So-Young Jung

Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea

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Publications (27)46.24 Total impact

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    05/2015; 4(1). DOI:10.1016/j.imr.2015.04.317
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    05/2015; 4(1):96. DOI:10.1016/j.imr.2015.04.157
  • 05/2015; 4(1):100. DOI:10.1016/j.imr.2015.04.168
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    ABSTRACT: This study tested the effectiveness of moxibustion on pain and function in chronic knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and evaluated safety.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e101973. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101973 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension, a worldwide public health problem, is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and kidney disease, and the medical and economic burden of hypertension is increasing. Auricular acupuncture has been used to treat various diseases, including hypertension. Several studies have shown that auricular acupuncture treatment decreases blood pressure in patients with hypertension; however, the scientific evidence is still insufficient. Therefore, we aimed to perform a randomised controlled clinical trial in patients with prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension to evaluate the effect and safety of auricular acupuncture.Methods/designs: This on-going study is a two parallel arm, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial. Sixty participants with prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension will be recruited and randomly allocated into two groups in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the auricular acupuncture group will receive auricular acupuncture treatment two times per week for 4 weeks. Participants in the usual care group will not receive any acupuncture treatment during the study period. All participants in both groups will be provided with verbal and written educational materials regarding the dietary and physical activity habits for controlling high blood pressure, and they will self-manage their lifestyle, including diet and exercise, during the study. The primary outcome is the 24-h average systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as measured with an ambulatory monitor. The secondary outcomes are the mean change in the average systolic and diastolic blood pressure during day- and night-time, the circadian rhythm of blood pressure, the mean arterial pressure, the change in blood pressure before and after auricular acupuncture treatment, the EuroQOL-5D (EQ-5D), heart rate variability (HRV), body mass index (BMI) and laboratory examination, including lipid profile and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Safety will be assessed at every visit. This pilot multicentre randomised controlled trial will explore the feasibility of further auricular acupuncture research and provide important clinical evidence for the effect and safety of auricular acupuncture on blood pressure in patients with prehypertension and stage 1 hypertension compared with usual care.Trial registration: Clinical Research Information Service: KCT0000169.
    Trials 09/2013; 14(1):303. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-14-303 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is the main dose-limiting side effect of neurotoxic chemotherapeutic agents. CIPN can lead not only to loss of physical function, difficulties in activities of daily living (ADLs), and decreased quality of life, but also to dose reduction, delay or even cessation of treatment. Currently, there are few proven effective treatments for CIPN. This randomized controlled clinical trial is designed to evaluate the effects and safety of electroacupuncture (EA) for patients with CIPN.Methods/design: This is a multicenter, two-armed, parallel-design, patient-assessor-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trial. Forty eligible patients with CIPN will be randomized in a ratio of 1:1 to the EA or sham EA arms. During the treatment phase, patients will undergo eight sessions of verum EA or sham EA twice weekly for four weeks, and then will be followed-up for eight weeks. Electrical stimulation in the EA group will consist of a mixed frequency of 2/120 Hz and 80% of bearable intensity. Sham EA will be applied to non-acupoints, with shallow needle insertion and no current. All outcomes and analyses of results will be assessed by researchers blinded to treatment allocation. The effects of EA on CIPN will be evaluated according to both subjective and objective outcome measures. The primary outcome measure will be the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) quality of life questionnaire to assess CIPN (QLQ-CIPN20). The secondary outcome measures will be the results on the numerical rating scale, the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test, the nerve conduction study, and the EORTC QLQ-C30, as well as the patient's global impression of change and adverse events. Safety will be assessed at each visit. The results of this on-going study will provide clinical evidence for the effects and safety of EA for CIPN compared with sham EA.Trial registration: Clinical Research Information Service: KCT0000506http://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/en/search/search_result_st01.jsp?seq=2757.
    Trials 08/2013; 14(1):254. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-14-254 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to conduct a basic analysis of the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture in the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) as compared to placebo and usual care and to evaluate the feasibility of large-scale clinical research.Methods/designThis study is a protocol for a three-armed, randomized, patient-assessor-blinded (to the type of treatment), controlled pilot trial. Forty-five participants with a >= six month history of PDN and a mean weekly pain score of >= 4 on the 11-point Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale (PI-NRS) will be assigned to the electroacupuncture group (n = 15), sham group (n = 15) or usual care group (n = 15). The participants assigned to the electroacupuncture group will receive electroacupuncture (remaining for 30 minutes with a mixed current of 2 Hz/120 Hz and 80% of the bearable intensity) at 12 standard acupuncture points (bilateral ST36, GB39, SP9, SP6, LR3 and GB41) twice per week for eight weeks (a total of 16 sessions) as well as the usual care. The participants in the sham group will receive sham electroacupuncture (no electrical current will be passed to the needle, but the light will be seen, and the sound of the pulse generator will be heard by the participants) at non-acupuncture points as well as the usual care. The participants in the usual care group will not receive electroacupuncture treatment during the study period and will receive only the usual care. The follow-up will be in the 5th, 9th and 17th weeks after random allocation. The PI-NRS score assessed at the ninth week will be the primary outcome measurement used in this study. The Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), a sleep disturbance score (11-point Likert scale), the Short-Form 36v2 Health Survey (SF-36), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) will be used as outcome variables to evaluate the effectiveness of the acupuncture. Safety will be assessed at every visit. The result of this trial will provide a basis for the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture for PDN.Trial registrationClinical Research information Service. Unique identifier: KCT0000466.
    Trials 07/2013; 14(1):225. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-14-225 · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • Tae-Hun Kim · So-Young Jung
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Blood-letting therapy is one of the most important treatments in traditional Mongolian medicine (TMM). To observe the practice of Mongolian traditional-style blood-letting therapy (MTSBLT), two TMM clinics in Mongolia were visited in 2012 and two practitioners and a patient were interviewed. The interviews provided information on several characteristic features of MTSBLT, including its three stages: preparation, blood-letting, and recuperation. In the preparation stage, an herbal decoction, such as Braivu sumtan, is given for 3-5 days, during which time massage, cupping, and moxibustion can be applied. In the blood-letting stage, specific points, which differ from acupuncture points, are selected according to the patient's symptoms, and the targeted vein is incised just once. At this time, about 10 mL of blood is drained. In the recuperation stage, the patient needs to be cautious about diet and refrain from excessive physical exercise to prevent adverse effects. The patient interviewed had a favorable attitude toward blood-letting, believing that MTSLBT was an effective treatment for his symptoms.
    Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) 07/2013; 19(12). DOI:10.1089/acm.2012.0752 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Even though chronic fatigue syndrome and idiopathic chronic fatigue are quite common, there are no clearly known causes. Most treatments are therefore symptomatic in nature, and chronic fatigue syndrome and idiopathic chronic fatigue patients are highly interested in using oriental medicine or complementary and alternative medicine treatment. Acupuncture, one of the major treatments used in oriental medicine, is effective in treating various diseases. This study will attempt to analyze the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in the treatment of chronic fatigue by comparing the two treatment groups (body acupuncture, Sa-am acupuncture) and the control group (usual care). Methods/design This study consists of a four-center, three-arm, randomized, controlled, and open-label trial. One hundred and fifty participants are randomly divided into treatment groups A and B and a control group. The treatment groups will receive acupuncture treatments either two or three times per week for a total of 10 sessions over a period of 4 weeks. The control group will not receive acupuncture treatments and will continue their usual care during this period. The primary outcome variable is the Fatigue Severity Scale, which will be utilized 5 weeks after randomization. Secondary outcome variables are the Fatigue Severity Scale at 13 weeks, a short form of the Stress Response Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Numeric Rating Scale, and the EuroQol-5 Dimension at 5 and 13 weeks after randomization. Discussion This study will provide evidence with high external validity on the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture as a treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome and idiopathic chronic fatigue. Trial registration Clinical Research Information Service KCT0000508
    Trials 05/2013; 14(1):147. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-14-147 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundThe treatment of knee osteoarthritis, which is a major cause of disability among the elderly, is typically selected from multidisciplinary options, including complementary and alternative medicine. Moxibustion has been used in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis in Korea to reduce pain and improve physical activity. However, there is no sufficient evidence of its effectiveness, and it cannot therefore be widely recommended for treating knee osteoarthritis. We designed a randomised controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, cost-effectiveness, and qualitative characteristics of moxibustion treatment of knee osteoarthritis compared to usual care.Methods/designsThis is a protocol for a multicentre, pragmatic, randomised, assessor-blinded, controlled, parallel-group study. A total of 212 participants will be assigned to the moxibustion group (n = 106) and the usual care group (n = 106) at 4 clinical research centres. The participants assigned to the moxibustion group will receive moxibustion treatment of the affected knee(s) at 6 standard acupuncture points (ST36, ST35, ST34, SP9, Ex-LE04, and SP10) 3 times per week for 4 weeks (a total of 12 sessions). Participants in the usual care group will not receive moxibustion treatment during the study period. Follow-up will be performed on the 5th and 13th weeks after random allocation. Both groups will be allowed to use any type of treatment, including surgery, conventional medication, physical treatment, acupuncture, herbal medicine, over-the-counter drugs, and other active treatments. Educational material that explains knee osteoarthritis, the current management options, and self-exercise will be provided to each group. The global scale of the Korean Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (K-WOMAC) will be the primary outcome measurement used in this study. Other subscales (pain, stiffness, and function) of the K-WOMAC, the Short-Form 36v2 Health Survey, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Physical Function test, Patient Global Assessment, and the Pain Numerical Rating Scale will be used as outcome variables to evaluate the effectiveness of moxibustion. Safety will be assessed at every visit. In addition, an economic evaluation and a qualitative study will be conducted as a mixed-methods approach.DiscussionThis trial may contribute to developing evidence for the effectiveness and safety of moxibustion for treating knee osteoarthritis.Trial registrationTrial registration number: KCT0000130
    BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 03/2013; 13(1):59. DOI:10.1186/1472-6882-13-59 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives De qi is a sensation experienced by a patient or an acupuncturist during acupuncture treatment. Although de qi is considered to be important in acupuncture treatment, there are not many studies about de qi and its character. The purpose of this study is to review de qi questionnaires and evaluate the relationship between de qi and acupuncture points, stimulation and treatment effects. Methods A search was conducted using three English-language databases (PubMed, Cochrane and ScienceDirect) and seven Korean databases with the keywords ‘de qi’ and ‘needle sensation’. The included studies were then categorised as following: (1) de qi measurement tools, (2) the relationship between de qi and acupuncture points, (3) the relationship between de qi and stimulation, (4) the relationship between de qi and treatment effects and (5) attitudes and opinions toward de qi. Results Several questionnaires have been developed to evaluate de qi, and the most frequent sensation in those questionnaires was ‘heavy’ and ‘numb’. Although a few studies showed specificity to acupuncture points, information is still lacking to be able to draw a clear conclusion about the relationship between de qi and acupuncture points. Also, greater de qi was elicited in real acupuncture than placebo acupuncture in many studies. The relationship between de qi and treatment effects was controversial. Conclusions It seems that real acupuncture induced greater de qi than sham acupuncture, and the relationship between de qi, acupuncture points and treatment effects was controversial. However, the current literature evaluating de qi is not sufficient to derive clear conclusions. Further studies with more objective indices and rigorous methodologies are needed.
    Acupuncture in Medicine 03/2013; 31(2). DOI:10.1136/acupmed-2012-010279 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To explore and understand how patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) experience moxibustion. METHOD: This qualitative research was conducted as part of a larger clinical trial of the effectiveness of moxibustion for the treatment of knee OA by qualitative content analysis. Sixteen patients with mild knee OA who participated in a 12-week moxibustion treatment as part of the trial were interviewed using open-ended questions. RESULTS: The participants recognised knee OA as a normal ageing process that caused physical and emotional discomfort in daily life. Regardless of any adverse effects of moxibustion, most of the participants were interested in continuous moxibustion treatment as a long-term management strategy and for general health. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that moxibustion can be helpful in managing symptoms related to knee OA. Patients' attitudes towards moxibustion can affect the treatment result and those who prefer it want to continue the treatment for a long time because they understand that knee OA is a chronic condition which needs continuous care. However, practitioners need to pay more attention to those who are very enthusiastic because they tend to endure treatment-related adverse events in their desire for better effects.
    Acupuncture in Medicine 01/2013; 31(1). DOI:10.1136/acupmed-2012-010224 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background The objectives of this study were to compare the efficacy of acupuncture among different types and to evaluate point-selective pain relief effects between selected adjacent or distant points in participants with temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs).Methods Forty-two participants were randomly allocated to three groups: an adjacent point selection group (Trt, n = 14), a distant point selection group (Con1, n = 14), or a combination group (Con2, n = 14). All three groups received a total of six acupuncture sessions (twice a week for 3 weeks), the outcomes being assessed pain intensity using a 10-cm visual analogue scale, and the palpation index of the muscle and temporomandibular joint every week of treatment and 4 weeks after the end of treatment.ResultsThe pain intensity was reduced in the Trt (34%), Con1 (31%), and Con2 (36%) groups after 3 weeks compared with each group's baseline, with no significant difference among the three groups (p = 0.5867). Similarly, the palpation index was decreased by 52% (Trt), 62% (Con1), and 50% (Con2) after 3 weeks of treatment, but no significant differences between groups were shown (p = 0.3289).Conclusion Our results suggest that point-selective effects among adjacent, distal, or a combination of acupoints are hardly associated with pain intensity or palpation index in participants with TMDs. Larger sample size trials are required to overcome the shortcomings of the study.
    12/2012; 1(1):36–40. DOI:10.1016/j.imr.2012.09.004
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and the prevalence of hypertension tends to increase with age. Current treatments for hypertension have adverse side effects and poor adherence. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of moxibustion on blood pressure in individuals with pre- or stage I hypertension. Forty-five subjects with pre- or stage I hypertension will be randomized into three groups: treatment group A (2 times/week), treatment group B (3 times/week), and the control group (non-treated group). The inclusion criteria will be as follows: (1) aged between 19 and 65 years; (2) prehypertension or stage I hypertension (JNC 7, Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure); (3) the participants are volunteers and written consent obtained. The participants in the treatment group A will undergo indirect moxibustion 2 times per week for 4 weeks, and the participants in the treatment group B will undergo indirect moxibustion 3 times per week for 4 weeks. The participants in the control group (non-treated group) will maintain their current lifestyle, including diet and exercise. The use of antihypertensive medication is not permitted. The primary endpoint will be a change in patient blood pressure. The secondary endpoints will be the body mass index, lipid profile, EuroQol and Heart Rate Variability. The data will be analyzed with the Student’s t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p < 0.05). The results of this study will help to establish the optimal approach for the care of adults with pre- or stage I hypertension. Trial registration Clinical Research Information Service KCT0000469
    Trials 10/2012; 13(1):188. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-13-188 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: This was a randomized controlled pilot trial to evaluate the effectiveness of cupping therapy for neck pain in video display terminal (VDT) workers. Methods: Forty VDT workers with moderate to severe neck pain were recruited from May, 2011 to February, 2012. Participants were randomly allocated into one of the two interventions: 6 sessions of wet and dry cupping or heating pad application. The participants were offered an exercise program to perform during the participation period. A 0 to 100 numeric rating scale (NRS) for neck pain, measure yourself medical outcome profile 2 score (MYMOP2 score), cervical spine range of motion (C-spine ROM), neck disability index (NDI), the EuroQol health index (EQ-5D), short form stress response inventory (SRI-SF) and fatigue severity scale (FSS) were assessed at several points during a 7-week period. Results: Compared with a heating pad, cupping was more effective in improving pain (adjusted NRS difference: -1.29 [95% CI -1.61, -0.97] at 3 wk (p=0.025) and -1.16 [-1.48, -0.84] at 7 wk (p=0.005)), neck function (adjusted NDI difference: -0.79 [-1.11, -0.47] at 3 (p=0.0039) and 7 wk (p< 0.0001)) and discomfort (adjusted MYMOP2 difference score: -0.72 [-1.04 to -0.40] at 3 wk and -0.92 [-1.24, -0.60] at 7 wk). Significant improvement in EQ-5D was observed at 7 wk (1.0 [0.88, 1.0] with cupping and 0.91 [0.86, 0.91] with heating pad treatment, p=0.0054). Four participants reported mild adverse events of cupping. Conclusion: Two weeks of cupping therapy and an exercise program may be effective in reducing pain and improving neck function in VDT workers.
    Journal of Occupational Health 09/2012; 54(6). DOI:10.1539/joh.12-0133-OA · 1.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study aims to evaluate clinical trials of acupuncture treatment for hypertension and to assess their methodology and results. Methods: Eight Korean databases and four international databases were searched for acupuncture treatment for hypertension clinical trial until June 2011. Study quality was assessed using the risk of bias(ROB) tool. Results: Twenty-four trials of acupuncture for hypertension were included. There were 14 randomized, 1 non-randomized controlled trials and 9 before-after study. The most frequently used acupuncture point were zusanl[Latin Small Letter i with Caron](ST36), quchi(LI11), fengchi(GB20), sanyinjiao(SP06), sanjian(LI03) and heg~(LI04). In more than half of studies, needle retention time was 20~30 minutes. Compare to baseline, change of blood pressure after treatment was significant in all studies. However, the results of effect on blood pressure between acupuncture and controlled were not consistent. Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to suggest that acupuncture is an effective treatment for hypertension. Further well-designed clinical trials will be required to evaluate the effects and safety of acupuncture treatment for hypertension.
    Journal of Hypertension 09/2012; 30:e151. DOI:10.1097/01.hjh.0000420985.02149.8a · 4.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of acupuncture compared to a control group using artificial tears. Setting & design: multicenter randomised controlled trial (three local research hospitals of South Korea). Study Population: 150 patients with moderate to severe dry eye. Intervention: Participants were randomly allocated into four weeks of acupuncture treatment (bilateral BL2, GB14, TE 23, Ex1, ST1, GB20, LI4, LI11 and single GV23) or to the artificial tears group (sodium carboxymethylcellulose). Main Outcome Measure(s): The ocular surface disease index (OSDI), tear film break-up time (TFBUT), Schirmer Ι test, visual analogue scale (VAS) for self-assessment of ocular discomfort, general assessment (by both acupuncture practitioners and participants) and quality of life (QOL) through the Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile-2 (MYMOP-2). There was no statistically significant difference between two groups for the improvement of dry eye symptoms as measured by OSDI (MD -16.11, 95% CI [-20.91, -11.32] with acupuncture and -15.37, 95% CI [-19.57, -11.16] with artificial tears; P = 0.419), VAS (acupuncture: -23.84 [-29.59, -18.09]; artificial tears: -22.2 [-27.24, -17.16], P = 0.530) or quality of life (acupuncture: -1.32 [-1.65, -0.99]; artificial tears: -0.96 [-1.32, -0.6], P = 0.42) immediately after treatment. However, compared with artificial tears group, the OSDI (acupuncture: -16.15 [-21.38, -10.92]; artificial tears: -10.76 [-15.25, -6.27], P = 0.030) and VAS (acupuncture: -23.88 [-30.9, -16.86]; artificial tears: -14.71 [-20.86, -8.55], P = 0.018) were significantly improved in the acupuncture group at 8 weeks after the end of acupuncture treatment. TFBUT measurements increased significantly in the acupuncture group after treatment. Acupuncture may have benefits on the mid-term outcomes related to dry eye syndrome compared with artificial tears. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01105221.
    PLoS ONE 05/2012; 7(5):e36638. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0036638 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of massive clinical research and to make a basic analysis on the effectiveness and the safety of moxibustion treatment for knee osteoarthritis compared to usual care.
    Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies 04/2012; 5(2):93. DOI:10.1016/j.jams.2012.01.007
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives : 'Obtaining qi(deqi)' is a sensation experienced by a patient or an acupuncturist during acupuncture treatment, and it is considered to be an important factor in acupuncture treatment. However, previous studies reported conflicting results about the relationship between 'obtaining qi(deqi)' sensation and the effect of acupuncture treatment. Also, most of the previous studies investigating 'obtaining qi(deqi)' and the acupuncture effect, dealt with the analgesic effect of acupuncture. The objective of this study was to analyze the relation between the 'obtaining qi(deqi)' and the anti-itching effect of acupuncture treatment. Methods : Twenty one healthy subjects participated in this study. At the first visit, itch was induced to all subjects using intradermal injection of histamine on the lower arm. At the second visit, acupuncture treatment was applied using LI11 and 'obtaining qi(deqi)' was assessed. After acupuncture treatment, itch was induced again, and itch VAS and skin flare were assessed. Results: At the 6,8,10 minutes after histamine injection, the change of itch VAS between before and after acupuncture treatment was significant. Among 'obtaining qi(deqi)', subjects reported that 'dull ache', 'pricking', 'heavy' were most strong. Total score of 'obtaining qi(deqi)' sensation was not related to the change of itch VAS or skin flare. The 'electric shock' sensation is related to the change of itch VAS, and 'bruised' and 'heavy' sensations were related to the change of skin flare. Conclusions : Total 'obtaining qi(deqi)' is not related to the anti-itching effect of acupuncture, but several sensations showed relationship with the effect of acupuncture on itch severity and skin flare. Further researches based on various symptoms or acupuncture points, are needed.
    01/2012; 29(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and the prevalence of hypertension tends to increase with age. Current treatments for hypertension have side effects and poor adherence. Qigong has been studied as an alternative therapy for hypertension; however, the types of qigong used in those studies were diverse, and there have not been many well-designed randomized controlled trials.Our objectives are the following: 1) To evaluate the effects of qigong on blood pressure, health status and hormone levels for pre- or mild hypertension. 2) To test the methodological appropriateness of this clinical trial and calculate a sample size for future randomized trials. Forty subjects with pre- or mild hypertension will be randomized to either the qigong exercise group or the non-treated group. Participants in the qigong group will conduct qigong exercises 5 times per week for 8 weeks, and participants in the non-treated group will maintain their current lifestyle, including diet and exercise. The use of antihypertensive medication is not permitted. The primary endpoint is a change in patient blood pressure. Secondary endpoints are patient health status (as measured by the SF-36 and the MYMOP2 questionnaires) and changes in hormone levels, including norepinephrine, epinephrine, and cortisol. This study will be the first randomized trial to investigate the effectiveness of qigong exercises for the treatment of pre- and mild hypertension. The results of this study will help to establish the optimal approach for the care of adults with pre- or mild hypertension. Clinical Research Information Service KCT0000140.
    Trials 11/2011; 12(Suppl 1):244. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-12-244 · 2.12 Impact Factor