Miki Okada

University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States

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Publications (8)25.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Conyza canadensis (horseweed), a member of the Compositae (Asteraceae) family, was the first broadleaf weed to evolve resistance to glyphosate. Horseweed, one of the most problematic weeds in the world, is a true diploid (2n=2X=18) with the smallest genome of any known agricultural weed (335 Mb). Thus, it is an appropriate candidate to help us understand the genetic and genomic basis of weediness. We undertook a draft de novo genome assembly of horseweed by combining data from multiple sequencing platforms (454 GS-FLX, Illumina HiSeq 2000 and PacBio RS) using various libraries with different insertion sizes (~350 bp, ~600 bp, ~3 kb and ~10 kb) of a Tennessee-accessed, glyphosate-resistant horseweed biotype. From 116.3 Gb (~350× coverage) of data, the genome was assembled into 13,966 scaffolds with N50 =33,561 bp. The assembly covered 92.3% of the genome, including the complete chloroplast genome (~153 kb) and a nearly-complete mitochondrial genome (~450 kb in 120 scaffolds). The nuclear genome is comprised of 44,592 protein-coding genes. Genome re-sequencing of seven additional horseweed biotypes was performed. These sequence data were assembled and used to analyze genome variation. Simple sequence repeat and single nucleotide polymorphisms were surveyed. Genomic patterns were detected that associated with glyphosate-resistant or -susceptible biotypes. The draft genome will be useful to better understand weediness, the evolution of herbicide resistance, and to devise new management strategies. The genome will also be useful as another reference genome in the Compositae. To our knowledge, this paper represents the first published draft genome of an agricultural weed.
    Plant physiology. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Recent increases in glyphosate use in perennial crops of California, USA, are hypothesized to have led to an increase in selection and evolution of resistance to the herbicide in Conyza canadensis populations. To gain insight into the evolutionary origins and spread of resistance and to inform glyphosate resistance management strategies, we investigated the geographical distribution of glyphosate resistance in C. canadensis across and surrounding the Central Valley, its spatial relationship to groundwater protection areas (GWPA), and the genetic diversity and population structure and history using microsatellite markers. Frequencies of resistant individuals in 42 sampled populations were positively correlated with the size of GWPA within counties. Analyses of population genetic structure also supported spread of resistance in these areas. Bayesian clustering and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) analyses revealed multiple independent origins of resistance within the Central Valley. Based on parameter estimation in the ABC analyses, resistant genotypes underwent expansion after glyphosate use began in agriculture, but many years before it was detected. Thus, diversity in weed control practices prior to herbicide regulation in GWPA probably kept resistance frequencies low. Regionally coordinated efforts to reduce seed dispersal and selection pressure are needed to manage glyphosate resistance in C. canadensis.
    Evolutionary Applications 03/2013; · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Resistance to the thiocarbamates has been selected in early watergrass populations within the rice-growing region of California. To elucidate the processes contributing to the spread of resistance among rice fields, we characterized the genetic diversity and differentiation of thiobencarb-resistant (R) and thiobencarb-susceptible (S) populations across the Central Valley using microsatellite markers. A total of 406 individuals from 22 populations were genotyped using seven nuclear microsatellite primer pairs. Three analytical approaches (unshared allele, Shannon–Weaver, and allelic-phenotype statistics) were used to assess genetic diversity and differentiation in the allohexaploid species. Low levels of genetic variation were detected within populations, consistent with other highly selfing species, with S populations tending to be more diverse than R populations. FST values indicated that populations were genetically differentiated and that genetic differentiation was greater among S populations than R populations. Principal coordinate analysis generated two orthogonal axes that explained 88% of the genetic variance among early watergrass populations and differentiated populations by geographical region, which was associated with resistance phenotype. A Mantel test revealed that genetic distances between R populations were positively correlated with the geographical distances separating populations. Taken together, our results suggest that both short- and long-distance seed dispersal, and multiple local and independent evolutionary events, are involved in the spread of thiobencarb-resistant early watergrass across rice fields in the Sacramento Valley. In contrast, resistance was not detected in early watergrass populations in the San Joaquin Valley.
    Weed Science 04/2011; · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polyploidy, ploidal variation between populations, and aneuploidy within some populations complicate population genetic analyses in switchgrass. We report 21 genic-simple sequence repeat marker loci with single-locus disomic segregation in tetraploids and apparently tetrasomic inheritance in octoploids, thus allowing population genetic analyses across ploidy levels. Based on 472 individuals sampled over four tetraploid and eight octoploid cultivars, six to 55 alleles were detected per locus with an average of 24.1. Genetic diversity was greater in octoploids than tetraploids, as expected from polysomic inheritance. One tetraploid cultivar displayed comparable diversity to the least diverse octoploid cultivars, suggesting breeding history or population history in the native stands of origin may have also affected within-cultivar diversity. Amplicon number at each locus and population relationships suggest autopolyploid origin of octoploids within upland tetraploids with significant cultivar differentiation. However, model-based Bayesian clustering of individuals indicated that closely related octoploid cultivars are difficult to identify, possibly due to slowed differentiation by polysomic inheritance. The analysis of the sampling effect indicated addition of loci is more effective for cultivar identification than more individuals sampled per cultivar. Discriminating power of loci tended to correlate with their variability. The eight loci with greatest discriminatory power within tetraploids were equally successful as 20 loci at identifying the four tetraploid cultivars. The set of markers reported in this study are useful for characterization of switchgrass germplasm and identifying population structure for association studies. KeywordsBioenergy–Cultivar identification–Microsatellite marker– Panicum virgatum –Polyploidy–Population genetic diversity
    Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 01/2011; 58(6):919-931. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polyploidy is an important aspect of the evolution of flowering plants. The potential of gene copies to diverge and evolve new functions is influenced by meiotic behavior of chromosomes leading to segregation as a single locus or duplicated loci. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) linkage maps were constructed using a full-sib population of 238 plants and SSR and STS markers to access the degree of preferential pairing and the structure of the tetraploid genome and as a step toward identification of loci underlying biomass feedstock quality and yield. The male and female framework map lengths were 1645 and 1376 cM with 97% of the genome estimated to be within 10 cM of a mapped marker in both maps. Each map coalesced into 18 linkage groups arranged into nine homeologous pairs. Comparative analysis of each homology group to the diploid sorghum genome identified clear syntenic relationships and collinear tracts. The number of markers with PCR amplicons that mapped across subgenomes was significantly fewer than expected, suggesting substantial subgenome divergence, while both the ratio of coupling to repulsion phase linkages and pattern of marker segregation indicated complete or near complete disomic inheritance. The proportion of transmission ratio distorted markers was relatively low, but the male map was more extensively affected by distorted transmission ratios and multilocus interactions, associated with spurious linkages.
    Genetics 07/2010; 185(3):745-60. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ludwigia hexapetala and L. grandiflora are recent, aggressive invaders of freshwater wetlands in California. To assess the relative role of sexual versus clonal reproduction in invasive spread, we used AFLPmarkers to genotype 794 ramets of L. hexapetala sampled from 27 populations in three watersheds of California, and 150 ramets of L. grandiflora from five populations in a fourth watershed. We then used two analytical methods, similarity thresholds and character incompatibilities, to distinguish genotypic variation within genets (clones) from variation between genets. Our analyses revealed extremely limited genotypic and genet variation in invasive L. hexapetala and L. grandiflora within California. Within L. hexapetala, 95% of the ramets analyzed represented a single genet. The genet was the only one detected in 20 populations. The remaining seven populations contained two to nine genets. Within L. grandiflora, all ramets were of only one genotype. Thus, invasive spread within and between populations, and across watersheds, appears to be almost exclusively clonal and brought about by the dispersal of vegetative propagules. The extremely low seedling recruitment indicates that management should target vegetative dispersal and growth.
    Aquatic Botany 03/2009; 91((2009)):123-129. · 1.59 Impact Factor
  • Miki Okada, Mark Lyle, Marie Jasieniuk
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    ABSTRACT: Aim  Reconstructing the introduction history of exotic species is critical to understanding ecological and evolutionary processes that underlie invasive spread and to designing strategies that prevent or manage invasions. The aims of this study were to infer the introduction history of the invasive apomictic bunchgrass Cortaderia jubata and to determine if molecular data support the postulated horticultural origin of invasive populations.Location  Invaded areas in the USA (California, Maui) and New Zealand; native areas in Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru.Methods  We used nuclear microsatellite markers to genotype 281 plants from invaded areas in California, Maui and New Zealand, and 77 herbarium specimens from native South America, and compared the genotypic and clonal variation of C. jubata from the invaded and native ranges. Clonal diversity was determined from genotypic diversity using two analytical methods.Results  Invasive C. jubata from invaded regions in California, Maui and New Zealand consisted of the same single clone that probably originated from a single introduced genotype. In contrast, 14 clones were detected in herbarium specimens from the native areas of Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru. The invasive clone matched the most common clone identified in herbarium specimens from southern Ecuador where horticultural stock is presumed to have originated.Main conclusions  The lack of clonal and genotypic diversity in invasive plants, but moderately high diversity detected in native plants, indicates a significant reduction in genetic variation associated with the introduction of C. jubata outside of its native range. Based on historical accounts of the horticultural introduction of C. jubata and the results of this study, a severe founder effect probably occurred during deliberate introduction of C. jubata into cultivation. Our results are consistent with the postulated horticultural origin of invasive C. jubata and point to southern Ecuador as the geographical source of invasive populations.
    Diversity and Distributions 10/2008; 15(1):148 - 157. · 6.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: International trade in horticultural plants is a major pathway of introduction of invasive species. Pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) is an invasive species of horticultural origin that is native to South America but cultivated as an ornamental in regions with Mediterranean climates worldwide. To gain insight into the introduction history of invasive populations in California, we analysed microsatellite marker variation in cultivated and invasive C. selloana. We sampled 275 cultivated plants from diverse sources and 698 invasive plants from 33 populations in four geographical regions of California. A model-based Bayesian clustering analysis identified seven distinct gene pools in cultivated C. selloana. Probabilities of assignment of invasive individuals to cultivated gene pools indicated that two gene pools accounted for the genomic origin of 78% of the invasive C. selloana sampled. Extensive admixture between cultivated source gene pools was detected within invasive individuals. Sources of admixed invasive individuals are probably landscape plantings. Consistent with the Bayesian assignment results indicating that multiple cultivated gene pools and landscape plantings are probable sources of invasive populations, F(ST) and neighbour-joining clustering analyses indicated multiple escapes from shared sources in each geographical region. No isolation by distance or geographical trend in reduction of genetic diversity was evident. Furthermore, a generally random and discontinuous distribution of proportional assignments of invasive populations to cultivated gene pools suggests that introductions occurred recurrently within each geographical region. Our results strongly suggest that dispersal through local landscape plantings has contributed to the range expansion of invasive C. selloana in California.
    Molecular Ecology 01/2008; 16(23):4956-71. · 6.28 Impact Factor