Pavel Kosina

University of Hradec Králové, Königgrätz, Královéhradecký, Czech Republic

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Publications (10)6.22 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Presented are the authors' own experiences with invasive pneumococcal diseases in a group of pediatric inpatients with pneumococcal meningitis treated in the Department of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital and Charles University Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové over the last 10 years. Material and Methods: A group of patients aged 0-18 years and hospitalized in the above facility in 2002-2011 was retrospectively assessed. The patients' basic clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes are shown below. Results: Over the study period, 27 children with pneumococcal meningitis were treated; of those, 15 were boys and 12 were girls. The patients' ages ranged from 2 days to 17 years; seventeen children (63 %) were younger than 2 years. On admission, 11 children (40 %) had the infection in the middle ear or paranasal sinuses; intracranial complications were noted in 10 cases. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae in 21 cases. In 6 patients, pneumococcal DNA was determined in the cerebrospinal fluid by PCR. None of the studied patients died. Eight children (29 %) were left with permanent damage; of those, seven had hearing impairment. Conclusion: Even today, pneumococcal meningitis in children remains a serious condition posing a risk of dangerous consequence or even death. To the maximum extent possible, prevention should include vaccination, especially in infants and children with the predisposing factors.
    Klinicka mikrobiologie a infekcni lekarstvi 12/2013; 19(4):128-131.
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    ABSTRACT: Pneumococcal infections continue to pose a serious medical problem. A broad range of serotypes, increasing resistance to antibiotics and high pathogenic potential of pneumococci are associated with development of various clinical forms of diseases. Some chronic diseases are an important predisposing factor for development of pneumococcal infections. The most common noninvasive forms of the disease are otitis, sinusitis, conjunctivitis; pneumonia is on the borderline between the invasive and noninvasive forms. Meningitis, sepsis, endocarditis and arthritis all belong to invasive pneumococcal diseases. The diagnosis is based on the so-called classic microbiological and molecular biology methods aimed at determining the pneumococcal serotype. The treatment recommendations are varied, depending on the resistance status in particular geographic regions. Prevention of the infections is primarily based on vaccination. In the past, only polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) was available; currently, there are conjugate vaccines (PCVs), either 10-valent (PCV10) or 13-valent (PCV13). Initially, PCVs were used exclusively in children; later, PCV13 was approved for selected indications in the adult population. Since 2013, it has been indicated for both children and adults of all ages. These facts have been incorporated into updated guidelines in various specialties. The future of pneumococcal infection prevention rests with the development of protein vaccines.
    Klinicka mikrobiologie a infekcni lekarstvi 12/2013; 19(4):120-127.
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    ABSTRACT: Monitoring of the varicella-zoster virus is becoming an important tool for analysis of the circulation of individual strains of VZV which differ not only at the genomic level, but show a variability in their clinical and epidemiological characteristics. Such data are not available on a large scale from the Czech population and could help understanding the epidemiological and evolutionary characteristics of the virus, as well as its potential for reinfection and increased pathogenesis in the population groups at higher risk for complications. The main aim of this study was detection and monitoring of wild-type or vaccine VZV strain isolates in the region of Eastern Bohemia and genotypic characterization of these isolates. A total of 273 clinical samples were obtained from patients exhibiting symptoms of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection manifested as chickenpox or herpes zoster (HZ) treated in the Faculty Hospital of Charles University, Medical School in Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic. Characterization of individual short VZV DNA sequences was performed utilizing restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), PCR and sequencing. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in open reading frames (ORF) 21, 22 and 50 were used to identify individual VZV strains. All clinical isolates (97 from varicella, 176 from herpes zoster) were VZV positive wild-type strains. Sequencing analysis showed that 89 isolates were of the European E1 genotype, 180 were of the European E2 genotype and 2 were identified as the Mosaic M1 strain. In addition, for the first time in this region two unusual genotypes were identified, both representing a combination of E1 and M2 strain specific SNPs. Our prospective VZV genotyping study which is the first to monitor the VZV epidemiological situation in the Czech Republic using such a large set of clinical specimens, has provided valuable epidemiological data and identified two unique VZV recombinants.
    Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia 12/2011; 155(4):379-84. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report a case of multi-recurrent herpes zoster in a 53-year-old Caucasian woman treated repeatedly at the Faculty Hospital Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic over the years 2009 - 2011. Specific PCR methods targeting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in open reading frames (ORF) 38, 54 and 62 were utilized to determine vaccine or wild type varicella-zoster (VZV) strains followed by SNPs analysis using two amplicons in ORF 22 and/or ORF 21/ORF 50. Additional genotyping in ORF 1, 6, 9 and 28 was subsequently performed due to the unusual results. Three sets of clinical specimens from one patient (from hospital visits 2, 3 and 4) were analyzed and the presence of an unusual wild-type strain of VZV was discovered. The VZV strain isolated from the lesions bears a combination of markers characteristic both for Mosaic 2 (M2) and European 1 (E1) wild-type VZV strains. This is the first report of atypical wild-type VZV strain circulating currently in Czech Republic.
    Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia 12/2011; 155(4):397-401. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Varicella zoster virus typically causes a benign disease in childhood called varicella (chickenpox) and can reactivate in adults as a dermatomally distributed, painful rash illness known as herpes zoster (HZ). Infection with VZV can however lead to severe complications in immunocompromised patients that can result in hospitalization and, occasionally, death. Here we describe a patient, who acquired primary VZV infection during a 3-week-long treatment regimen with corticosteroids. The disease took a fulminant course, leading to a liver failure and severe coagulopathy. The patient died 9 days following hospital admission, despite intensive antiviral and supportive treatment. Wild-type VZV DNA was detected from multiple samples from esophagus, liver and skin. Genotypic analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphism profiles in open reading frames (ORFs) 21, 22 and 50 identified this strain as a clade 4 isolate, which is typically found in tropical countries. This is the first description of a clade 4 strain from a patient in the Czech Republic.
    Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 11/2010; 50(1):72-5. · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Wiener klinische Wochenschrift 02/2008; 120(21-22):710-1. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The severity of streptococcal infections depends upon different virulence of individual strains of its causative agent. The most important species are beta-haemolytic group A streptococci (GAS). Clinical manifestations include skin affections, respiratory tract infections and, in particular, serious systemic invasive infections. The pathogenicity of GAS is derived from cell wall components and extracellular products, especially toxins with properties of the so-called superantigens. Less invasive forms of the disease are include necrotizing fasciitis, myositis, pneumonia, sepsis without focus, arthritis, meningitis, puerperal sepsis, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and severe course of erysipelas and cellulitis with blood culture positive for GAS. In most cases, soft tissue infections dominate, often accompanied by chronic diseases of lower extremities in elderly patients. The other clinical forms are rather rare. In children, the condition is clearly frequently related to chickenpox. The generally accepted therapeutic management comprises comprehensive intensive care, early administration of penicillin in combination with clindamycin, and surgical intervention. The use of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), elimination methods and hyperbaric oxygen are under discussion. The slight increase in cases and ineffective prevention require rapid assessment of diagnosis and adequate treatment as a protracted course of the condition is connected with a high mortality rate.
    Klinicka mikrobiologie a infekcni lekarstvi 01/2008; 13(6):220-4.
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    ABSTRACT: A review of mumps outbreaks among both non-vaccinated and vaccinated children and young adults in the East Bohemian region in 2003-2005 is presented. A significant increase in mumps cases was observed over this period. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed serologically by ELISA detection of IgM antibodies and/or IgG seroconversion and increased levels of IgG antibodies. A reverse transcriptase nested PCR was introduced for direct detection of mumps virus RNA from clinical specimens (nasopharyngeal secretion, saliva, CSF and serum). The isolated RNA will be stored for further analysis and mumps virus genotyping attempts, helpful in tracing the virus circulation in the East Bohemia region. Possible causes of the recent significant increase in mumps cases among the vaccinated population in the Czech Republic are discussed.
    Epidemiologie, mikrobiologie, imunologie: casopis Spolecnosti pro epidemiologii a mikrobiologii Ceske lekarske spolecnosti J.E. Purkyne 12/2006; 55(4):127-35. · 0.31 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Clinical Virology - J CLIN VIROL. 01/2006; 36.
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    ABSTRACT: 1. vyd. Pod názvem: GlaxoSmithKline