ABSTRACT: : We previously demonstrated that altered zinc homeostasis is an important feature of pediatric sepsis, thus raising the possibility of zinc supplementation as a therapeutic strategy in sepsis. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that prophylactic zinc supplementation would be beneficial in a murine model of peritoneal sepsis.
: Murine model of sepsis (intraperitoneal fecal-slurry injection).
: Basic science research laboratory.
: C57BL/6 male mice.
: Intraperitoneal fecal-slurry injection, with or without zinc supplementation (10 mg/kg of intraperitoneal zinc gluconate for 3 days prior to intraperitoneal fecal-slurry injection).
: Survival over 3 days following intraperitoneal fecal-slurry injection, markers of inflammation, bacterial load studies, and immunophenotyping studies. Zinc-supplemented mice demonstrated a significant survival advantage compared to control (nonsupplemented) mice. Zinc-supplemented mice also demonstrated moderate reductions of inflammation and immune activation. The survival advantage primarily correlated with reduced in vivo bacterial load in zinc-supplemented mice, compared to controls. In addition, peritoneal macrophages harvested from zinc-supplemented mice demonstrated a significantly enhanced phagocytosis capacity for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, compared to peritoneal macrophages harvested from control mice.
: Prophylactic zinc supplementation reduces bacterial load and is beneficial in a murine model of peritoneal sepsis.
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 07/2012; 13(5):e323-9. · 3.13 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Stratification with an effective outcome biomarker could improve the design of interventional trials in pediatric septic shock. The objective of this study was to test the usefulness of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 as an outcome biomarker for mortality in pediatric septic shock.
A cross-sectional, observational study.
Eighteen pediatric intensive care units in the United States.
One hundred fifty-six pediatric patients with septic shock.
Serum samples were obtained within 24 hrs of admission to the pediatric intensive care unit. Serum levels of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared with mortality in a training set of 34 patients. These data were used to generate a cutoff value whose usefulness was evaluated through prospective application-without post hoc modification-to a larger validation set of 122 patients.
On inspection of the training set data, a cutoff value of 140 pg/mL was chosen. When applied to the validation set, serum chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 levels >140 pg/mL yielded a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 40% for mortality. A serum level of < or =140 pg/mL had a negative predictive value for mortality of 98%.
A serum level of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 of < or =140 pg/mL, when obtained within 24 hrs of admission, predicts a very high likelihood of survival in pediatric septic shock. Exclusion of patients with a chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 level of < or =140 pg/mL from interventional clinical trials in pediatric septic shock could create a study population in which survival benefit from the study agent could be more readily demonstrated.
Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 09/2009; 11(2):213-6. · 3.13 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To validate serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as an early biomarker for acute kidney injury in critically ill children with septic shock.
Observational cohort study.
Fifteen North American pediatric intensive care units (PICUs).
A total of 143 critically ill children with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or septic shock and 25 healthy controls.
Serum NGAL was measured during the first 24 hrs of admission to the PICU. Acute kidney injury was defined as a blood urea nitrogen concentration >100 mg/dL, serum creatinine >2 mg/dL in the absence of preexisting renal disease, or the need for dialysis. There was a significant difference in serum NGAL between healthy children (median 80 ng/mL, interquartile ratio [IQR] 55.5-85.5 ng/mL), critically ill children with SIRS (median 107.5 ng/mL, IQR 89-178.5 ng/mL), and critically ill children with septic shock (median 302 ng/mL, IQR 151-570 ng/mL; p < .001). Acute kidney injury developed in 22 of 143 (15.4%) critically ill children. Serum NGAL was significantly increased in critically ill children with acute kidney injury (median 355 ng/mL, IQR 166-1322 ng/mL) compared with those without acute kidney injury (median 186 ng/mL, IQR 98-365 ng/mL; p = .009).
Serum NGAL is a highly sensitive but nonspecific predictor of acute kidney injury in critically ill children with septic shock. Further validation of serum NGAL as a biomarker of acute kidney injury in this population is warranted.
Critical care medicine 04/2008; 36(4):1297-303. · 6.37 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Intracellular heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) is known to serve a broad cytoprotective role. Recent data indicate that stressed cells can release Hsp72 into the extracellular compartment, although the biological function of extracellular Hsp72 remains to be fully elucidated. Because extracellular Hsp72 has been demonstrated to interact with Toll-like receptor 4, we hypothesized that endogenously produced and released Hsp72 would reprogram the mononuclear cell responses to LPS. THP-1 cells treated with LPS were used as a model for nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation. Heat shock conditions consisted of incubation at 43 degrees C for 1 h. Control cells were incubated at 37 degrees C. Twenty four hours after incubation, heat shock conditioned media (HSCM) and control media (CM) were centrifuged, and the respective cells were discarded. A separate group of naive THP-1 cells were then incubated with either HSCM or CM for 18 h and then stimulated with LPS (1 mug/mL). Heat shock significantly increased Hsp72 in HSCM compared with CM. In THP-1 cells transfected with an NF-kappaB luciferase reporter plasmid, the addition of HSCM attenuated subsequent LPS-mediated luciferase activity compared with cells incubated in CM. The addition of HSCM also attenuated LPS-mediated NF-kappaB-DNA binding and IkappaBalpha degradation. Heat shock protein 72-mediated inhibition of NF-kappaB activation was further corroborated by a significant decrease in TNF-alpha production. When HSCM and CM were subjected to Hsp72 depletion via adenosine triphosphate-agarose binding, LPS-mediated activation of NF-kappaB was partially restored, suggesting that Hsp72 is partially responsible for cellular reprogramming in response to HSCM. These data demonstrate that endogenously produced and released extracellular Hsp72 has the ability to reprogram the in vitro response to endotoxin in cultured human mononuclear cells.
Shock (Augusta, Ga.) 02/2008; 30(3):285-92. · 2.87 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Angiopoietin (angpt) 1 and angpt-2 are circulating proteins first ascribed opposing roles in embryonic angiogenesis. Both bind the tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like loop and epidermal growth factor homology domains (Tie) 2 receptor on endothelial cells, but angpt-1 is a Tie-2 agonist, whereas angpt-2 antagonizes Tie-2 signaling. In the developed vasculature, angpt-1 protects against vascular leak, whereas angpt-2 promotes increased vascular permeability. Because alterations in vascular permeability are common in septic shock, we obtained plasma from critically ill children within 24 h of diagnosis of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, n = 20), sepsis (n = 20), or septic shock (n = 61), as well as 15 healthy controls. Plasma levels of angpt-1 and angpt-2 were measured via a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma angpt-2 levels were significantly elevated in children with septic shock when compared with healthy children, as well as critically ill children with either SIRS or sepsis, and circulating angpt-2 levels seemed to correlate with disease severity and outcome. In addition, plasma angpt-1 levels were significantly decreased in critically ill children with septic shock compared with critically ill children with either SIRS or sepsis. Given the contrasting effects of angpt-2 and angpt-1 on the vascular endothelium, these two factors may play an important role in the pathophysiology of septic shock in children, and further studies are warranted.
Shock 01/2008; 28(6):650-654. · 2.85 Impact Factor