[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nephrotoxicity is one of the most important complications of cisplatin, a potent chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of various malignancies. 5-HT3 antagonists are widely used to counteract chemotherapy-induced emesis and new studies reveal that they posses notable anti-inflammatory properties. In current study, we investigated the effects of 5-HT3 antagonists on cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice. To identify the underlying mechanism of renal protection by tropisetron, we investigated the probable involvement of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) A single injection of cisplatin (20mg/kg; i.p) induced nephrotoxicity, 5-HT3 antagonists (tropisetron, granisetron and ondansetron,) were given twice daily for 3 day (3mg/kg; i.p). Finally animals were euthanized and blood sample were collected to measure urea and creatinin level. Also kidneys were removed for histopatological examination and biochemical measurements including glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and inflammatory cytokines. tropisetron decreased the expression of inflammatory molecules including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta ( IL-1β) and iNOS and improved histopathalogical damage and renal dysfunction. However other 5-HT3 antagonists, granisetron or ondansetron do not have elicit any effects on biochemical markers and histological damages. Since methyllycaconitine, antagonist of α7nAChR, was unable to reverse the beneficial effect of tropisetron, we concluded that this effect of tropisetron is not mediated α7nAChR.Our results showed that tropisetron treatment markedly ameliorated the experimental cisplatin induced-nephrotoxicity and this effect might be 5-HT3 receptor and α7nAChR independent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative damage has been implicated in disorders associated with abnormal copper metabolism and also Cu(2+) overloading states. Besides, mitochondria are one of the most important targets for Cu(2+), an essential redox transition metal, induced hepatotoxicity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mitochondrial toxicity mechanisms on isolated rat liver mitochondria. Rat liver mitochondria in both in vivo and in vitro experiments were obtained by differential ultracentrifugation and the isolated liver mitochondria were then incubated with different concentrations of Cu(2+). Our results showed that Cu(2+) induced a concentration and time-dependent rise in mitochondrial ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, and mitochondrial membrane potential collapse before mitochondrial swelling ensued. Increased disturbance in oxidative phosphorylation was also shown by decreased ATP concentration and decreased ATP/ADP ratio in Cu(2+)-treated isolated mitochondria. In addition, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial swelling, and release of cytochrome c following of Cu(2+) treatment were well inhibited by pretreatment of mitochondria with CsA and BHT. Our results showed that Cu(2+) could interact with respiratory complexes (I, II, and IV). This suggests that Cu(2+)-induced liver toxicity is the result of metal's disruptive effect on liver hepatocyte mitochondrial respiratory chain that is the obvious cause of Cu(2+)-induced ROS formation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial membrane potential decline, and cytochrome c expulsion which start cell death signaling.
Cell biochemistry and biophysics 04/2014; · 3.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selective delivery of anticancer agents to target areas in the body is desirable to minimize the side effects while maximizing the therapeutic efficacy. Anthracycline antibiotics such as doxorubicin (DOX) are widely used for treatment of a wide variety of solid tumors.This study evaluated the potential of a polymeric micellar formulation of doxorubicin as a nanocarrier system for targeted therapy of a folate-receptor positive human ovarian cancer cell in line.
DOX-conjugated targeting and non-targeting micelles prepared by the dialysis method were about 188 and 182 nm in diameter, respectively and their critical micelle concentration was 9.55 mug/ ml. The DOX-conjugated micelles exhibited a potent cytotoxicity against SKOV3 human ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, the targeting micelles showed higher cytotoxicity than that of non-targeting ones (IC50 = 4.65 mug/ml vs 13.51 mug/ml).
The prepared micelle is expected to increase the efficacy of DOX against cancer cells and reduce its side effects.
DARU-JOURNAL OF FACULTY OF PHARMACY 03/2014; 22(1):30. · 0.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: pH-responsive docetaxel-conjugated poly (lactic acid) (PLA)-polyethyleneglycol (PEG) micellar formulation was synthesized via acid labile hydrazone linkage. Levulinic acid (LEV) was used as a linker between docetaxel (DTX) and hydrazine. Targeted delivery of DTX was achieved by conjugation of folate to PEG segment. The DTX conjugated polymeric micelles were about 181nm in diameter and their critical micelle concentration was 5.18μg/ml. DTX was released from micelles in a pH-dependent manner. The results showed a significant difference in DTX release from polymeric micelles at pH 5.0 and pH 7.4. Cytotoxicity assays using methyl tetrazolium (MTT), neutral red (NR) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) demonstrated a decreased cytotoxic activity of the drug containing nanoconjugate compared with free DTX that appears to be contributed to the sustained release of drug from micelles. Based on these results, it is expected that this pH-responsive nanoconjugate is promising as a useful carrier for targeted delivery of anticancer agents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute treatment with metformin has a protective effect in myocardial infarction by suppression of inflammatory responses due to activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). In the present study, the effect of chronic pre-treatment with metformin on cardiac dysfunction and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activities following myocardial infarction and their relation with AMPK were assessed. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of 5 groups (n=6): normal control and groups were injected isoproterenol after chronic pre-treatment with 0, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg of metformin twice daily for 14 days. Isoproterenol (100 mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously on the 13th and 14th days to induce acute myocardial infarction. Isoproterenol alone decreased left ventricular systolic pressure and myocardial contractility indexed as LV dp/dtmax and LV dp/dtmin. The left ventricular dysfunction was significantly lower in the groups treated with 25 and 50 mg/kg of metformin. Metfromin markedly lowered isoproterenol-induced elevation in the levels of TLR4 mRNA, myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the heart tissues. Similar changes were also seen in the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6. However, the lower doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg were more effective than 100 mg/kg. Phosphorylated AMPKα (p-AMPK) in the myocardium was significantly elevated by 25 mg/kg of metformin, slightly by 50 mg/kg, but not by 100 mg/kg. Chronic pre-treatment with metformin reduces post-myocardial infarction cardiac dysfunction and suppresses inflammatory responses, possibly through inhibition of TLR4 activities. This mechanism can be considered as a target to protect infarcted myocardium.
European Journal of Pharmacology. 01/2014; 737:77–84.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depleted uranium (DU) is widely used in military anti-armor weapons. Recent evidence suggested that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to DU-induced toxicity. However, the underlying mechanisms of DU toxicity in mitochondria are not well understood. In this study, liver mitochondria were obtained from Wistar rats treated with DU in the form of uranyl acetate (UA) (0.5, 1 or 2 mg/kg i.p.) using differential centrifugation. For in vitro experiments, control rat liver mitochondria were incubated with different concentrations of UA (50, 100 or 200 μM) for 1 hr. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, and mitochondrial swelling were examined by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial sources of ROS formation were determined using specific substrates and inhibitors. Extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH) oxidation, and also complex II and IV activities were detected via spectroscopy. Further, the concentration of ATP and ATP/ADP ratio was measured using luciferase enzyme and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria which was detected by ELISA kit. UA induced succinate-supported mitochondrial ROS production, elevated LPO levels, GSH oxidation, and mitochondrial complex II inhibition. UA also induced mitochondrial permeability transition and increase in cytochrome c release which subsequently disturbed oxidative phosphorylation and reduced the mitochondrial ATP concentration. Data suggest that mitochondrial oxidative stress and uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation may play key roles in DU-induced hepatic toxicity.
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry 10/2013;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tropisetron, a selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, has been widely used to counteract chemotherapy-induced emesis. New investigations described immunomodulatory properties for tropisetron which may not be 5HT3R mediated. In the present study, we assessed the potential effects of tropisetron on an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE was induced in C57BL/6 mice by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG35-55) immunization. Animals were treated with tropisetron (5mg/kg/day); m-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG), a selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist (10mg/kg/day); tropisetron (5mg/kg/day) plus mCPBG(10mg/kg/day), and granisetron (5mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally on days 3-35 post-immunization (pi). Treatment with tropisetron and granisetron markedly suppressed the clinical symptoms of EAE (P< 0.001) and reduced leukocyte infiltration as well as demyelination in spinal cord (P < 0.05). In addition, in vivo tropisetron, granisetron or tropisetron plus mCPBG therapy greatly reduced in vitro MOG35-55-stimulated proliferation of mononuclear cells (MNC) from spleens, and MOG35-55-induced IL-2, IL-6 and IL-17 production by splenocytes isolated from EAE-induced mice (P < 0.05). Concurrent administration of tropisetron and mCPBG did not significantly alter the histological damage in the spinal cord. mCPBG had no effect on the mentioned parameters. Taken together, these findings indicate that tropisetron has considerable immunoregulatory functions in EAE and may be promising for the treatment of MS or other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases of the CNS. Furthermore, beneficial effects of tropisetron in this setting seem to be both receptor dependent and receptor independent in the early phase of the disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species which attack various cellular components. Radio-protectors act as prophylactic agents to shield healthy cells and tissues from the harmful effects of radiation.
Past research on synthetic radio-protectors has brought little success, primarily due to the various toxicity-related problems. Results of experimental research show that antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamin E and herbal products and melatonin, are protective against the damaging effects of radiation, with less toxicity and side effects. Melatonin ameliorate the oxidative injuries due to ionizing radiation and is a potentially useful radioprotector. Moreover, based on radiobiological models we can hypothesize that melatonin may postpone the saturation of repair enzymes which leads to repairing more induced damage by repair system and more importantly allows the use of higher doses of radiation during radiation oncology to get a better therapeutic ratio. Therefore, we propose that, in the future, antioxidant radio-protective agents such as melatonin may improve the therapeutic index in radiation oncology treatments.
Iranian Congress of Nuclear Medicine, Shiraz, Iran; 05/2013
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depleted uranium (DU) is emerging as an environmental pollutant primarily due to its military applications. Gulf War veterans with embedded DU showed cognitive disorders that suggest that the central nervous system is a target of DU. Recent evidence has suggested that DU could induce oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in brain tissue. However, the underlying mechanisms of DU toxicity in brain mitochondria are not yet well understood. Brain mitochondria were obtained using differential centrifugation and were incubated with different concentrations (50, 100 and 200 μM) of uranyl acetate (UA) as a soluble salt of U(238) for 1 h. In this research, mitochondrial ROS production, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial swelling were examined by flow cytometry following the addition of UA. Meanwhile, mitochondrial sources of ROS formation were determined using specific substrates and inhibitors. Complex II and IV activity and also the extent of lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) oxidation were detected via spectroscopy. Furthermore, we investigated the concentration of ATP and ATP/ADP ratio using luciferase enzyme and cytochrome c release from mitochondria which was detected by ELISA kit. UA caused concentration-dependent elevation of succinate-linked mitochondrial ROS production, lipid peroxidation, GSH oxidation and inhibition of mitochondrial complex II. UA also induced mitochondrial permeability transition, ATP production decrease and increase in cytochrome c release. Pre-treatment with antioxidants significantly inhibited all the above mentioned toxic effects of UA. This study suggests that mitochondrial oxidative stress and impairment of oxidative phosphorylation in brain mitochondria may play a key role in DU neurotoxicity as reported in Gulf War Syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vanadium as a trace element is considered essential for animals; however it has not yet been recognized as a micronutrient for humans. Most of the information on the biological effects of vanadium was related to metal's insulin-like, anti-hyperlipidemic and anticancer properties in low concentrations. According to the previous literature, mitochondria were proposed as an important target for vanadium cytotoxicity. In this study, the mitochondrial toxicity mechanisms of sodium metavanadate (vanadium V or V(5+)) were investigated in the isolated mitochondria obtained from rat liver by differential centrifugation and mitochondrial toxicity endpoints as well as mitochondrial sources of ROS formation were determined in both in vivo and in vitro using specific substrates and inhibitors. Single injection of V(5+) into Wistar rat (10, 20 and 40 mg kg(-1), i.p.) caused a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels. Isolated mitochondria from the V(5+)-treated rat liver showed a marked elevation in oxidative stress parameters accompanied by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse as compared to a control group. On the other hand, our in vitro results with isolated mitochondria showed that different concentrations of V(5+) (25-200 μM) induced significant (P < 0.05) progress in mitochondrial ROS formation, ATP depletion, GSH oxidation, mitochondrial outer membrane rupture, mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release before the mitochondrial potential collapse ensued. We also showed that the V(5+) interaction with respiratory complex III is the major source of V(5+)-induced ROS formation. In general, our in vivo and in vitro data strongly supported that the V(5+)-induced liver toxicity is a result of the metal disruptive effect on the mitochondrial respiratory complexes I, II and III which are the obvious causes of metal-induced ROS formation and ATP depletion in liver cells which leads to cell death signalling via MPT pore opening and cytochrome c release.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arsenic exposure mainly through food and water has been shown to be associated with increased incidence of numerous cancers and non-cancer harmful health. It is also used in cancer chemotherapy and treatment of several cancer types due to its apoptogenic effects in the various cancer and normal cell lines. We have already reported that liver is the storage site and important target organ in As (III) toxicity and recently, it has been suggested that hepatic toxicity of arsenic could be resulted from impairment of the liver mitochondria. In this study, interaction of As (III) with freshly isolated rat mitochondria was investigated. We determined different mitochondrial toxicity factors as well as mitochondrial sources of ROS formation using specific substrates and inhibitors following addition of As (III) to the mitochondria. Our results showed that arsenic (III) increased mitochondrial ROS formation, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, cytochrome c release and mitochondrial swelling in a concentration dependent manner. Addition of As (III) in to the isolated mitochondria, inhibited complexes I and II leading to disruption of mitochondrial electron transfer chain, decreased mitochondrial ATP content and ROS formation.
Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research (IJPR) 01/2013; 12(Suppl):121-38. · 0.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to induce excessive fluxes of free radicals that attack various cellular components. Melatonin has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger and indirect antioxidant via its stimulatory actions on the antioxidant system.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant role of melatonin against radiation-induced oxidative injury to the rat liver after whole body irradiation.
In this experimental study,thirty-two rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control group, group 2 only received melatonin (30 mg/kg on the first day and 30 mg/kg on the following days), group 3 only received whole body gamma irradiation of 10 Gy, and group 4 received 30 mg/kg melatonin 30 minutes prior to radiation plus whole body irradiation of 10 Gy plus 30 mg/kg melatonin daily through intraperitoneal (IP) injection for three days after irradiation. Three days after irradiation, all rats were sacrificed and their livers were excised to measure the biochemical parameters malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH). Each data point represents mean ± standard error on the mean (SEM) of at least eight animals per group. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare different groups, followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests (p<0.05).
The results demonstrated that whole body irradiation induced liver tissue damage by increasing MDA levels and decreasing GSH levels. Hepatic MDA levels in irradiated rats that were treated with melatonin (30 mg/kg) were significantly decreased, while GSH levels were significantly increased, when compared to either of the control groups or the melatonin only group.
The data suggest that administration of melatonin before and after irradiation may reduce liver damage caused by gamma irradiation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to induce excessive fluxes of free radicals that attack various cellular components. Melatonin has been shown to be a direct free radical scavenger and indirect antioxidant via its stimulatory actions on the antioxidant system.The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant role of melatonin against radiation-induced oxidative injury to the rat liver after whole body irradiation.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study,thirty-two rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was the control group, group 2 only received melatonin (30 mg/kg on the first day and 30 mg/kg on the following days), group 3 only received whole body gamma irradiation of 10 Gy, and group 4 received 30 mg/kg melatonin 30 minutes prior to radiation plus whole body irradiation of 10 Gy plus 30 mg/kg melatonin daily through intraperitoneal (IP) injection for three days after irradiation. Three days after irradiation, all rats were sacrificed and their livers were excised to measure the biochemical parameters malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH). Each data point represents mean ± standard error on the mean (SEM) of at least eight animals per group. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to compare different groups, followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison tests (p<0.05).
Results: The results demonstrated that whole body irradiation induced liver tissue damage by increasing MDA levels and decreasing GSH levels. Hepatic MDA levels in irradiated rats that were treated with melatonin (30 mg/kg) were significantly decreased, while GSH levels were significantly increased, when compared to either of the control groups or the melatonin only group.
Conclusion: The data suggest that administration of melatonin before and after irradiation may reduce liver damage caused by gamma irradiation.
Keywords: Radiation, Lipid peroxidation, MDA, GSH
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutathione (GSH) is one of the most important antioxidants that plays an essential role in detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which oxidizes to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Paraquat (PQ), awidely used herbicide, causes pulmonary injury with the productionof ROS. Excessive ROS accumulation as a consequence of PQ exposure are frequently targeted by GSH thereby oxidative stress leads to depletion of cellular GSH by transforming of GSH to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). A precise method of measuring of GSSG concentration in plasma as indicator of oxidative stress is needed. Some analytical techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography and capillary electrophoresis have been used for determination of GSSG concentration. In the present study, a new HPLC method with fluorescence detection based on derivatization of the amine group of glutathione with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) was developed. Male Wistar albino rats exposed to different doses of PQ (20-60 mg/kg) and control group were used and after protein precipitation, their plasma was subjected to derivatization with FMOC in the presence of borate buffer. The derivatized samples were injected to HPLC system with C18 column, mobile phase consisting of methanol and phosphate buffer, λem= 315 nm, λex= 260 nm. Among all experimental groups, the rats which received 60 mg/kg PQ, showed a significant increase in the amount of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) compared to the control group. In this study, the applied derivatization and HPLC method made it possible to measure small amounts of glutathione in plasma using a precise and sensitive technique.
Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research (IJPR) 01/2013; 12(4):911-6. · 0.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/AIMS: Sepsis is a common complication of cirrhosis with a high mortality. Cirrhosis is associated with cardiac chronotropic and inotropic dysfunction, which is known as cirrhotic cardiomyopathy and might be linked to endotoxaemia. This study was aimed to explore the hypothesis that the inflammatory response induced by administration of low dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exacerbates cardiac chronotropic dysfunction in cirrhotic rats; and if so, whether this is associated with altered cardiac toll-like receptor expression. METHODS: Cirrhosis was induced by surgical ligation of the bile duct in male Wister rats. Four weeks after bile duct ligation or sham surgery, the subjects were given intraperitoneal injection of either saline or LPS (0.1 mg/kg). Five hours after LPS injection, the atria were isolated and spontaneously beating rate and chronotropic responsiveness to β-adrenergic stimulation was assessed using standard organ bath. The expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) was assessed the atria using immunohistochemistry as well as quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: LPS injection could induce a significant hypo-responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation in sham-operated rats. However, in cirrhotic rats, the chronotropic responses did not change after acute injection of LPS. Immunohistochemical study showed that TLR4 is mainly expressed in the myocardium in control atria and its expression is markedly decreased in myocardial layer following chronic bile duct ligation. CONCLUSION: Our data showed that cirrhosis is associated with development of tolerance to cardiac chronotropic effect of LPS in rats and this might be caused by altered localization of TLR4 in myocardium.
Liver international: official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver 11/2012; · 3.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purified laccase from the soil ascomycete, Paraconiothyrium variabile was employed in the degradation of 7 benzodiazepine substances in the absence and presence of the enzyme mediators, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT), 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS), 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (DMP), and vanillic acid (VA). In the absence of a laccase mediator, the original concentrations of 10μgmL(-1) of nitrazepam, alprazolam, diazepam, and oxazepam decreased by 27.3%, 45.6%, 18.6% and 18.7%, respectively, after 48h treatment using the purified enzyme, whereas the removal percentages for clobazam, chlordiazepoxide, and lorazepam were only 5.6%, 3.6%, and 4.1%, respectively. Among the laccase mediators, HBT was the most efficient compound, increasing the degradation percentages of nitrazepam, alprazolam, diazepam, and oxazepam to 73%, 88.1%, 61.4%, and 71.2%, respectively. The removal percentages of clobazam, chlordiazepoxide, and lorazepam was increased to 8.2%, 4.7%, and 6.5%, respectively, when the laccase-HBT system was used. The data presented suggest that the laccase-mediated system has potential for the elimination of some benzodiazepines in aqueous solution.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The close relationship between free radicals effects and apoptosis process has been proved. Melatonin has been reported as a direct free radical scavenger. We investigated the capability of melatonin in the modification of radiation-induced apoptosis and apoptosis-associated upstream regulators expression in rat peripheral blood lymphocytes. Rats were irradiated with a single whole body Cobalt 60-gamma radiation dose of 8Gy at a dose rate of 101cGy/min with or without melatonin pretreatments at different concentrations of 10 and 100mg/kg body weight. The rats were divided into eight groups of control, irradiation-only, vehicle-only, vehicle plus irradiation, 10mg/kg melatonin alone, 10mg/kg melatonin plus irradiation, 100mg/kg melatonin alone and 100mg/kg melatonin plus irradiation. Rats were given an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of melatonin or the same volume of vehicle alone 1h prior to irradiation. Blood samples were taken 4, 24, 48 and 72h after irradiation for evaluation of flow cytometric analysis of apoptotic lymphocytes using Annexin V/PI assay and measurement of bax and bcl-2 expression using quantitative real-time PCR (RT(2)qPCR). Irradiation-only and vehicle plus irradiation showed an increase in the percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes significantly different from control group (P<0.01), while melatonin pretreatments in a dose-dependent manner reduced it as compared with the irradiation-only and vehicle plus irradiation groups (P<0.01) in all time points. This reduced apoptosis by melatonin was related to the downregulation of bax, upregulation of bcl-2, and therefore reduction of bax/bcl-2 ratio. Our results suggest that melatonin in these doses may provide modulation of bax and bcl-2 expression as well as bax/bcl-2 ratio to protect rat peripheral blood lymphocytes from gamma irradiation-induced apoptosis.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 09/2012; · 3.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kidney is known as the most sensitive target organ for depleted uranium (DU) toxicity in comparison to other organs. Although the oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage induced by DU has been well investigated, the precise mechanism of DU-induced nephrotoxicity has not been thoroughly recognized yet.
Kidney mitochondria were obtained using differential centrifugation from Wistar rats and mitochondrial toxicity endpoints were then determined in both in vivo and in vitro uranyl acetate (UA) exposure cases.
Single injection of UA (0, 0.5, 1 and 2mg/kg, i.p.) caused a significant increase in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels. Isolated mitochondria from the UA-treated rat kidney showed a marked elevation in oxidative stress accompanied by mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse as compared to control group. Incubation of isolated kidney mitochondria with UA (50, 100 and 200μM) manifested that UA can disrupt the electron transfer chain at complex II and III that leads to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione oxidation. Disturbances in oxidative phosphorylation were also demonstrated through decreased ATP concentration and ATP/ADP ratio in UA-treated mitochondria. In addition, UA induced a significant damage in mitochondrial outer membrane. Moreover, MMP collapse, mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release were observed following the UA treatment in isolated mitochondria.
Both our in vivo and in vitro results showed that UA-induced nephrotoxicity is linked to the impairment of electron transfer chain especially at complex II and III which leads to subsequent oxidative stress.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2012; 1820(12):1940-50. · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thalidomide is an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent and is used in autoimmune disorders. It has been shown that thalidomide inhibits proinflammatory cytokines production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of thalidomide on the prevention of autoimmune diabetes in mice. Diabetes was induced by multiple low-dose of streptozotocin (MLDS) injection. Mice were treated with thalidomide (300mg/kg/day orally) for 21days. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin and nitrate/nitrite as well as pancreatic cytokine levels were measured. Pathological examinations of the pancreas revealed that thalidomide reduced the islet inflammation (insulitis) and destruction of beta cells. Thalidomide treatment prevented hyperglycemia and preserved pancreatic insulin secretion in the diabetic mice. Thalidomide treatment also significantly decreased plasma levels of nitric oxide and pancreatic proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17 and interferon (IFN)-γ)] while increased anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. In conclusion, these findings indicate that thalidomide may have a protective effect against the autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic beta-cells during the development of MLDS-induced type 1 diabetes in mice.