Lu-Wei Xu

Nanjing Medical University, Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China

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Publications (15)14.79 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is involved in the development and progression of human cancers, and numerous molecular epidemiological studies have been conducted to explore the potential relationship of HLA-G 14-bp insertion/deletion (ins/del) polymorphism with cancer risk. However, results from published studies were inconclusive.
    Human immunology. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Reactive stromal changes in prostate cancer (PCa) are likely involved in the emergence of castration-resistant PCa (CRPC). This study was designed to investigate stromal changes in patients with clinically advanced PCa and analyze their prognostic significance. Prostate needle biopsies obtained from 148 patients before castration therapy were analyzed by Masson trichrome staining and immunohistochemical analysis of vimentin and desmin. Reactive stroma grading was inversely correlated with Gleason score. Stroma grade (Masson stain 82.8% vs 45.6%, P < 0.001) and vimentin expression (P = 0.005) were significantly higher, and desmin expression (P = 0.004) significantly lower, in reactive stroma of tumors with a Gleason score of 6-7 than in adjacent peritumoral tissue. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant association between reactive stroma grade in tumors and the occurrence of CRPC in patients with a Gleason score of 6-7 (P = 0.009). Furthermore, patients with higher vimentin or lower desmin expression had a shorter disease-free period. In multivariate analysis, only vimentin expression was a significant predictor of tumor relapse (hazard ratio 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.12-10.26, P = 0.012). These findings indicate that the intensity of reactive stroma is associated with castration responsiveness, especially in patients with a lower Gleason score where the abundant stroma component is most frequently found. High expression of vimentin in tumor stroma was independently associated with poor outcomes in patients with Gleason scores of 6-7, and may serve as a new prognostic marker in daily practice.
    Asian Journal of Andrology 05/2014; · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine which plays a pivotal role in the antiviral, antiproliferative, and antitumor activities. A T-to-A transition at the position +874 of human IFN-γ gene (IFNG) has been reported to influence the secretion of IFN-γ and affect cancer susceptibility. However, results from published studies on the association between IFNG +874 T/A polymorphism and cancer risk are inconclusive or even controversial. In order to derive a more precise estimation of the association, a meta-analysis of 38 eligible studies including 5,630 cases and 6,096 controls was conducted with odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI). Overall, no significant association was detected in allelic model (A allele vs. T allele-OR = 0.96, 95 % CI, 0.86-1.08), homozygote comparison (AA vs. TT-OR = 0.97, 95 % CI, 0.79-1.21), heterozygote comparison (AT vs. TT-OR = 1.03, 95 % CI, 0.87-1.23), dominant model (AA + AT vs. TT-OR = 1.00, 95 % CI, 0.87-1.15), nor recessive model (AA vs. AT + TT-OR = 0.93, 95 % CI, 0.78-1.12). Further subgroup analyses based on ethnicity, cancer types, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium status failed to demonstrate any significant relationship except in African population under recessive model (AA vs. AT + TT-OR = 0.68, 95 % CI, 0.47-0.97). In conclusion, the current meta-analysis suggested that IFNG +874 T/A polymorphism may not contribute to cancer susceptibility, and further well-designed studies with large sample size are warranted to validate our conclusion.
    Tumor Biology 03/2014; · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogens play an important role in male reproduction via interacting with estrogen receptors (ERs), whose expression can be regulated by the polymorphisms in different regions of ESR1 and ESR2 genes. However, results from published studies on the association between four well-characterized polymorphisms (PvuII, XbaI, RsaI, and AluI) in the gene of ERs (ESR1 and ESR2) and male infertility risk are inconclusive. To investigate the strength of relationship of PvuII and XbaI in ESR1 and RsaI and AluI in ESR2 with male infertility, we conducted a meta-analysis of 12 eligible studies with odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). Overall, ESR1 PvuII and ESR2 RsaI polymorphisms were significantly associated with male infertility risk. The subgroup analyses by ethnicities demonstrated that in Asians, ESR1 PvuII, XbaI and ESR2 RsaI polymorphisms were significantly associated with a decreased infertility risk, while in Caucasians both ESR1 PvuII and ESR2 RsaI polymorphisms increased the susceptibility to male infertility. As for ESR2 AluI polymorphism, no significant association was detected in either overall analysis or subgroup analyses by ethnicities/genotyping methods. This meta-analysis suggested that polymorphisms in the genes of ERs (ESR1 and ESR2) may have differential roles in the predisposition to male infertility according to the different ethnic backgrounds. Further well-designed and unbiased studies with larger sample size and diverse ethnic backgrounds should be conducted to verify our findings.
    Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics 03/2014; · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is involved in the development and progression of human cancers, and numerous molecular epidemiological studies have been conducted to explore the potential relationship of HLA-G 14-bp insertion/deletion (ins/del) polymorphism with cancer risk. However, results from published studies were inconclusive. Methods Both PUBMED and EMBASE databases were searched comprehensively to identify eligible studies investigating the association of HLA-G 14-bp ins/del polymorphism with cancer risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using STATA 12.0 and Review Manager 5.0. Results Fourteen eligible studies with 2340 cancer patients and 3967 controls were included and analyzed with odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Overall, no significant association between HLA-G 14-bp ins/del polymorphism and overall cancer risk was detected in all comparison models. Further subgroup analyses based on ethnicity and cancer types demonstrated the significant association among Asians (ins/del vs. del/del: OR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.66–0.95; ins/ins + ins/del vs. del/del: OR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.65–0.97) and for breast cancer (ins allele vs. del allele: OR = 0.76, 95% CI, 0.61–0.96; ins/ins vs. del/del: OR = 0.57, 95% CI, 0.37–0.87; and ins/ins vs. ins/del + del/del: OR = 0.60, 95% CI, 0.42–0.87). Conclusion This study suggested that HLA-G 14-bp ins/del polymorphism might contribute to breast cancer susceptibility and overall cancer risk among Asians. Further well-designed studies with larger sample size are warranted to validate our conclusion.
    Human Immunology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Ras-associated domain family 1A (RASSF1A) is a putative tumor suppressor gene located at 3p21.3, and the epigenetic inactivation of RASSF1A by hypermethylation of CpG islands within the promoter region has been observed in various cancer types, including prostate cancer (PCa). However, results from published studies on the association between RASSF1A promoter methylation and PCa risk are conflicting and inconclusive. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis of 19 eligible studies with odds ratio (OR) and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) in order to investigate the strength of relationship of RASSF1A promoter methylation with PCa risk and its clinicopathological variables. Overall, the RASSF1A promoter methylation was significantly associated with PCa risk (OR = 9.58, 95% CI 5.64-16.88, P heterogeneity <0.001) and Gleason score (GS) (OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.64-4.04, P heterogeneity = 0.019). In addition, subgroup analysis by testing material demonstrated the significant association between RASSF1A methylation and GS (OR = 3.09, 95% CI 1.92-4.97, P heterogeneity =0.042), PSA level (OR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.67-4.52, P heterogeneity = 0.639), and tumor stage (OR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.05-2.87, P heterogeneity = 0.026) in tissue rather than urine samples. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that RASSF1A promoter methylation was significantly associated with an increased risk for PCa; furthermore, the RASSF1A methylation status in tissue rather than urine was positively correlated with GS, serum PSA level, and tumor stage, which can be utilized for the early detection and prognosis prediction of PCa.
    Tumor Biology 12/2013; · 2.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and significance of microsomal prostaglandin synthase-1 (mPGES-1) and Beclin-1 in the development of prostate cancer (PCa). Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded sections with rabbit polyclonal against mPGES-1 and Beclin-1 in 40 PCa, 40 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 10 normal prostate specimens for this purpose. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was applied for mRNA expression of mPGES-1 and Beclin-1, while MTT assays were used to ascertain the best working concentration of the mPGES-1 inhibitor (CAY10526). The effect of CAY10526 treatment on expression of Beclin-1 in DU-145 cells was studied using Western blot analysis. Localization of Beclin-1 and mPGES-1 was in endochylema. Significant differences in expression was noted among PCa, BPH and normal issues (P<0.05). Beclin-1 expression inversely correlated with mPGES-1 expression in PCa tissue (P<0.05). CAY10526 could significantly block mPGES-1 expression and the proliferation of DU-145 cells (P<0.05), while increasing Beclin-1 levels (P<0.05). Overexpression of mPGES-1 could decrease the autophagic PCa cell death. Inhibiting the expression of mPGES-1 may lead to DU-145 cell death and up-regulation of Beclin-1. The results suggest that inhibition of mPGES-1 may have therapeutic potential for PCa in the future.
    Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2012; 13(4):1639-44. · 1.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of tadalafil in the treatment of ED after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). A total of 113 patients with ED after TURP received 3 months of tadalafil treatment and were followed up for 6 months. The IIEF-5 scores of the patients and the number of successful penile intromissions and sustained penile erections in the patients' sexual life diary were compared before and after the treatment. The IIEF-5 scores were 9.83 +/- 3.96 before the medication, 20.23 +/- 3.25 after it, and 17.28 +/- 3.03 at 6 months after drug withdrawal, with statistically significant differences between pre- and post-treatment (P < 0.05). The patients' success rates of penile intromission and sexual intercourse were increased from 44.8% and 7.5% before the medication to 81.7% and 63.2% after it. Tadalafil can be used as a first-line drug for the treatment of ED after TURP.
    Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology 10/2011; 17(10):894-6.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of transplanted endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) on the spermatogenic functions in testicular detorsion. Bone-marrow-derived EPCs were obtained from rats and transfected by enhanced green fluorescent protein adenovirus (Ad-eGFP). The rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 6 each). In the sham group, left testis was not twisted. In the ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) group, 1 ml saline was injected into the femoral vein of each rat after testicular detorsion. In the EPCs group, 1 ml EPCs suspension (1.0 × 10(6) EPCs) was injected into each rat after testicular detorsion. The Ad-eGFP transfected EPCs were injected into the 3 additional rats of testicular torsion-detorsion. At Day 5 post-transplantation, the characteristics of transplanted EPCs homing were detected. And the pathological changes and apoptotic cells/seminiferous tubules in left testis were examined. When the value of multiplication of infection (MOI) was at 50, the transfection rate of EPCs by Ad-eGFP exceeded 73.7%. At Day 5 post-treatment, the cells exhibiting green fluorescence were detected in left testis. The germ cells in rats of the sham group were normal. And the ratio of apoptotic cells to seminiferous tubules was 0.09 ± 0.02. The germ cells in rats of the IRI group were much fewer. And the ratio of apoptotic cells to seminiferous tubules was 2.82 ± 0.81. As compared with the IRI group, seminiferous epithelium was thicker in the EPCs group. And the ratio of apoptotic cells to seminiferous tubules was 0.32 ± 0.09 in the EPCs group. It was much smaller than that in the IRI group. There was significant difference (P < 0.01). The transplantation of EPCs is effective for treating the spermatogenic dysfunctions caused by testicular torsion so as to greatly enhance the spermatogenic functions.
    Zhonghua yi xue za zhi 08/2011; 91(30):2135-8.
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    ABSTRACT: To study the effects of implantation brachytherapy with delayed-release particles of 32P-chromic phosphate-poly (L-lactide) (32P-CP-PLLA) on prostate cancer (PCa) in nude mice. We established a subcutaneous transplantable PCa model in nude mice, and randomly divided them into six groups, Groups A, B and C implanted intratumorally with 32P-CP-PLLA delayed-release particles at 3.7, 7.4 and 14.8 MBq, Groups D, E and F with 125I particles at the same doses as the former three, and another six nude mice were included in Group G as the blank control. Then we killed the mice at 21 days after the treatment, observed the effects of the particles on the morphology of the tumor and their inhibition of tumor growth, counted WBCs and platelets (PLTs) in the peripheral blood, and detected the toxic reaction of the blood. At 21 days after the treatment, the solid tumor tissues exhibited bleeding and necrotic changes, and the rates of tumor inhibition were positively correlated with the doses of administration. Groups A, B and C showed statistically significant differences from Groups D, E, F and G in the rate of tumor inhibition ([ 65.72 +/- 6.95]%, [77.58 +/- 4.32]% and [82.64 +/- 4.03]% versus [35.61 +/- 5.61]%, [43.30 +/- 6.94]% and [69.01 +/- 4.98]%), WBC count ([1.72 +/- 0.37] x 10(9)/L, [1.23 +/- 0.27] x 10(9)/L and [0.86 +/- 0.25] x 10(9)/L versus [1.45 +/- 0.40] x 10(9)/L, [0.51 +/- 0.24] x 10(9)/L, [0.37 +/- 0.26] x 10(9)/L and [3.96 +/- 0.26] x 10(9)/L), PLT count ([1.18 +/- 0.11] x 10(11)/L, [0.97 +/- 0.10] x 10(11)/L and [0.72 +/- 0.11] x 10(11)/L versus [0.97 +/- 0.15] x 10(11)/L, [0.76 +/- 0.16] x 10(11)/L, [0.64 +/- 0.12] x 10(11)/L and [2.89 +/- 0.21] x 10(11)/L) and body weight ([18.60 +/- 0.66] g, [17.60 +/- 0.39] g and [16.90 +/- 0.68] g versus [17.86 +/- 0.60] g, [15.56 +/- 0.39] g, [14.61 +/- 0.65] g and [19.95 +/- 0.73] g) (P < 0.01). Intratumoral implantation of 32P-CP-PL-LA is a safe, simple and effective radionuclide interventional therapy for prostate cancer.
    Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology 10/2010; 16(10):872-6.
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    ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to explore the effects and possible mechanisms of recombinant human endothelin (ET)-1 on cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in human hormone refractory prostate cancer PC3 cells. PC3 cells were treated with 100 nmol/l ET-1 for the indicated times (3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 h) and concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 nmol/l) for 24 h. Moreover, 100 nmol/l ET-1 was used to treat PC3 cells alone or in combination with endothelin A receptor (ET(A)R) antagonist BQ123 (1 μmol/l), endothelin B receptor (ET(B)R) antagonist BQ788 (1 μmol/l), MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK)-selective inhibitor, PD98059 (10 μmol/l), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) antagonist SB203580 (5 μmol/l) or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antagonist AG1478 (0.1 μmol/l) for 24 h. COX-2 mRNA and protein expression was detected in the PC3 cells by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. ET-1 induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in the mRNA and protein expression of COX-2 in the PC3 cells. BQ123, LY294002, SC203580 and AG1478 prevented the expression of COX-2 in the PC3 cells (P<0.05), while BQ788 did not. ET-1 induced the up-regulation of COX-2 in the PC3 cells. ET(A)R may be involved in the process. Several signaling pathways, including p42/44 MAPK, p38 MAPK and EGFR, are therefore implicated in the regulation of COX-2 expression.
    Oncology letters 05/2010; 1(3):495-499. · 0.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The small (SK3) and intermediate (IK1) conductance calcium-activated potassium channels could have key roles in the endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization factor pathway, which is believed to contribute to normal penile erection function. We aimed to investigate the expression of SK3 and IK1 in diabetic rodents. The experimental diabetes model was induced in 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) by a single administration of streptozotocin. Both the diabetes mellitus group (DM group, n = 20) and the control group (NDM group, n = 10) were injected with a low dose of apomorphine to allow for the measurement and comparison of the corresponding penile erections. The mRNA and protein expression levels of SK3 and IK1 were measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively. Erectile function was significantly decreased in the DM group compared with control group (P < 0.05). The mRNA and protein expression levels of SK3 and IK1 were reduced in the cavernous tissue of diabetic rats compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Diabetes inhibits mRNA and protein expression of both SK3 and IK1 in the cavernous tissue of diabetic rats. This could play a key role in the development of erectile dysfunction in diabetic rats.
    Asian Journal of Andrology 04/2010; 12(4):599-604. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: SK3, one of the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, is the key substance of the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) passway. This study aimed to investigate the expression of SK3 in the cavernous tissue of rats with diabetes mellitus (DM). Twenty-six DM models were made by injection of streptozocin (STZ) out of 50 male Sprague-Dawley rats, and another 15 that failed to be modeled were included in an STZ group. Ten healthy male rats were taken as blank controls. Eight weeks later, the penile erectile function of the rats was detected by injection of apomorphine (APO) at 80 microg/kg, and the expression of SK3 in the cavernous tissue was determined by RT-PCR and Western blot. Penile erection was observed in 14 (54%) of the 26 DM rat models and in all the rats of the STZ and blank control groups. Both the mRNA and protein expressions of SK3 were significantly lower in the DM (0.50 +/- 0.09 and 0.65 +/- 0.06) than in the STZ (1.15 +/- 0.03 and 1.28 +/- 0.04) and blank control groups (1.21 +/- 0.04 and 1.34 +/- 0.05) (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the STZ and blank control groups in either penile erection or mRNA and protein expressions of SK3 (P > 0.05). Diabetes mellitus can significantly reduce erectile function in rats, which may be related to the decreased expression of SK3 in the corpus cavernosum.
    Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology 03/2010; 16(3):236-9.
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the possible mechanism in the development in androgen independent prostate cancer (AIPC). Immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded sections with goat polyclonal against COX-2 and mouse monoclonal antibody against EGFR in 30 AIPC and 18 androgen dependent prostate cancer (ADPC) specimens. The effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatments on the expression of COX-2 and signal pathway in PC-3 and DU-145 cells was studied using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. ELISA was used to measure prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in the media of PC-3 and DU-145 incubated with EGF for 24 h. COX-2 was positively expressed in AIPC and ADPC, which were predominantly in endochylema of prostate cancer (PCa) cells. Intense staining was seen in AIPC (80%) and in ADPC (55.5%), but there was no significant association between the two groups. EGFR expression was also positive in the two groups (61.8% in ADPC and 90% in AIPC, P < 0.01). A significant association was found between EGFR expression and a higher Gleason score (P < 0.05) or tumor stage (P < 0.05). The expression of PGE2 was increased in PC-3 and DU-145 cells after being incubated with EGF. Both p38MAPK and PI-3K pathway were involved in the PC-3 cell COX-2 upregulation course. In DU-145, only p38MAPK pathway was associated with COX-2 upregulation. EGFR activation induces COX-2 expression through PI-3K and/or p38MAPK pathways. COX-2 and EGFR inhibitors might have a cooperative anti-tumor effect in PCa.
    Asian Journal of Andrology 09/2008; 10(5):758-64. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the effects of the epidermal growth factor on the mRNA expression of endothelin-1 and its receptors (ET(A)R, ET(B)R) in hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) PC-3 cell lines. PC-3 cells were cultured in vitro. After the treatment with EGF, the mRNA expressions of endothelin-1, ET(A)R and ET(B)R were detected by RT-PCR in PC-3 cell lines. The levels of the mRNA expression of endothelin-1 and its receptors were examined at different time points by RT-PCR. The expressions of endothelin-1 and ET(A)R mRNA but not the mRNA expression of ET(B)R was observed in PC-3 cell lines. After 24 hours of treatment with EGF, the expressions of endothelin-1 and ET(A)R in PC-3 cell lines were both up-regulated and there was significant difference (P < 0.05) between the experimental and control groups. Different expression levels of endothelin-1 and ET(A)R mRNA were noted at different time points of EGF intervention, up-regulated with the increase of treatment time, and with significant difference (P < 0.05). EGF can up-regulate the mRNA expressions of endothelin-1 and ET(A)R in PC-3 cell lines and play a great role in prostate cancer progression, which may offer a substructure of molecular biology for the treatment of HRPC.
    Zhonghua nan ke xue = National journal of andrology 01/2008; 14(1):15-9.