[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim of the study was to evaluate the HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection and associated risk behaviors among Injection Drug Users in Detention, Tehran, Iran.
A cross-sectional survey included 499 male Injection Drug Users arrested by police during a predetermined police sweep in Tehran (February, 2006). At the temporary detention center, they were screened using a urine test and a physical examination for injection marks. Those who were identified as injectors were sent to the rehabilitation center for 3 months. A questionnaire was filled out for each individual by interview. Blood specimens were collected for HIV and HCV testing. The variables associated with HIV/HCV coinfection at a significance level of P<0.10 were considered in multivariate analysis.
Of the 417 participants, 100 (24.0%) had HIV/HCV coinfection (95%CI 19.9 - 28.4). Factors independently associated with HIV/HCV coinfection included history of using opioid in jail, and age (P<0.05). There were not any association between other demographic characteristics (marital status, birthplace, residence, and education), type and years of drug abuse, age of first injection, years of injection, sharing needles inside and outside of jail, injection in jail, history of tattooing, any sexual behavior, and history of sexually transmitted diseases with HIV/HCV coinfection (P>0.05).
This study supports that incarceration is contributing to the increased spread of HIV/HCV coinfection. So, there is urgent need for effective harm reduction programs, particularly among incarcerated Injection Drug Users.
Archives of Iranian medicine 07/2010; 13(4):318-23. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Jails may foster the spread of HIV, particularly among drug users. In 2006, male injection drug users (n = 499) detained in Tehran consented to HIV testing at intake and discharge. HIV prevalence at intake was 24.4%. Nine of those who were HIV negative at intake were positive at discharge (annualized incidence rate 16.8%), including one p24 antigen positive. Jails may be contributing to the rapid spread of HIV in Iran and should be major points for prevention interventions.
AIDS (London, England) 02/2009; 23(4):538-40. · 4.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite high rates of HIV among male injection drug users, the sexual behaviors of at-risk women in Iran remain unknown. A questionnaire on HIV knowledge and risk behavior was administered in a Tehran nongovernmental organization targeting runaways and other women seeking safe haven. Half (total N = 50) were less than 24 years old; baseline HIV knowledge was high. The few who acknowledged using illicit substances said they used "frequently." Nonresponse rates to questions regarding sexual behavior were high (12 of 50). Half admitted a history of sexual activity; 40% of those reported their first sexual contact with someone other than their husband; three people had multiple partners. Three women reported a history of rape. Zero (97.5% one-sided confidence interval [CI] = 0, 0.17) of 35 women tested positive for HIV or syphilis. This study documents the existence of sexual behavior in a population of Iranian women, represents one of the first attempts at sexual research in the Iranian context, and highlights challenges in surveying this vulnerable group.
AIDS Education and Prevention 01/2008; 19(6):519-30. · 1.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few data exist about the clinical epidemiology of acute myocardial infarction and its complications and mortality in Iran. To fill this knowledge gap, we studied clinical characteristics and the outcome for a group of Iranian patients with acute myocardial infarction, who were, for the first time in our country, followed after discharge from hospital for 1 year.
All patients (139 individuals) with confirmed acute myocardial infarction who were treated at the coronary care unit of Dr Shariati Hospital and followed up over a 1-year period (June 2002 to June 2003) were prospectively studied. Numerous relevant variables including epidemiologic data, treatments received, in-hospital course and complications were recorded. The survivors were followed at 1, 6 and 12 months after discharge.
In all, there were 101 men and 38 women aged 58.6+/-11.8 years. Only 35.9% of patients received thrombolytic therapy, and primary percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 6.4% of cases. In-hospital death occurred in 21 of 139 (15.1%), with an equal distribution between the two sexes. One-month, 6-month and 12-month cumulative mortality rates were 17.3, 20.1 and 21.6%, respectively.
Although our patients were younger than myocardial infarction patients in developed countries, they had a higher rate of in-hospital mortality than those of the international statistics. This may be due, in part, to the lower rate of administration of primary reperfusion strategies in our center, namely primary percutaneous coronary intervention and thrombolytic therapy, which have proved to be effective in reducing the mortality from myocardial infarction in the west. Wider application of primary percutaneous coronary intervention, in particular, is recommended.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We measured the prevalence of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) among male injection drug users (IDUs) in Detention, Tehran, Iran. A cross-sectional survey included 499 male IDUs arrested by police during a predetermined police sweep in Tehran (February, 2006). A questionnaire was filled out for each individual. Blood specimens were collected for HBsAg testing. Prevalence of HBsAg was 5.8% (95% CI 3.6-7.9). The majority of chronic HBV infections, 69.2%, were among adults age 25 to 34 years. The high prevalence of HBsAg highlights the need for special efforts to increase vaccination among adult populations at risk for HBV infection in order to reducing continuing transmission and stave off future high burden of disease.