[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the differences in the remission rate, recovery rate, functional improvement, and treatment adherence related to treatment with short-acting immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH) and long-acting osmotic-release oral system-methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) in a naturalistic setting among Taiwanese children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
A total of 757 children with ADHD, aged 6-18 years, was evaluated using the following in order determine functional improvement and treatment adherence: the Chinese version of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale (SNAP-IV-C), Clinical Global Impression-ADHD-Severity (CGI-S) to measure remission and recovery rates, the Chinese version of the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents (CSAICA), and caregiver's satisfaction rate, treatment adherence, and frequency of adverse effects.
According to the SNAP-IV-C scores, the remission rate was 30.72%, and the recovery rate was 16.38%. Compared to short-acting IR-MPH, OROS-MPH was associated with greater functional improvement and treatment adherence among children with ADHD.
OROS-MPH treatment at the adequate dosage can achieve higher remission and recovery rates, produce greater functional improvement, and result in better treatment adherence than IR-MPH treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine factors for switching to osmotic release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) among poor adherents to immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH); and to compare the efficacy of OROS-MPH on the three attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes in a multi-site prospective observational study in Taiwan.
The sample included 240 children with ADHD, aged 6-16 years, who were poor adherents to IR-MPH, 137 of whom were switched to OROS-MPH. The child psychiatrists diagnosed the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) ADHD subtypes and assessed the medical history, adherence, side-effects, global ADHD severity, and family/school effectiveness. Parents reported their child's behavioral symptoms.
The determinants for an OROS-MPH switch were higher dosage, shorter treatment and thrice-daily administration of IR-MPH, and more severe inattention symptoms. Hyperactivity and oppositional symptoms were greater in the ADHD combined and hyperactive-impulsive subtypes than the inattentive subtype. Switching to OROS-MPH significantly improved behavioral symptoms and family/school measures, and this was most evident in the ADHD-combined group, followed by the ADHD-inattentive group. Inattention influenced not only academic performance, but also overall classroom behaviors and the parent-child relationship, with the latter two also influenced by oppositional symptoms.
This study suggests better efficacy for the OROS-MPH among poor adherents to IR-MPH; however, its effectiveness varied across the three ADHD subtypes (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00460720).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the determinants of adherence to immediate-release (IR) methylphenidate in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); to examine the impact of adherence on ADHD-related symptoms; and to compare the efficacy, adherence, and side effects of IR methylphenidate and osmotic release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate.
This national survey, involving 12 hospitals, consisted of 2 phases of assessment. Treatment adherence in 240 (39.5%) of the 607 children aged 5 to 16 years with a clinical diagnosis of DSM-IV ADHD enrolled in the study was poor (defined as missing >or= 1 dose of ADHD medication a day and on 2 days or more during school days). Children with poor adherence at phase 1 were able to switch to OROS methylphenidate, while adherents remained on the IR variant. We reassessed 124 poor adherents who switched to OROS methylphenidate. The global ADHD severity, parent-child interaction, classroom behavior, academic performance, and side effects of the child subjects were evaluated by investigators. Parents completed the rating scales about the ADHD-related symptoms. The study began in April 2005 and was completed in February 2006.
Determinants for poor adherence included older age, later onset of ADHD, family history of ADHD, higher paternal education level, and multi-dose administration. Mental retardation and treatment at medical centers were inversely related to poor adherence. Overall, poor adherence was associated with more severe ADHD-related symptoms by comparison to good adherence. Similar side effect profile, superior adherence, and improved efficacy were demonstrated in intra-individual comparison of the OROS and IR methylphenidate forms.
Given that poor adherence to medication may be an important reason for suboptimal outcome in ADHD treatment, physicians should ensure adherence with therapy before adjusting dosage or switching medication.
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT00460720.
The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 01/2008; 69(1):131-40. DOI:10.4088/JCP.v69n0118 · 5.50 Impact Factor