[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A positive impact of exercise intervention programmes on quality of life (QoL) may be important for long-term patient compliance to exercise recommendations. We have previously shown that QoL improves significantly with supervised exercise, whereas it worsens with counselling alone, in patients with type 2 diabetes from the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study (IDES). Here, we report data on the relationship between changes in QoL and volume of physical activity/exercise in these individuals.
This multicentre parallel randomised controlled, open-label, trial enrolled sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 606 of 691 eligible) in 22 outpatient diabetes clinics. Patients were randomised by centre, age and diabetes treatment using a permuted-block design to twice-a-week supervised aerobic and resistance training plus exercise counselling (exercise group) versus counselling alone (control group) for 12 months. Health-related QoL was assessed by the 36-Item Short Form (SF-36) Health Survey.
In the exercise group (n = 268 of 303 randomised), there was a trend for increasing QoL with increasing exercise volume, with significant improvement of the physical component summary (PCS) measure only above 17.5 metabolic equivalents h⁻¹ week⁻¹ and a clear volume-relationship for the mental component summary (MCS) measure. A relationship with volume of physical activity also was observed in the control group (n = 260 of 303 randomised), despite overall deterioration of all scores. Independent correlates of improvements in both PCS and MCS were exercise volume, study arm and, inversely, baseline score.
This large trial shows a relationship between changes in physical and mental health-related QoL measures and volume of physical activity/exercise, with supervised exercise training also providing volume-independent benefits.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cardiorespiratory fitness, which is determined mainly by the level of physical activity, is inversely related to mortality in the general population as well as in subjects with diabetes, the incidence of which is also increased by low exercise capacity. Exercise is capable of promoting glucose utilization in normal subjects as well as in insulin-deficient or insulin-resistant diabetic individuals. In diabetic subjects treated with insulin or insulin secretagogues, exercise may also result in complications, with too much insulin causing hypoglycaemia and not enough insulin leading to hyperglycaemia and possibly ketoacidosis; both complications may also occur several hours after exercise. Therefore, self-monitoring of blood glucose before, during (for exercise duration of more than 1 h) and after physical exercise is highly recommended, and also carbohydrate supplementation may be required. In the Italian Diabetes Exercise Study (IDES), measurement of blood glucose and systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels before and after supervised sessions of combined (aerobic + resistance) exercise in type 2 diabetic subjects with the metabolic syndrome showed significant reductions of these parameters, though no major hypoglycaemic or hypotensive episode was detected. The extent of reduction of blood glucose was related to baseline values but not to energy expenditure and was higher in subjects treated with insulin than in those on diet or oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA). Thus, supervised exercise training associated with blood glucose monitoring is an effective and safe intervention to decrease blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic subjects.
Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 10/2009; 25 Suppl 1:S11-7. · 2.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Podocyte loss by apoptosis, in addition to favouring progression of established diabetic nephropathy, has been recently indicated as an early phenomenon triggering the initiation of glomerular lesions. This study aimed to assess the rate of glomerular cell death and its relationship with renal functional, structural and molecular changes in rats with experimental diabetes.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and coeval non-diabetic control animals were killed at 7 days and at 2, 4 and 6 months for the assessment of apoptosis, renal function, renal structure and the expression of podocyte markers and apoptosis- and cell cycle-related proteins.
Glomerular cell apoptosis was significantly increased in diabetic vs non-diabetic rats at 4 months and to an even greater extent at 6 months, with podocytes accounting for 70% of apoptosing cells. The increase in apoptosis was preceded by increases in proteinuria, albuminuria and mean glomerular and mesangial areas, and by reductions in glomerular cell density and content of synaptopodin and Wilms' tumour protein-1. It coincided with the development of mesangial expansion and glomerular sclerosis, and with the upregulation/activation both of tumour protein p53, which increased progressively throughout the study, and of p21 (also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A, CIP1 and WAF1), which peaked at 4 months and decreased thereafter.
Glomerular cell (podocyte) apoptosis is not an early feature in the course of experimental diabetic glomerulopathy, since it is preceded by glomerular hypertrophy, which may decrease glomerular cell density to the point of inducing compensatory podocyte hypertrophy. This is associated with reduced podocyte protein expression (podocytopathy) and proteinuria, and ultimately results in apoptotic cell loss (podocytopenia), driving progression to mesangial expansion and glomerular sclerosis.