[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A hydrophilic ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide (EMIDCA), was used as a medium for the synthesis of highly luminescent CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) capped with thioglycolic acid (TGA). The synthesis was performed for 8h at 130°C, was similar to nanocrystal preparation in an aqueous medium, and used safe, low-cost inorganic salts as precursors. After the reaction, the photoluminescence quantum yield of the CdTe NCs (NC(IL-130)) prepared in EMIDCA was significantly higher than that of the nanocrystals prepared in water (NC(w)) at 100°C (86% vs. 35%). Moreover, the emission wavelength and particle size of NC(IL-130) were smaller than NC(w) (450nm vs. 540nm and 4.0nm vs. 5.2nm, respectively). The activation of NC(IL-130) was successful due to the coordinated action of two ligands, EMIDCA and TGA, in the primary steps of the NC formation pathway. An increase or decrease in the synthesis temperature, to 160°C or 100°C, respectively, was detrimental to the luminescence quality. However, the quenching effect of Hg(2+) on the fluorescence signals of the NC(IL-130) was distinctively unique, whereas certain interfering ions, such as Pb(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Ag(+), and Cu(2+), could also quench the emission of the NC(w). Based on the Perrin model, the quenching signals of NC(w) and NC(IL-130) were well correlated with the Hg(2+) concentrations in the phosphate buffer (pH 7.5, 50mM). In comparison with the NC(w), the NC(IL-130) had a high tolerance of the interfering ions coexisting with the Hg(2+) analyte, high recovery of Hg(2+) spiked in the BSA- or FBS-containing medium, and high stability of fluorescence quenching signals between trials and days. The NC(IL-130) nanocrystals can potentially be used to develop a probe system for the determination of Hg(2+) in physiological samples.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is an endocrine disrupting chemical that is widely used as the major plasticizer for worldwide plastic products. It can cause several toxic effects to human with high dose exposure. In response to the need of human exposure assessment, different biological specimens are taken into account. Compared to blood, urine and other specimens, hair is unique in that it could determine the time period of chemical exposure after several months to years. METHOD: The developed method consists of solution incubation, liquid-liquid extraction and stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. RESULTS: A reliable and sensitive analytical method was developed and validated for the determination of 5 metabolites, mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl)phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxy-hexyl)phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl)phthalate (5cx-MEPP) and mono-[2-(carboxymethyl)hexyl]phthalate (2cx-MMHP) in human hair. Ten authentic hair specimens were successfully determined and quantitated by the developed method. CONCLUSION: The developed LC-MS/MS method can successfully determine specific DEHP metabolites in human hair and has a great potential to assess the long term DEHP exposure of human.
Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 10/2012; · 2.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An approach was proposed for the estimation of measurement uncertainty for analytical methods based on one-point calibration. The proposed approach is similar to the popular multiple-point calibration approach. However, the standard deviation of calibration was estimated externally. The approach was applied to the estimation of measurement uncertainty for the quantitative determination of ketamine (K) and norketamine (NK) at a 100 ng/mL threshold concentration in urine. In addition to uncertainty due to calibration, sample analysis was the other major source of uncertainty. To include the variation due to matrix effect and temporal effect in sample analysis, different blank urines were spiked with K and NK and analyzed at equal time intervals within and between batches. The expanded uncertainties (k = 2) were estimated to be 10 and 8 ng/mL for K and NK, respectively.
Journal of analytical toxicology 07/2012; 36(7):515-22. · 2.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of scavenging 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) radicals and inhibiting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation, and phenolic quantities were used for the activity-guided separation to identify the effective components of litchi flower. The acetone extract of the flower with notable antioxidant capacities was suspended in water and sequentially partitioned with n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EA) and n-butanol. The EA partition with the highest phenolic levels and antioxidant capacities was subjected to silica gel column chromatography. Thirteen fractions (Fr. 1-13) were collected; Fr. 10-12 with higher phenolic levels and antioxidant effects were applied to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Each fraction was further separated into three sub-fractions and the second ones (Fr. 10-II, 11-II, and 12-II) were the best, which two major compounds could be isolated by semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Through Mass (MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements, they could be identified as (-)-epicatechin and proanthocyanidin A2. Their contents in the litchi flower were 5.52 and 11.12 mg/g of dry weight, respectively. The study was the first time to reveal the effective antioxidant components of litchi flower.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 06/2012; 50(9):3056-61. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: Neonates are exposed to high levels of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate through numerous medical procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit. Our aim was to assess the contribution of specific medical devices to the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure of neonates. DESIGN:: Prospective. SETTING:: University hospital. PATIENTS:: We recruited 32 premature neonates, 20 with very low birth weight (<1500 g) and 12 with low birth weight (<2500 g), and 31 controls at a neonatal intensive care unit from a medical center in central Taiwan. INTERVENTIONS:: Interventions were based on a clinical need and used standard materials and devices, including endotracheal tubes, continuous positive airway pressure, oxygen hood, intravenous injection, intralipid injection, blood transfusion, orogastric tubes, nasogastric tubes, umbilical venous catheterization, umbilical arterial catheterization, chest tube, and isolate. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:: We recorded the medical procedures of each subject, collected their urine samples, and determined the urinary concentration of three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Median levels of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites in premature neonates treated with an endotracheal tube and orogastric tube or nasogastric tube were significantly higher than those not treated with an endotracheal tube, orogastric tube, or nasogastric tube. Median levels of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites in premature neonates treated with intravenous injection were ≥2-fold higher than those of healthy controls who received intravenous injections (p = .01). Median levels of three di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites were similar in very-low-birth-weight and low-birth-weight low-neonates. CONCLUSIONS:: These data suggest that polyvinyl chloride-containing devices are the major defining factor in di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure levels in neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit. We urge the use of polyvinyl free or alternative materials in medical devices, especially for endotracheal tubes, orogastric tubes, nasogastric tubes, and intravenous tubing in the neonatal intensive care unit. The health effects of high di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure on premature neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit is worthy of further investigation.
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 05/2012; · 2.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There has been very limited research on the clinical features of newborns exposed to combined use of heroin, methadone, and amphetamine in the uterus. We describe a technique for the quantification of drug metabolites in neonatal hair samples.
In a tertiary neonatal care center in Taiwan, three neonates whose mothers self-reported heroin abuse with methadone treatment during pregnancy were studied. Involuntary exposure to amphetamine was not suspected before the births. To assess long-term illicit drug exposure during pregnancy, a quantifying technique of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for hair samples from neonates was developed to replace current methods for urine and blood specimens.
All three mothers were addicted to heroin and prescribed oral methadone treatment during pregnancy. Two males and one female were born and then admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit because of apparent neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) after birth. Additional hypertonicity and cerebral dysfunction were also diagnosed by electroencephalography in one case. Supportive care was given to the neonates, unless special treatments were needed in responding to tachypnea, fetal distress, or withdrawal symptoms. During follow-up periods from 10 months to 15 months, the signs of NAS remained and delays in milestones of development were observed. Further follow-up on the infants' neurobehavioral development is necessary. Measurement results of neonates' hair samples revealed high levels of metabolites of heroin, methadone, and amphetamine, reflecting the amount of illicit drug exposure 2-3 months before delivery.
The current study suggested the possibility of polydrug exposure, which was previously unknown in pregnant women in Taiwan. Measurement of neonatal hair samples could provide a basis for clinical evaluation and potential corresponding treatment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The detection and confirmation of cannabinoids in oral fluid are important in forensic toxicology. Currently, the presence of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is used for the detection of cannabis in oral fluid. A low concentration of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) is found in oral fluid, which suggested a convenient and low-sensitivity confirmation assay can be used in a routine forensic laboratory. In this study, a highly sensitive isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method following dansylation was successfully developed for simultaneous determination of THC and THC-COOH in oral fluid. The dansylated derivatives dramatically demonstrated and enhanced the sensitivity of THC and THC-COOH. To avoid signal influenced by the matrix, a 5-min liquid chromatography gradient program was evaluated and optimized, which reduced the sample diffusion and caused sharp peaks (less than 12 s) and thus helped to achieve detection at a low level. The sensitivity, accuracy, and precision were also evaluated, and high quantitative accuracy and precision were obtained. The limit of quantitation of this approach was 25 pg/mL for THC and 10 pg/mL for THC-COOH in oral fluid. Finally, the method was successfully applied to eight suspected cannabis users. Among them, in six oral fluid samples THC-COOH was determined at a concentration from 13.1 to 47.2 pg/mL.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 11/2011; 402(2):851-9. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with an evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) was developed to simultaneously determine 10 steroidal saponins, including 3 furostanol glycosides, 3 pennogenyl glycosides, and 4 diosgenyl glycosides in Taiwanese rhizoma paridis ( Paris formosana Hayata). The condition was a Cosmosil C18 column kept at 35 °C and a step-gradient solvent system consisting of acetonitrile and water (25:75, v/v) in the first 30 min, 45:55 (v/v) from 31 to 45 min, and 50:50 (v/v) from 45 to 65 min, at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The separation factors (α) and resolutions (Rs) were better than 1, and the limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.01-0.27 and 0.04-0.90 μg, respectively, for these saponins. Moreover, 203 nm UV detection was also used for comparison. The saponins in P. formosana Hayata gathered from various areas of Taiwan were determined by applying the established method.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 02/2011; 59(5):1587-93. · 2.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Areca nut and tobacco are commonly used drugs worldwide and have been frequently used in combination. We describe the use of on-line solid-phase extraction and isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous measurement of five major urinary metabolites of both areca nut and tobacco alkaloids, namely, arecoline, arecaidine, N-methylnipecotic acid, nicotine, and cotinine.
Automated purification of urine was accomplished with a column-switching device. After the addition of deuterium-labeled internal standards, urine samples were directly analyzed within 13 minutes. This method was applied to measure urinary metabolites in 90 healthy subjects to assess areca nut/tobacco exposure. Urinary time course of arecoline, arecaidine, and N-methylnipecotic acid was investigated in five healthy nonchewers after oral administration of areca nut water extracts.
The limits of detection were 0.016 to 0.553 ng/mL. Interday and intraday imprecision were <10%. Mean recoveries of five metabolites in urine were 97% to 114%. Mean urinary concentrations of arecoline, arecaidine, N-methylnipecotic acid, nicotine, and cotinine in regular areca nut chewers also smokers were 23.9, 5,816, 1,298, 2,635, and 1,406 ng/mg creatinine, respectively. Time course study revealed that after administration of areca nuts extracts, the major urinary metabolite was arecaidine with a half-life of 4.3 hours, followed by N-methylnipecotic acid with a half-life of 7.9 hours, and very low levels of arecoline with a half-life of 0.97 hour.
This on-line solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method firstly provides high-throughput direct analysis of five urinary metabolites of areca nut/tobacco alkaloids.
This method may facilitate the research into the oncogenic effects of areca nut/tobacco exposure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The drug ketamine is frequently abused for recreational use in Asia, but few studies in humans have focused on the effects of ketamine exposure during pregnancy on the health of neonates. Here, we report a neonate whose mother was suspected of ketamine abuse during pregnancy. The case was confirmed by testing hair samples of the neonate.
Hair samples of the neonate were taken on the first day of referral. Levels of common drugs of abuse in Asia were measured in the hair sample by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using our previously reported method with modifications. This method was developed and validated to simultaneously quantify levels of amphetamine, ketamine and opiate in human hair.
The neonate was a female baby, born full term, with a low birth weight of 2250 g. Very high levels of ketamine were detected in the neonate's hair, even though the mother stated that she had stopped abusing ketamine during the early stage of pregnancy. The neonate suffered from general hypotonia; moderate cerebral dysfunction was found by electroencephalography. Fortunately, her hypotonia improved gradually within 21 days.
This is the first report of ketamine exposure during late pregnancy detected by hair testing. We noted several clinical features in this case, including the infant being small for gestational age, intrauterine growth retardation, remarkable hypotonia, and poor reflex responses. Although the mother denied the use of ketamine during the late stage of her pregnancy, significant amount of ketamine and norketamine was still found in hair samples (only 2 cm long and 25 mg) from the infant.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An integrated method of liquid chromatography-heated electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry was evaluated for high throughput screening of various abused drugs in urine. Chromatographic analysis was performed on a C18 reverse phase column using a linear gradient of 10mM ammonium acetate containing 0.1% formic acid-methanol as mobile phase and the total separation time was 7 min. A simple and rapid sample preparation method used was by passing urine samples through a 0.22 microm PVDF syringe filter. The detection limits of the studied abused drugs in urine were from 0.6 ng mL(-1) (ketamine) to 9.0 ng mL(-1) (norcodeine). According to the results, the linear range was from 1 to 1200 ng mL(-1) with relative standard deviation (R.S.D.s) value below 14.8% (intra-day) and 24.6% (inter-day). The feasibility of applying the proposed method to determine various abused drugs in real samples was examined by analyzing urine samples from drug-abused suspects. The abused drugs including ketamines and amphetamines were detected in suspected urine samples. The results demonstrate the suitability of LC-HESI-MS/MS for high throughput screening of the various abused drugs in urine.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we simultaneously measured N7-alkylguanines and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in liver of small fish, respectively, to assess the time course of the formation and removal of alkylation and oxidative damage to DNA caused by N-nitrosodialkylamines. Mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) were killed at various times during (4 days) and post-exposure (16 days) to N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) alone or their combination with concentrations of 10 and 50mg/l. The modified guanine adducts were sensitively and selectively quantitated by isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS methods. During exposure, N7-methylguanine (N7-MeG) and N7-ethylguanine (N7-EtG) in liver DNA increased with the duration and dose of N-nitrosodialkylamine exposure, while 8-oxodG was dose-dependently induced within 1 day. It was found that NDMA formed substantially more N7-alkylated guanines and 8-oxodG than NDEA on the basis of adducts formed per micromolar concentration, suggesting that NDMA can be more easily bioactivated than NDEA to form reactive alkylating agents with the concomitant formation of oxygen radicals. After cessation of exposure, N7-alkylguanines remained elevated for 1 day and then gradually decreased over time but still higher than the background levels, even at day 16 (half-lives of 7-8 days). However, 8-oxodG was excised quickly from liver DNA and returned to the background level within 4 days post-exposure (half-lives less than 2 days). Taken together, this study firstly demonstrated that in addition to alkylation, N-nitrosodialkylamines can concurrently cause oxidative damage to DNA in vivo.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 11/2008; 660(1-2):33-9. · 3.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An approach using microwave-assisted derivatization (MAD) following solid-phase extraction (SPE) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed to determine amphetamines in urine samples. The parameters affecting the derivatization efficiency - including microwave power and irradiation time - were investigated. Besides, solvent is thought critically important to MAD. Derivatization performance was studied using various solvents and compared with the performance obtained without solvent. Derivatization efficiency was clearly found to be enhanced by the presence of solvent. The highest derivatization efficiencies were obtained in ethyl acetate (EA) under microwave power of 250W for 1min. Calibration curves for all amphetamines were linear over a range from 1 to 1000ng/mL, with correlation coefficients above 0.9992. The intra-day and inter-day precision were less than 15%. The applicability of the method was tested by analyzing amphetamine-abusing subjects urine samples. Accordingly, the solvent-enhanced MAD-GC-MS method appears to be adequate for determining amphetamines in urine.
Journal of Chromatography B 10/2008; 874(1-2):115-8. · 2.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, the possibility of using a multiple ionization mode approach of GC/MS was developed for the simultaneous hair testing of common drugs of abuse in Asia, including amphetamines (amphetamine, AP; methamphetamine, MA; methylenedioxy amphetamine, MDA; methylenedioxy methamphetamine, MDMA; methylenedioxy ethylamphetamine, MDEA), ketamine (ketamine, K; norketamine, NK), and opiates (morphine, MOR; codeine, COD; 6-acetylmorphine, 6-AM). This strategy integrated the characteristics of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using electron impact ionization (EI) and negative chemical ionization (NCI). Hair samples (25 mg) were washed, cut, and incubated overnight at 25 degrees C in methanol-trifluoroacetic acid (methanol-TFA). The samples were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure, derivatized using heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride (HFBA) at 70 degrees C for 30 min, and the derivatives analyzed by GC-MS with EI and NCI. The limit of detection (LOD) with GC/EI-MS analysis obtained were 0.03 ng/mg for AP, MA, MDA, MDMA, and MDEA; 0.05 ng/mg for K, NK, MOR, and COD; and 0.08 ng/mg for 6-AM. The LOD of GC/NCI-MS analysis was much lower than GC/EI-MS analysis. The LOD obtained were 30 pg/mg for AP and MDA in GC/EI-MS and 2 pg/mg in GC/NCI-MS. Therefore, the sensitivity of AP and MDA in GC/NCI-MS was improved from 15-fold compared with EI. The sensitivity of AP, MA, MDA, MDMA, MDEA, MOR, and COD was improved from 15- to 60-fold compared with EI. In addition, the sensitivity of 6-AM increased 8-fold through selection of m/z 197 for the quantitative ion. Moreover, K and NK could dramatically improve their sensitivity at 200- and 2000-fold. The integration of GC/EI-MS and GC/NCI-MS can obtain the high sensitivity and complementary results of drugs of abuse in hair. Six hair samples from known drug abusers were examined by this new strategy. These results show that integrating the characteristics of GC/EI-MS and GC/NCI-MS were not only enhancement of the sensitivity but also avoid wrong results and wrong interpretations of correct results.
Journal of Chromatography B 07/2008; 870(2):192-202. · 2.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of common drugs of abuse in Asia. The method was able to simultaneously quantify amphetamines (amphetamine; AP, methamphetamine; MA, methylenedioxy amphetamine; MDA, methylenedioxymeth mphetamine; MDMA, methylenedioxy ethylamphetamine; MDEA), ketamine (ketamine; K, norketamine; NK), and opiates (morphine; MOR, codeine; COD, 6-acetylmorphine; 6-AM) in human hair. Hair samples (25 mg) were washed, cut, and incubated overnight at 25 degrees C in methanol/trifluoroacetic acid (methanol/TFA). The samples were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE), derivatized using heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride (HFBA) at 70 degrees C for 30 min, and the derivatives were analyzed by electron ionization (EI) GC/MS in selected ion monitoring mode. Confirmation was accomplished by comparing retention times and the relative abundances of selected ions with those of standards. Deuterated analogs of the analytes were used as internal standards for quantification. Calibration curves for ten analytes were established in the concentration range 0.1-10 ng/mg with high correlation coefficients (r2 > 0.999). The intra-day and inter-day precisions were within 12.1% and 15.8%, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day accuracies were between -8.7% and 10.7%, and between -5.9% and 13.8%, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) obtained were 0.03 and 0.05 ng/mg for AP, MA, MDA, MDMA and MDEA; 0.05 and 0.08 ng/mg for K, NK, MOR and COD; and 0.08 and 0.1 ng/mg for 6-AM. The recoveries were above 88.6% for all the compounds, except K and NK which were in the range of 71.7-72.7%. Eight hair samples from known polydrug abusers were examined by this method. These results show that the method is suitable for broad-spectrum drug testing in a single hair specimen.
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 01/2008; 22(6):887-97. · 2.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Terminalia catappa L. was a popular folk medicine and has several proven biological activities including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. The present study investigated the effect of the extract of T. catappa leaves (TCE) on invasion and motility of tumor cells to find that TCE exerted a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the invasion and motility of highly metastatic A549 and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. To further investigate the precise involvement of TCE in tumor metastasis, A549 and LLC cells were treated with TCE at various concentrations, up to 100 microg/mL, for a specified period and results from zymography and Western blotting showed that a TCE treatment may decrease the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2, -9, urokinase plasminogen activator and their endogenous inhibitors, that is tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of TCE on the growth and metastasis of LLC cells in vivo was proven. These results indicated that TCE could be applied to be a potential antimetastatic agent.
Food and Chemical Toxicology 08/2007; 45(7):1194-201. · 3.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selaginella tamariscina is a traditional Chinese herb for the therapy of chronic trachitis and has been approved some anti-tumor activity. However, the anti-metastasis effects of Selaginella tamariscina in the lung cancer have not been understood clearly. The objectives of study were to investigate the effects of the Selaginella tamariscina extracts (STE) on the invasion and motility of highly metastatic A549 and Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. To further investigate the precise involvement of STE in tumor metastasis, A549 and LLC cells were treated with STE at various concentrations (0-100 microg/mL) for a specified period. The results from zymography showed that a STE treatment decreased (p<0.05) the expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9 and urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) in a dose-dependent manner in the A549 and LLC cell. Meanwhile, their endogenous inhibitors, which are tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), were increased in the A549 cell. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of STE on the growth and metastasis of LLC cells in vivo was also proven. These results demonstrated that STE could be a candidate antimetastatic agent against lung cancer.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 04/2007; 110(3):483-9. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since there is evidence for estrogen and estrogen-like compounds to have beneficial effect on the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), this study was designed to investigative the apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of these compounds on the human hepatoma Hep3B cell line. The Hep3B cells were treated with 17beta-estradiol (E2), diethylstilbestrol (DES), tamoxifen, and genistein. After treatments of these compounds at the concentration of 10(-6) or 10(-8) M, the Hep3B cells were demonstrated to have significant DNA fragmentation, nucleus condensation, cytochrome-c leaking from the mitochondria and caspase-3 activation by DAPI and Western blotting. The cells were also observed to have declined proliferative potential by MTT assay, arrested cell cycle by flow-cytometry measurements. However, the cytochrome-c leaking from the mitochondria induced by E2 and E2-like compounds was blocked totally by ICI 182,780 treatment. These finding suggest that estrogen and the estrogen-like compounds may induce anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects in Hep3B cells, and the E2 and the E2-like compounds mediated apoptotic effect was estrogen receptor dependent. Among the drugs tested, E2, E2 agonists (DES and genistein) and partial antagonist (tamoxifen), all showed the stronger anti-tumor potential.
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 11/2006; 290(1-2):1-7. · 2.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new electrospray tip incorporating a beveled edge has been designed for use in plastic electrophoresis chip/electrospray mass spectrometry. Theoretical hydrodynamic analysis has been conducted to model the analytical sensitivity of the spray tip shape. A larger sample wall, that provides increased hydraulic pressure, is recommended in order to preserve the fluid stability at the tip outlet. A polymer with better hydrophobic characteristics than glass was used for the spray tip in order to restrict moisture accumulation at the spray tip outlet. Experimental results demonstrate that the analytical sensitivity of the proposed scheme is better than that obtained using the flat-head tip. Although a tapered capillary tip is commonly used in electrophoresis chip/electrospray mass spectrometry, the proposed tip offers a similar sensitivity while being more rugged and durable than the conventional tapered capillary tip. The cost of our design is also much lower than conventional spray tips.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 10/2005; 383(1):76-82. · 3.66 Impact Factor