P=.002), received definitive local treatment for oligometastasis (P=.041), had a Karnofsky performance status (KPS) score >80 (P=.007), had a gross tumor volume ≤124 cm³ (P=.002), had adenocarcinoma histology (P=.002), or had no history of respiratory disease (P=.016). On multivariate analysis, radiation dose, performance status, and tumor volume retained significance (P=.004, P=.006, and P<.001, respectively). The radiation dose also maintained significance when patients with and without brain metastases were analyzed separately. Tumor volume, KPS, and receipt of at least 63 Gy to the primary tumor are associated with improved OS in patients with oligometastatic NSCLC at diagnosis. Our results suggest that a subset of such patients may benefit from definitive local therapy.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 04/2012; 84(1):e61-7. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Accounting for interfractional changes in tumor location improves the accuracy of radiation treatment delivery. The purpose of this study was to quantify the interfractional displacement of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) based on standard treatment setup in patients with esophageal cancer undergoing radiation therapy. Free-breathing four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) datasets were acquired weekly from 22 patients during treatment for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Scans were registered to baseline (simulation) 4D-CT scans by using bony landmarks. The distance between the center of the GEJ contour on the simulation scan and the mean location of GEJ centers on subsequent scans was used to assess changes in GEJ location between fractions; displacement was also correlated with clinical and respiratory variables. The mean absolute random error was 1.69 mm (range, 0.11-4.11 mm) in the lateral direction, 1.87 mm (range, 0.51-4.09 mm) in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction, and 3.09 mm (range, 0.99-6.16 mm) in the superior-inferior (SI) direction. The mean absolute systemic GEJ displacement between fractions was 2.88 mm lateral (≥ 5 mm in 14%), mostly leftward; 2.90 mm (≥ 5 mm in 14%) AP, mostly anterior; and 6.77 mm (≥ 1 cm in 18%) SI, mostly inferior. Variations in tidal volume and diaphragmatic excursion during treatment correlated strongly with systematic SI GEJ displacement (r = 0.964, p < 0.0001; and r = 0.944, p < 0.0001, respectively) and moderately with systematic AP GEJ displacement (r = 0.678, p = 0.0005; r = 0.758, p < 0.0001, respectively). Systematic displacement in the inferior direction resulted in higher-than-intended doses (≥ 60 Gy) to the GEJ, with increased hot-spot to the adjacent stomach and lung base. We found large (>1-cm) interfractional displacements in the GEJ in the SI (especially inferior) direction that was not accounted for when skeletal alignment alone was used for patient positioning. Because systematic displacement in the SI direction had dosimetric impact and correlated with tidal volume, better accounting for depth of breathing is needed to reduce interfractional variability.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 03/2012; 83(2):e273-80. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While conventionally fractionated radiation therapy alone is an acceptable option for poor prognostic patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC, we hypothesized that accelerated hypofractionated radiotherapy will have similar efficacy without increasing toxicity. This is a retrospective analysis of 300 patients diagnosed with stage III NSCLC treated between 1993 and 2009. Patients included in the study were medically or surgically inoperable, were free of metastatic disease at initial workup and did not receive concurrent chemotherapy. Patients were categorized into three groups. Group 1 received 45 Gy in 15 fractions over 3 weeks (Accelerated Radiotherapy (ACRT)) while group 2 received 60-63 Gy (Standard Radiation Therapy 1 (STRT1)) and group 3 received > 63 Gy (Standard Radiation Therapy (STRT2)). There were 119 (39.7%) patients in the ACRT group, 90 (30.0%) in STRT1 and 91 (30.3%) in STRT2. More patients in the ACRT group had KPS ≤ 60 (p < 0.001), more commonly presented with weight loss > 5% (p = 0.002), and had stage 3B disease (p < 0.001). After adjusting for clinical variables, there were no differences in the radiation groups in terms of the patterns of local or distant tumor control or overall survival. Some benefit in relapse free survival was seen in the STRT1 group as compared to ACRT (HR = 0.65, p = 0.011). Acute toxicity profiles in the ACRT were significantly lower for grade ≥ 2 radiation dermatitis (p = 0.002), nausea/vomiting (p = 0.022), and weight loss during treatment (p = 0.020). Despite the limitations of a retrospective analysis, our experience of accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy with 45 Gy in 15 fractions appears to be an acceptable treatment option for poor performance status patients with stage III inoperable tumors. Such a treatment regimen (or higher doses in 15 fractions) should be prospectively evaluated using modern radiation technologies with the addition of sequential high dose chemotherapy in stage III NSCLC.
    Radiation Oncology 03/2012; 7:33. · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a promising modality for the management of thoracic malignancies. We report our preliminary experience of treating esophageal cancer patients with concurrent chemotherapy (CChT) and PBT (CChT/PBT) at MD Anderson Cancer Center. This is an analysis of 62 esophageal cancer patients enrolled on a prospective study evaluating normal tissue toxicity from CChT/PBT from 2006 to 2010. Patients were treated with passive scattering PBT with two- or three-field beam arrangement using 180 to 250 MV protons. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to assess time-to-event outcomes and compared the distributions between groups using the log-rank test. The median follow-up time was 20.1 months for survivors. The median age was 68 years (range, 38-86). Most patients were males (82%) who had adenocarcinomas (76%) and Stage II-III disease (84%). The median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy (RBE [relative biologic equivalence]) (range, 36-57.6). The most common grade 2 to 3 acute toxicities from CChT/PBT were esophagitis (46.8%), fatigue (43.6%), nausea (33.9%), anorexia (30.1%), and radiation dermatitis (16.1%). There were two cases of grade 2 and 3 radiation pneumonitis and two cases of grade 5 toxicities. A total of 29 patients (46.8%) received preoperative CChT/PBT, with one postoperative death. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate for the surgical cohort was 28%, and the pCR and near CR rates (0%-1% residual cells) were 50%. While there were significantly fewer local-regional recurrences in the preoperative group (3/29) than in the definitive CChT/PBT group (16/33) (log-rank test, p = 0.005), there were no differences in distant metastatic (DM)-free interval or overall survival (OS) between the two groups. This is the first report of patients treated with PBT/CChT for esophageal cancer. Our data suggest that this modality is associated with a few severe toxicities, but the pathologic response and clinical outcomes are encouraging. Prospective comparison with more traditional approach is warranted.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 03/2012; 83(3):e345-51. · 4.59 Impact Factor