[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: About 120 million people worldwide suffer from congenital (early-onset) hearing loss. Thirty percent of them have syndromic hearing loss and the remaining 70% have non-syndromic hearing loss. In addition, a large number of elderly people worldwide suffer from age-related (late-onset) hearing loss. c-Ret and c-RET have been shown to be essential for the development and maintenance of neurons including the enteric nervous system (ENS) in mice and humans. Impairments of endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) and SOX10 have been shown to cause a significantly increased risk of dominant sensorineural deafness in Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) patients. We have recently shown that impairments of tyrosine 1062 (Y1062) phosphorylation in c-Ret causes syndromic congenital deafness in mice and humans and non-syndromic age-related hearing loss with neurodegeneration of spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) in mice. This review focuses on the pathogenesis of hearing loss caused by impairments of c-Ret.
International journal of clinical and experimental pathology 01/2012; 5(1):23-8. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cutaneous malignant melanoma is one of the most serious skin cancers and is highly invasive and markedly resistant to conventional therapy. Melanomagenesis is initially triggered by environmental agents including ultraviolet (UV), which induces genetic/epigenetic alterations in the chromosomes of melanocytes. In human melanomas, the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK (MAPK) and the PI3K/PTEN/AKT (AKT) signaling pathways are two major signaling pathways and are constitutively activated through genetic alterations. Mutations of RAF, RAS, and PTEN contribute to antiapoptosis, abnormal proliferation, angiogenesis, and invasion for melanoma development and progression. To find better approaches to therapies for patients, understanding these MAPK and AKT signaling mechanisms of melanoma development and progression is important. Here, we review MAPK and AKT signaling networks associated with melanoma development and progression.
Dermatology Research and Practice 01/2012; 2012:354191.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various environmental and genetic factors affect the development and progression of skin cancers including melanoma. Melanoma development is initially triggered by environmental factors including ultraviolet (UV) light, and then genetic/epigenetic alterations occur in skin melanocytes. These first triggers alter the conditions of numerous genes and proteins, and they induce and/or reduce gene expression and activate and/or repress protein stability and activity, resulting in melanoma progression. Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is a master regulator gene of melanocyte development and differentiation and is also associated with melanoma development and progression. To find better approaches to molecular-based therapies for patients, understanding MITF function in skin melanoma development and progression is important. Here, we review the molecular networks associated with MITF in skin melanoma development and progression.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that activities of tyrosine kinases and secretion of the active form of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) are correlated with promotion of tumor growth, while apoptotic cell death in cancer cells is correlated with anti-cancer effects. Although arsenic has been reported to have both cancer-promoting and anti-cancer effects, the mechanisms of the arsenic-mediated bidirectional effects remain unknown. We examined the effects of arsenic on both proto-oncogene c-RET-transfected NIH3T3 cells with benign characters and oncogenic RET-MEN2A-transfected NIH3T3 cells with malignant characters. Arsenic promoted not only c-RET tyrosine kinase activity but also genetically activated RET-MEN2A kinase activity with promotion of dimer formation of RET proteins. Arsenic also increased secretion of the active form of MMP-2 in both RET-MEN2A-transfectants and c-RET-transfectants. On the other hand, arsenic promoted poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) degradation and cell death in both malignant and non-malignant cells. Interestingly, l-cysteine inhibited the arsenic-mediated tumor-promoting effects (activation of kinases and MMP-2 secretion) but not arsenic-mediated anti-cancer effects (PARP degradation and cell death). Our results suggest redox-linked regulation of arsenic-mediated activities of kinases and MMP-2 secretion but not arsenic-mediated cell death. Our results also suggest that l-cysteine is an ideal supplement that inhibits arsenic-mediated tumor-promoting effects without affecting arsenic-mediated anti-cancer effects.
Toxicology in Vitro 12/2010; 25(3):623-9. · 2.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study focused on the effects of arsenic (As) on fibroblast-derived matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -14 levels, as these proteins were reported to be associated with tumor progression. Arsenic was found to promote production of the fibroblast-derived active form of MMP-2. Further, As at 100 or 1000 microM increased MMP-14 expression levels in fibroblasts. In addition, 1000 microM mercury (Hg) but not As increased pro-MMP-2 protein, which is involved in the conversion of the proenzyme into its active form. Since MMP-14 is an activator of pro-MMP-2, data suggest that As promotes production of fibroblast-derived active form of MMP-2 through increased expression of MMP-14. Evidence indicates that As appeared to be less effective than Hg in the conversion of pro-MMP-2 into its active form.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 02/2008; 71(16):1053-5. · 1.73 Impact Factor