[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel method is proposed for direct detection of DNA hybridization on microarrays. Optical interferometry is used for label-free sensing of biomolecular accumulation on glass surfaces, enabling dynamic detection of interactions. Capabilities of the presented method are demonstrated by high-throughput sensing of solid-phase hybridization of oligonucleotides. Hybridization of surface immobilized probes with 20 base pair-long target oligonucleotides was detected by comparing the label-free microarray images taken before and after hybridization. Through dynamic data acquisition during denaturation by washing the sample with low ionic concentration buffer, melting of duplexes with a single-nucleotide mismatch was distinguished from perfectly matching duplexes with high confidence interval (>97%). The presented technique is simple, robust, and accurate, and eliminates the need of using labels or secondary reagents to monitor the oligonucleotide hybridization.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A platform for in situ and real-time measurement of protein-induced conformational changes in dsDNA is presented. We combine electrical orientation of surface-bound dsDNA probes with an optical technique to measure the kinetics of DNA conformational changes. The sequence-specific Escherichia coli integration host factor is utilized to demonstrate protein-induced bending upon binding of integration host factor to dsDNA probes. The effects of probe surface density on binding/bending kinetics are investigated. The platform can accommodate individual spots of microarrayed dsDNA on individually controlled, lithographically designed electrodes, making it amenable for use as a high throughput assay.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2010; 107(4):1397-401. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A primary advantage of label-free detection methods over fluorescent measurements is its quantitative detection capability, since an absolute measure of adsorbed material facilitates kinetic characterization of biomolecular interactions. Interferometric techniques relate the optical phase to biomolecular layer density on the surface, but the conversion factor has not previously been accurately determined. We present a calibration method for phase shift measurements and apply it to surface-bound bovine serum albumin, immunoglobulin G, and single-stranded DNA. Biomolecules with known concentrations dissolved in salt-free water were spotted with precise volumes on the array surface and upon evaporation of the water, left a readily calculated mass. Using our label-free technique, the calculated mass of the biolayer was compared with the measured thickness, and we observed a linear dependence over 4 orders of magnitude. We determined that the widely accepted conversion of 1 nm of thickness corresponds to approximately 1 ng/mm(2) surface density held reasonably well for these substances and through our experiments can now be further specified for different types of biomolecules. Through accurate calibration of the dependence of thickness on surface density, we have established a relation allowing precise determination of the absolute number of molecules for single-stranded DNA and two different proteins.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The conformation of a three-dimensional polymeric coating (copoly(DMA-NAS-MAPS)) and immobilization and hybridization of DNA strands on the polymer coated surface are investigated. A conformational change, specifically the swelling of the surface adsorbed polymer upon hydration, is quantified in conjunction with the application of this polymer coating for DNA microarray applications. Fluorescently labeled short DNA strands (23mers) covalently linked to the functional groups on the adsorbed polymer are used as probes to measure the swelling of the polymer. A fluorescence microscopy technique, Spectral Self-Interference Fluorescence Microscopy (SSFM), is utilized to directly measure the change in axial position of fluorophores due to swelling with subnanometer accuracy. Additionally, immobilization characteristics of single stranded DNA (ssDNA) and double stranded DNA (dsDNA) probes, as well as hybridization of ssDNA with target strands have been studied. The results show that ssDNA further away from the surface is hybridized more efficiently, which strengthens the earlier analysis of this polymeric coating as a simple but highly efficient and robust DNA microarray surface chemistry.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The conversion between the detected optical phase and the biological mass accumulated on the surface is determined using a label-free interferometric technique. The results demonstrate a linear phase/mass relationship for DNA and protein microarrays.